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Book Reviews of the Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 5, Number 2, 2006

Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 5, Number 2 (2006): 376–380

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376 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No.2 376 Book Reviews of the Southeastern Naturalist, Issue 5/2, 2006 Ecology and Management of a Forested Landscape: Fifty years on the Savannah River Site. John C. Kilgo and John I. Blake (Editors). 2005. Island Press, Washington, DC. 479 pp. $44.95, softcover. ISBN 159260118. The Savannah River Site was created in the 1950s from a 310-square mile area of South Carolina. This text presents data collected on this site from both before and after its acquisition by the US Department of Energy. It chronicles the reforestation of land degraded by agricultural misuse and the recovery of an ecosystem. Integrating ecology and natural resource management, the text covers the physical environment, forest management, biotic communities, threatened and endangered species, and harvestable natural resources. It includes an extensive habitat-preference matrix for plants indicating relative abundance. A valuable resource for those interested in this geographic area, the habitats it supports, and the potential of adaptive management on a long time scale. C.R. Moths of Eastern North America. 2nd Edition. Charles V. Covell, Jr. 2005. Virginia Museum of Natural History, Martinsville, VA, 496 pp. $40, softcover. ISBN 1884549217. Treats over 1300 of the more than 10,000 species of moths in North America from the Arctic to Gulf of Mexico east of the 100th meridian. This 2nd edition is virtually unchanged from the original. Excellent introduction includes detailed moth anatomy and life cycle, as well as advice on rearing, catching, and preparing moths for study. Family descriptions, individuals noted with identification characteristics within family, range, and food information. Antiquated color and black and white photographs. Delightful foreword from Roger Peterson. A must-have for the moth enthusiast. S.O'M. Cherokee National Forest Hiking Guide. 2nd Edition. William H. Skelton Ed. 2005 University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN. 566 pp. $24.95, softcover. ISBN 157233374X. A comprehensive guide to day-hiking trails in the Cherokee National Forest, no overnight trips or camping areas are discussed. Descriptions catalogue hike length, elevation changes (as well has high and low points), difficulty ratings, trailhead names, users, and topographic map names. Introduction includes interesting and thorough political history of the Cherokee National Forest, as well as geology and natural history. Attempts to organize by region an already complicated mix of officially designated national forest, wilderness area, roadless area, backcountry area, etc. Includes simple maps, protected acreage listings, and appendices of endangered and threatened species. S.O'M. Hiker’s Guide to the Sunshine State. Sandra Friend. 2005. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 596 pp. $29.95, paper. ISBN 0813028582. A trail-by-trail guide to hiking and walking opportunities in Florida. Includes a full range of hikes, from wheelchair-accessible board walks to multi-day backpacking trips. Clear and well organized. Divided into regions of the state, with easy to understand map. Includes a quick-reference chart for all listed trails and features. Well introduced. Each trail entry includes location, length, directions, highlights, and logistical information. Trail entries could be improved by including a simple trail map. Besides this omission, this is a well-done guide, easy to use and inclusive. S.O'M. Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity. Justina C. Ray, Kent H. Redford, Robert S. Steneck, and Joel Berger (Editors). 2005. Island Press, Washington DC. 526 pp. $39.95, soft2006 Book Reviews 377 cover. ISBN 1559630809. A well-rounded collection of research dealing with large carnivores and the ecosystems they are a part of. Looks at the role of large carnivores in the ecosystem and at the possible ecosystem effects of their removal (especially pertinent with the world-wide decline of large carnivores). Geographically wide reaching, includes research on marine systems and the impact of fisheries, as well as tropical, boreal, far east, Patagonian, and African ecosystems. Well referenced, en mass. Technical, written for those active in the field or students. An excellent reference for those working in or studying conservation biology or wildlife ecology. S.O'M. Conserving Forest Biodiversity: A Comprehensive Multiscaled Approach. David B. Lindenmayer and Jerry F. Franklin. 2002. Island Press, Washington, DC. 351 pp. $35, softcover. ISBN 1559639350. This text examines the many issues surrounding biodiversity in forested habitats by taking a big picture approach and looking beyond the boundaries of reserves and management units to the unreserved lands that form the matrix. Aimed at both undergraduate and postgraduate students, teachers, conservation biologists, and resource managers among others, the focus of this text is primarily on temperate forests. The nineteen chapters are organized into four major sections covering principals for conservation in the matrix, conservation across multiple spatial scales, case studies in multiscaled plans, and adaptive management and human aspects of matrix management. A chapter on matrix management in the harvested stand covers such topics as structural retention—what, how much, what spatial pattern; managing stands for biodiversity—including conservation, creation of snags; prescribed burning; long rotations; and selection harvest practices. Numerous figures and photos enhance the text that is concluded with an extensive literature cited section and an index. C.R. Primary Succession and Ecosystem Rehabilitation. Lawrence R. Walker and Roger del Moral. 2003. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 442 pp. $55, softcover. ISBN 0521529549. Whether denudation of the earth has been caused by natural events or by humans, the study of the natural processes that begin regeneration are the subject of this text. While the majority of studies discussed in this book are about plants, the authors have also included studies in marine ecosystems and soil microbes. Subjects covered include creation of barren landscapes, successional theory, soil development, life histories of colonists, species interactions, successional patterns, applications of theory for rehabilitation, and future directions. A glossary and an extensive references section are included. This text would be suitable for graduate students or for those involved in reclamation and land management. C.R. Handbook of Biodiversity Methods: Survey, Evaluation, and Monitoring. David Hill, Matthew Fasham, Graham Tucker, Michael Shewry, and Philip Shaw (Editors). 2005. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA. 573 pp. $140, hardcover. ISBN 139780521823685. A comprehensive text that provides methods for planning and conducting surveys of terrestrial and fresh water species and habitats. Written from a European perspective, the book is divided into three parts,. The first addresses planning with an extensive section on biodiversity evaluation methods. The second covers habitat evaluation, habitat requirements and issues, methods for surveying habitats, surveying and monitoring management or environmental impacts, and habitat conservation evaluation criteria. The third section discusses species assessment with a chapter on general principals and methods and 24 individual chapters on various species groups including fungi, aquatic macrophytes and algae, aquatic invertebrates, birds, bats, fish, and 378 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No.2 separate chapters on butterflies and moths, to name a few. Appendices include monitoring and reporting obligations under international conservation agreements, annotated list of key references for plant identification (including lichens and nonvascular plants), relocation of permanent plots, equipment for different types of survey, and recommended sources of further information by chapter. A glossary for monitoring terms and acronyms, and one for statistical terms are also included. C.R. The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem. 3rd Edition. John Dighton, James F. White, and Peter Oudemans (Editors). 2005. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL. 936 pp. $139.95, hardcover. ISBN 0824723554. Like many ecology texts, this volume explores methods of study such as identification of species, determining abundance, and measuring associations within the fungal community and the larger ecological community. Functional classification rather than taxonomy and the ecology of fungal communities are stressed in this edition. New methods to analyze structure and function of fungi are presented. Discussion of biodiversity at various spatial and temporal scales with respect to function, disturbance, and invasive species are all examined from the perspective of fungi. Controversial ideas are put forward by some contributing authors to stimulate thought. Papers are arranged into sections on fungal community structure, function of fungal communities, human impacts on communities and their function, and a brief section on preservation. Suitable for graduate students and scientists. A species index and a subject index are provided. C.R. The Sauropods: Evolution and Paleobiology. Kristina A. Curry Rogers and Jeffrey A. Wilson (Editors). 2005. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 349 pp. $65, hardcover. ISBN 0520246233. A comprehensive summary of the evolution and paleobiology of the largest dinosaurs, the sauropods. The text begins with several chapters on sauropod diversity and evolutionary history. A chapter is devoted to what fossil teeth have to tell us about their diet and how changes in the tooth battery reflect change in diet due to competition from other dinosaurs. A method for reconstructing three-dimensional skeletons is examined and an investigation of how the pneumaticity of vertebrae might reduce estimates of sauropod mass are covered in separate chapters. Fossil limbs and the implication for locomotion and how fossil tracks have informed our understanding of sauropod biology are the subject of separate chapters. Final chapters include one on reproductive behavior and embryonic development, and one on histology. The text concludes with a conversation between the editors and Jack McIntosh, a prominent student of sauropod dinosaurs. A species and subject index is included. C.R. Marine Conservation Biology: The Science of Maintaining the Sea’s Biodiversity. Elliot A. Norse and Larry B. Crowder (Eds.). With a foreword by Michael E. Soulé. 2005. Island Press, Washington, DC. 470 pp. $49.95, softcover. ISBN 1559636629. This text provides a broad conceptual and scientific framework for discussing and examining issues pertaining to the conservation of marine resources. It is part of a larger effort, aptly named as mission-oriented scholarship, that seeks to provide scientific knowledge for conservation efforts, and it is motivated by the awareness that many marine animals and ecosystems are threatened by human activity. The book is divided into five sections, each with several chapters by marine scientists discussing topics pertaining to basic concepts of marine populations, marine biological diversity, the threats posed by fisheries, management of marine reserves and eco2006 Book Reviews 379 systems, and sociological and legal issues. With a focus that includes solutions as well as problems, this book is a timely and valuable reference for students, scientists, and conservationists. S.E. Darwin: Discovering the Tree of Life. Niles Eldredge. 2005. W.W. Norton and Company, New York, NY. 256 pp. $35, hardcover. ISBN 0393059669. It took Darwin twenty years to fully formulate his theory of natural selection and present it to the public. This book presents the story of Darwin’s intellectual and philosophical journey from the time of his lifechanging voyage on the Beagle to the publication of his world-changing theory in On the Origin of Species. Eldridge is a respected evolutionary biologist, as well as curator of the recent (2005-06) American Museum of Natural History exhibit on Darwin. He presents a compelling defense of evolution that is especially relevant today in the face of renewed attempts by creationists to impose their religiously based anti-Darwinian views as scientific theory in public classrooms. Darwin recognized the challenge his theory posed to religious belief, while remaining a spiritually devout man. Based on Darwin’s journal and notebook writings, this book presents a well written and insightful examination of the man and his theory. S.E. Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioral, and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life. Eva Jablonka and Marion J. Lamb. 2005. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 462 pp. $34.95, hardcover. ISBN 0262101076. For over fifty years, scientific understanding of Darwin’s theory of natural selection has been based on a gene-centered, mechanistic view. This book presents a major challenge to this paradigm, where the gene, though still of prime importance, is joined by three other inheritance systems that the authors believe have strongly shaped natural selection, particularly in Homo sapiens. In their view, epigenetic (non-DNA) transmission of traits, behavioral learning, and symbol-based inheritance (language) are elements in a complex system that have interacted with genes to shape human biology and evolution. This means that we can become active participants in the evolution of our own species, ultimately guiding our biological evolution in a desired direction. This is a major paradigm shift that has and will continue to generate debate on an important topic. Written in a lively and engaging style, this book is a must read for any serious student of evolutionary theory. S.E. State of the Wild 2006: A Global Portrait of Wildlife, Wildlands, and Oceans. Sharon Guynup (Editor). 2005. Island Press, Washington, DC. 326 pp. $25, softcover. ISBN 1597260010. This book is the first in a series of volumes sponsored by the Wildlife Conservation Society that examine the state of wildlife and wildlands impacted by human activity, and the conservation efforts to mitigate those effects. This inaugural edition presents a sobering assessment of how hunting has decimated wildlife populations on every continent and in every ocean. Filled with facts and figures, and with contributions by leading scientists, conservationists, and world-renowned writers, this book is both alarming and inspiring. No one can remain complacent after reading this book; the problems are real and they threaten our very existence, but the stories of successful conservation efforts give hope that we can still preserve what remains. Future editions in this series are sure to be eagerly anticipated. S.E. Algae: Anatomy, Biochemistry, and Biotechnology. Laura Barsanti and Paolo Gualtieri. 2006. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL. 301 pp. $119.95, hardcover. ISBN 10: 0849314674. This book is a broad over380 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No.2 view of the biology of algae, with an emphasis on microalgae, although macroalgae are also discussed. Not intended to be comprehensive, this text is nonetheless packed with information on the general biology, anatomy, phylogeny, biochemistry, and culture of algae. Freshwater, marine, and terrestrial forms are discussed, and the text is supplemented with over 200 line drawings and photographs. The chapters on algal culturing, working with light, and biotechnological and food uses of algae provide practical information and an excellent demonstration of the application of scientific knowledge. Highly recommended for students and experts alike, with carefully selected references from both the current and the classic literature. S.E. Tropical Forests:Regional Paths of Destruction and Regeneration in the Late Twentieth Century. Thomas K. Rudel. 2005. Columbia University Press, New York, NY. 231 pp. $32.50, softcover. ISBN 023113195X. This volume presents a worldwide tour of the changes that have occurred to tropical rain forests in the past twenty years, with regional-level analyses of the historical, social, economic, and environmental factors contributing to losses and restoration. From Central America and the Caribbean, to the Amazon Basin, and on to the jungles of Africa and South Asia, Rudel chronicles the story of large scale destruction and the attempts at regeneration. He uses scientific accounts and the stories of people directly involved with the fate of the rainforests to make an argument for the use of a regional approach to analyzing the causes of rainforest destruction. This makes the book relevant to anyone with an interest in patterns of land use and change. S.E. Symmorphosis: On Form and Function in Shaping Life. Ewald R. Weibel. 2000. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 263 pp. $54.95, hardcover. ISBN 0674000684. The idea that form must match function in animals seems obvious, but trying to quantify this relationship is not as intuitive. In this book, Ewald Weibel demonstrates that this can be done, but it makes for some highly technical and complex writing. As such, this book will be of interest primarily to those with an advanced understanding of biology, particularly anatomy and physiology. Some readers may disagree with his emphasis on genetic factors as the primary determinant of form, as opposed to environmental factors. Nonetheless, his conclusions are strongly supported by scientific evidence, and his quantitative approach demonstrates that much of the diversity we see in life is essentially variation on a common blueprint. The text is supported with many drawings, photographs, and charts, with a list of references and suggestions for further reading at the end. S.E. Errata In the paper “Chironomid Emergence and Relative Emergent Biomass from Two Alabama Streams” by Steven K.Reynolds, Jr. and Arthur C. Benke in volume 5, issue 1 of the Southeastern Naturalist, the following disclaimer should have been inserted after the Acknowledgments section: The research described herin was developed by the authors, one of whom is now an employee of the US Enviromental Protection Agency (EPA), prior to his employment with the EPA. It was conducted independent of EPA employment and has not been subjected to the Agency’s peer and administrative review. Therefore, the conclusions and opinions drawn are solely those of the authors and are not necessarily the views of the Agency. Book Reviewers: S.E. = Stephen Eddy, S.O'M. = Sarah O'Malley, C.R. = Cathy Rees