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376 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No.2
Book Reviews of the Southeastern Naturalist, Issue 5/2, 2006
Ecology and Management of a Forested
Landscape: Fifty years on the Savannah
River Site. John C. Kilgo and John I.
Blake (Editors). 2005. Island Press,
Washington, DC. 479 pp. $44.95,
softcover. ISBN 159260118. The Savannah
River Site was created in the 1950s
from a 310-square mile area of South
Carolina. This text presents data collected
on this site from both before and after its
acquisition by the US Department of Energy.
It chronicles the reforestation of
land degraded by agricultural misuse and
the recovery of an ecosystem. Integrating
ecology and natural resource management,
the text covers the physical environment,
forest management, biotic communities,
threatened and endangered species,
and harvestable natural resources. It
includes an extensive habitat-preference
matrix for plants indicating relative abundance.
A valuable resource for those interested
in this geographic area, the habitats
it supports, and the potential of adaptive
management on a long time scale.
Moths of Eastern North America. 2nd
Edition. Charles V. Covell, Jr. 2005. Virginia
Museum of Natural History,
Martinsville, VA, 496 pp. $40, softcover.
ISBN 1884549217. Treats over 1300 of
the more than 10,000 species of moths in
North America from the Arctic to Gulf of
Mexico east of the 100th meridian. This
2nd edition is virtually unchanged from the
original. Excellent introduction includes
detailed moth anatomy and life cycle, as
well as advice on rearing, catching, and
preparing moths for study. Family descriptions,
individuals noted with identification
characteristics within family,
range, and food information. Antiquated
color and black and white photographs.
Delightful foreword from Roger Peterson.
A must-have for the moth enthusiast.
Cherokee National Forest Hiking
Guide. 2nd Edition. William H. Skelton
Ed. 2005 University of Tennessee Press,
Knoxville, TN. 566 pp. $24.95, softcover.
ISBN 157233374X. A comprehensive
guide to day-hiking trails in the Cherokee
National Forest, no overnight trips or
camping areas are discussed. Descriptions
catalogue hike length, elevation
changes (as well has high and low points),
difficulty ratings, trailhead names, users,
and topographic map names. Introduction
includes interesting and thorough political
history of the Cherokee National Forest,
as well as geology and natural history.
Attempts to organize by region an already
complicated mix of officially designated
national forest, wilderness area, roadless
area, backcountry area, etc. Includes
simple maps, protected acreage listings,
and appendices of endangered and threatened
Hiker’s Guide to the Sunshine State.
Sandra Friend. 2005. University Press of
Florida, Gainesville, FL, 596 pp. $29.95,
paper. ISBN 0813028582. A trail-by-trail
guide to hiking and walking opportunities
in Florida. Includes a full range of hikes,
from wheelchair-accessible board walks
to multi-day backpacking trips. Clear and
well organized. Divided into regions of
the state, with easy to understand map.
Includes a quick-reference chart for all
listed trails and features. Well introduced.
Each trail entry includes location, length,
directions, highlights, and logistical information.
Trail entries could be improved
by including a simple trail map.
Besides this omission, this is a well-done
guide, easy to use and inclusive. S.O'M.
Large Carnivores and the Conservation
of Biodiversity. Justina C. Ray, Kent H.
Redford, Robert S. Steneck, and Joel
Berger (Editors). 2005. Island Press,
Washington DC. 526 pp. $39.95, soft2006
Book Reviews 377
cover. ISBN 1559630809. A well-rounded
collection of research dealing with large
carnivores and the ecosystems they are a
part of. Looks at the role of large carnivores
in the ecosystem and at the possible
ecosystem effects of their removal (especially
pertinent with the world-wide decline
of large carnivores). Geographically
wide reaching, includes research on marine
systems and the impact of fisheries, as
well as tropical, boreal, far east,
Patagonian, and African ecosystems. Well
referenced, en mass. Technical, written for
those active in the field or students. An
excellent reference for those working in or
studying conservation biology or wildlife
Conserving Forest Biodiversity: A
Comprehensive Multiscaled Approach.
David B. Lindenmayer and Jerry F.
Franklin. 2002. Island Press, Washington,
DC. 351 pp. $35, softcover. ISBN
1559639350. This text examines the many
issues surrounding biodiversity in forested
habitats by taking a big picture approach
and looking beyond the boundaries of reserves
and management units to the unreserved
lands that form the matrix. Aimed
at both undergraduate and postgraduate
students, teachers, conservation biologists,
and resource managers among others,
the focus of this text is primarily on
temperate forests. The nineteen chapters
are organized into four major sections covering
principals for conservation in the
matrix, conservation across multiple spatial
scales, case studies in multiscaled
plans, and adaptive management and human
aspects of matrix management. A
chapter on matrix management in the harvested
stand covers such topics as structural
retention—what, how much, what
spatial pattern; managing stands for
biodiversity—including conservation, creation
of snags; prescribed burning; long
rotations; and selection harvest practices.
Numerous figures and photos enhance the
text that is concluded with an extensive
literature cited section and an index. C.R.
Primary Succession and Ecosystem Rehabilitation.
Lawrence R. Walker and
Roger del Moral. 2003. Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, UK. 442 pp.
$55, softcover. ISBN 0521529549.
Whether denudation of the earth has been
caused by natural events or by humans,
the study of the natural processes that begin
regeneration are the subject of this
text. While the majority of studies discussed
in this book are about plants, the
authors have also included studies in marine
ecosystems and soil microbes. Subjects
covered include creation of barren
landscapes, successional theory, soil development,
life histories of colonists, species
interactions, successional patterns,
applications of theory for rehabilitation,
and future directions. A glossary and an
extensive references section are included.
This text would be suitable for graduate
students or for those involved in reclamation
and land management. C.R.
Handbook of Biodiversity Methods:
Survey, Evaluation, and Monitoring.
David Hill, Matthew Fasham, Graham
Tucker, Michael Shewry, and Philip
Shaw (Editors). 2005. Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, MA. 573 pp. $140,
hardcover. ISBN 139780521823685. A
comprehensive text that provides methods
for planning and conducting surveys
of terrestrial and fresh water species and
habitats. Written from a European perspective,
the book is divided into three
parts,. The first addresses planning with
an extensive section on biodiversity
evaluation methods. The second covers
habitat evaluation, habitat requirements
and issues, methods for surveying habitats,
surveying and monitoring management
or environmental impacts, and habitat
conservation evaluation criteria. The
third section discusses species assessment
with a chapter on general principals and
methods and 24 individual chapters on
various species groups including fungi,
aquatic macrophytes and algae, aquatic
invertebrates, birds, bats, fish, and
378 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No.2
separate chapters on butterflies and
moths, to name a few. Appendices include
monitoring and reporting obligations under
international conservation agreements,
annotated list of key references for
plant identification (including lichens and
nonvascular plants), relocation of permanent
plots, equipment for different types
of survey, and recommended sources of
further information by chapter. A glossary
for monitoring terms and acronyms,
and one for statistical terms are also included.
The Fungal Community: Its Organization
and Role in the Ecosystem. 3rd Edition.
John Dighton, James F. White, and
Peter Oudemans (Editors). 2005. CRC
Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca
Raton, FL. 936 pp. $139.95, hardcover.
ISBN 0824723554. Like many ecology
texts, this volume explores methods of
study such as identification of species,
determining abundance, and measuring
associations within the fungal community
and the larger ecological community.
Functional classification rather than taxonomy
and the ecology of fungal communities
are stressed in this edition. New
methods to analyze structure and function
of fungi are presented. Discussion of
biodiversity at various spatial and temporal
scales with respect to function, disturbance,
and invasive species are all examined
from the perspective of fungi. Controversial
ideas are put forward by some
contributing authors to stimulate thought.
Papers are arranged into sections on fungal
community structure, function of fungal
communities, human impacts on communities
and their function, and a brief
section on preservation. Suitable for
graduate students and scientists. A species
index and a subject index are provided.
The Sauropods: Evolution and
Paleobiology. Kristina A. Curry Rogers
and Jeffrey A. Wilson (Editors). 2005.
University of California Press, Berkeley,
CA. 349 pp. $65, hardcover. ISBN
0520246233. A comprehensive summary
of the evolution and paleobiology of the
largest dinosaurs, the sauropods. The text
begins with several chapters on sauropod
diversity and evolutionary history. A
chapter is devoted to what fossil teeth
have to tell us about their diet and how
changes in the tooth battery reflect change
in diet due to competition from other dinosaurs.
A method for reconstructing
three-dimensional skeletons is examined
and an investigation of how the pneumaticity
of vertebrae might reduce estimates
of sauropod mass are covered in separate
chapters. Fossil limbs and the implication
for locomotion and how fossil tracks have
informed our understanding of sauropod
biology are the subject of separate chapters.
Final chapters include one on reproductive
behavior and embryonic development,
and one on histology. The text concludes
with a conversation between the
editors and Jack McIntosh, a prominent
student of sauropod dinosaurs. A species
and subject index is included. C.R.
Marine Conservation Biology: The Science
of Maintaining the Sea’s
Biodiversity. Elliot A. Norse and Larry
B. Crowder (Eds.). With a foreword by
Michael E. Soulé. 2005. Island Press,
Washington, DC. 470 pp. $49.95,
softcover. ISBN 1559636629. This text
provides a broad conceptual and scientific
framework for discussing and examining
issues pertaining to the conservation of
marine resources. It is part of a larger
effort, aptly named as mission-oriented
scholarship, that seeks to provide scientific
knowledge for conservation efforts,
and it is motivated by the awareness that
many marine animals and ecosystems are
threatened by human activity. The book is
divided into five sections, each with several
chapters by marine scientists discussing
topics pertaining to basic concepts of
marine populations, marine biological diversity,
the threats posed by fisheries,
management of marine reserves and eco2006
Book Reviews 379
systems, and sociological and legal issues.
With a focus that includes solutions
as well as problems, this book is a timely
and valuable reference for students, scientists,
and conservationists. S.E.
Darwin: Discovering the Tree of Life.
Niles Eldredge. 2005. W.W. Norton and
Company, New York, NY. 256 pp. $35,
hardcover. ISBN 0393059669. It took
Darwin twenty years to fully formulate
his theory of natural selection and present
it to the public. This book presents the
story of Darwin’s intellectual and philosophical
journey from the time of his lifechanging
voyage on the Beagle to the
publication of his world-changing theory
in On the Origin of Species. Eldridge is a
respected evolutionary biologist, as well
as curator of the recent (2005-06) American
Museum of Natural History exhibit on
Darwin. He presents a compelling defense
of evolution that is especially relevant
today in the face of renewed attempts
by creationists to impose their religiously
based anti-Darwinian views as
scientific theory in public classrooms.
Darwin recognized the challenge his
theory posed to religious belief, while remaining
a spiritually devout man. Based
on Darwin’s journal and notebook writings,
this book presents a well written and
insightful examination of the man and his
Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic,
Epigenetic, Behavioral, and Symbolic
Variation in the History of Life.
Eva Jablonka and Marion J. Lamb. 2005.
The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 462 pp.
$34.95, hardcover. ISBN 0262101076.
For over fifty years, scientific understanding
of Darwin’s theory of natural selection
has been based on a gene-centered,
mechanistic view. This book presents
a major challenge to this paradigm,
where the gene, though still of prime importance,
is joined by three other inheritance
systems that the authors believe have
strongly shaped natural selection, particularly
in Homo sapiens. In their view, epigenetic
(non-DNA) transmission of traits,
behavioral learning, and symbol-based
inheritance (language) are elements in a
complex system that have interacted with
genes to shape human biology and evolution.
This means that we can become active
participants in the evolution of our
own species, ultimately guiding our biological
evolution in a desired direction.
This is a major paradigm shift that has and
will continue to generate debate on an
important topic. Written in a lively and
engaging style, this book is a must read
for any serious student of evolutionary
State of the Wild 2006: A Global Portrait
of Wildlife, Wildlands, and
Oceans. Sharon Guynup (Editor). 2005.
Island Press, Washington, DC. 326 pp.
$25, softcover. ISBN 1597260010. This
book is the first in a series of volumes
sponsored by the Wildlife Conservation
Society that examine the state of wildlife
and wildlands impacted by human activity,
and the conservation efforts to mitigate
those effects. This inaugural edition
presents a sobering assessment of how
hunting has decimated wildlife populations
on every continent and in every
ocean. Filled with facts and figures, and
with contributions by leading scientists,
conservationists, and world-renowned
writers, this book is both alarming and
inspiring. No one can remain complacent
after reading this book; the problems are
real and they threaten our very existence,
but the stories of successful conservation
efforts give hope that we can still preserve
what remains. Future editions in this series
are sure to be eagerly anticipated.
Algae: Anatomy, Biochemistry, and
Biotechnology. Laura Barsanti and Paolo
Gualtieri. 2006. CRC Press, Taylor and
Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL. 301 pp.
$119.95, hardcover. ISBN 10:
0849314674. This book is a broad over380
Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No.2
view of the biology of algae, with an emphasis
on microalgae, although
macroalgae are also discussed. Not intended
to be comprehensive, this text is
nonetheless packed with information on
the general biology, anatomy, phylogeny,
biochemistry, and culture of algae. Freshwater,
marine, and terrestrial forms are
discussed, and the text is supplemented
with over 200 line drawings and photographs.
The chapters on algal culturing,
working with light, and biotechnological
and food uses of algae provide practical
information and an excellent demonstration
of the application of scientific knowledge.
Highly recommended for students
and experts alike, with carefully selected
references from both the current and the
classic literature. S.E.
Tropical Forests:Regional Paths of Destruction
and Regeneration in the Late
Twentieth Century. Thomas K. Rudel.
2005. Columbia University Press, New
York, NY. 231 pp. $32.50, softcover.
ISBN 023113195X. This volume presents
a worldwide tour of the changes that have
occurred to tropical rain forests in the past
twenty years, with regional-level analyses
of the historical, social, economic, and environmental
factors contributing to losses
and restoration. From Central America
and the Caribbean, to the Amazon Basin,
and on to the jungles of Africa and South
Asia, Rudel chronicles the story of large
scale destruction and the attempts at regeneration.
He uses scientific accounts
and the stories of people directly involved
with the fate of the rainforests to make an
argument for the use of a regional approach
to analyzing the causes of
rainforest destruction. This makes the
book relevant to anyone with an interest
in patterns of land use and change. S.E.
Symmorphosis: On Form and Function
in Shaping Life. Ewald R. Weibel. 2000.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge,
MA. 263 pp. $54.95, hardcover. ISBN
0674000684. The idea that form must
match function in animals seems obvious,
but trying to quantify this relationship is
not as intuitive. In this book, Ewald
Weibel demonstrates that this can be
done, but it makes for some highly technical
and complex writing. As such, this
book will be of interest primarily to those
with an advanced understanding of biology,
particularly anatomy and physiology.
Some readers may disagree with his
emphasis on genetic factors as the primary
determinant of form, as opposed to
environmental factors. Nonetheless, his
conclusions are strongly supported by
scientific evidence, and his quantitative
approach demonstrates that much of the
diversity we see in life is essentially
variation on a common blueprint. The text
is supported with many drawings, photographs,
and charts, with a list of references
and suggestions for further reading
at the end. S.E.
In the paper “Chironomid Emergence and Relative Emergent Biomass from Two
Alabama Streams” by Steven K.Reynolds, Jr. and Arthur C. Benke in volume 5, issue
1 of the Southeastern Naturalist, the following disclaimer should have been inserted
after the Acknowledgments section:
The research described herin was developed by the authors, one of whom is now
an employee of the US Enviromental Protection Agency (EPA), prior to his
employment with the EPA. It was conducted independent of EPA employment
and has not been subjected to the Agency’s peer and administrative review.
Therefore, the conclusions and opinions drawn are solely those of the authors and
are not necessarily the views of the Agency.
Book Reviewers: S.E. = Stephen Eddy,
S.O'M. = Sarah O'Malley, C.R. = Cathy