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Book Reviews of the Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 7, Number 2, 2008

Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 7, Number 2 (2008): 374–380

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374 Book Reviews of the Southeastern Naturalist, Issue 7/2, 2008 Land Use Effects on Streamfl ow and Water Quality in the Northeastern United States. Avril L. de la Crétaz and Paul K. Barten. 2007. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 319 pp. $139.95, hardcover. ISBN 0849391873. This text is designed to be a desk reference on issues of watershed management for a target audience of watershed and forestry managers, scientists, legislators, planners, engineers, and students. The first part of the text covers the fundamental science underlying watershed management, with chapters on the relationship between upland activities and water quality, hydrologic processes, water chemistry and pollutants, how aquatic organisms are used to assess stream health, and the structure and function of riparian zones. The text then builds on this scientific knowledge, using published case studies to examine the effects of specific land uses on watershed health. A valuable and much needed synthesis of how landuse policy affects watersheds. S.E. Powhatan’s Mantle: Indians in the Colonial Southeast. Gregory A. Waselkov, Peter H. Wood, and Tome Hatley (Eds.). 2006. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln, Nebraska. 550 pp. $21.95, softcover. ISBN 9780803298613. Powhatan’s Mantle is a revised and expanded version of a book with the same title (1989). Consisting of 15 research-based essays, Powhatan’s Mantle disseminates knowledge about southeastern American Indian-Colonial life from 1600 to1700 in three focus areas: geography and population; politics and economics; and symbols and change. Researchers, using innovative methods and data sources—e.g., Indian maps, records of Spanish Franciscan friars, and genealogical trees—to derive inferences about Indian customs, governance, interchanges with colonists (English, French, and Spanish), and how each group perceived the other. The strongest of the essays, “politics and economics,” identify variables correlated with Indian-colonists’ abilities to accommodate each other, live in parallel, or succumb to sequential hostilities, marginalization, or enslavement. Additionally, these essays detail diverse governance patterns of “French Louisiana;” the Florida “Republic of Indians;” the Virginian Algonquins led by Chief Powahatan; and the Virginian Pamunkey, Queen Cockacoeske who ruled in collaboration with the colonist government of Williamsburg. Described throughout Powhatan’s Mantle are economic allegiances, rivalries, and imbalances that led to the decline and eventual submission of natives to incursion forces. To the extent that findings can be generalized to current incursions, Powhatan’s Mantle is a must read for policymakers, educators, and historians, as well as anthropologistarcheologist researchers. N.L. Our Forest, Your Ecosystem, Their Timber: Communities, Conservation, and the State in Community-Based Forest Management. Nicholas K. Menzies. 2007. Columbia University Press, New York, NY. 264 pp. $50, hardcover. ISBN 9780231136921. Four case studies highlight the difficulties in initiating and implementing community-based forest management throughout the world. Menzies takes the reader to China, Zanzibar, Brazil, and India to relate individual stories. Using the case studies and many other examples, Menzies describes a common narrative for communities facing forest loss that includes four episodes: loss of community control over forest resources, extractive use accelerates forest loss to the detriment of local people, forest communities decide that something must be done and negotiate agreements with the state to form a partnership, and disagreement over the management regime due to differing expectations. The rest of the text focuses on creating a counter- narrative based on these four episodes. The lessons of this book are applicable to situations around the world and here at Book Reviews 2007 375 home. Abundant notes and references are included. C.R. The Making of a Tropical Disease: A Short History of Malaria. Randall M. Packard. 2007. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. 296 pp. $24.95, hardcover. ISBN 9780801887123. In addition to focusing on the tropical regions in which malaria is currently a public health problem, this book discusses historical outbreaks in unlikely places and the events that led to them. The climatological, sociological, and economic conditions that led to outbreaks must be understood as well as the geographic conditions that are usually considered. The story of Malaria including identification of its mosquito vector, the ecology of the vector, eradication efforts, and the reasons for malaria’s persistence are discussed along with policy recommendations that will reduce incidence of malaria and ultimately save lives. Packard conveys a captivating story that will be appreciated by a general audience with an interest in how economic, social, and natural forces can conspire to spread and sustain deadly consequences. Extensive notes are provided. C.R. Before Darwin: Reconciling God and Nature. Keith Thomson. 2005. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. 314 pp. $18, softcover. ISBN 0300107935. Thompson examines the prevailing thought and the prominent thinkers and writers on the topic of natural theology during the period approximately 200 years prior to Darwin’s publication of On the Origin of Species. Philosophers and scientists had been grappling with inconsistencies between religious teachings and new scientific discoveries being reported by their colleagues long before natural selection was articulated by Darwin. A colorful picture of the personalities and their interactions is presented here. This book will appeal to a general audience, especially those interested in the history of science as well as those interested in theology and its relationship to science. It has relevance to contemporary discussions of intelligent design and creationism. A bibliography and notes are provided. C.R. The Jewel House: Elizabethan London and the Scientific Revolution. Deborah E, Harkness. 2007. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. 349 pp. $32.50, hardcover. ISBN 9780300111965. The members of the scientific community living in London during Elizabethan times and their interactions are the subjects of this book. Harkness explores the various people who sought to study natural history in the heart of an urban area and how their work and thought contributed to the scientific revolution. Through six episodes, Harkness introduces the reader to the characters and happenings on Lime Street, the confl icts between foreign and English barber-surgeons, instruments and their makers, rewards by Queen Elizabeth to spur invention, the pursuit of experimental practices, and the wealth of natural knowledge and experimental know-how in London at the time. Finally, a coda is included that elucidates the authors ideas about the history of science. Extensive notes and bibliography are provided. A general audience will enjoy this book. C.R. Manx Bird Atlas: An Atlas of Breeding and Wintering Birds on the Isle of Man. Chris Sharpe (Ed.). 2007. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, UK. 389 pp. $95, hardcover. ISBN 1846310393. This publication is the result of an islandwide survey of breeding and wintering birds over a period of five years. Unique aspects of this survey include its fine resolution, the fact that a staff of ornithologists executed it, and that it provides measures of abundance and also population estimates. Detailed species accounts are provided for about 150 species. Each includes a line drawing and a narrative that covers habitat, local differences, breeding distribution, migration 376 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 6, No.4 patterns, and history of the species on Isle of Man. Maps include summer and winter presence and abundance. An introduction provides background on the geography and habitats of the island, its climate, and historical background and methods used in the survey. C.R. To Love the Wind and the Rain: African Americans and Environmental History. Dianne D. Glave and Mark Stoll (Eds.). 2006. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh PA. 288 pp. $24.95, softcover. ISBN 0822958996. A much needed account of key events in the African American environmental experience. Covers a wide range of topics from slavery to modern environmental justice. Will help the environmental movement in America broaden its awareness of the experience and history of neglected stakeholders. A must read for environmental historians. Highly recommended. S.O’M. Complex Population Dynamics: A Theoretical/Empirical Synthesis. Peter Turchin. 2003. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ and Oxford, UK. 392 pp. $45, softcover. ISBN 0691090211. Using the conceptual tools that ecologists use to investigate population oscillations, as well as population modeling and statistical analysis of time-series data, Peter Turchin integrates theoretical and empirical studies into a new synthesis of knowledge concerning population dynamics. This study is an interesting and refreshingly new approach to understanding population dynamics and ecology, and will be especially useful for scientists and students alike. J.E. Native Americans and the Environment: Perspectives on the Ecological Indian, Fourth Edition. Michael E. Harkin and David Rich Lewis (Eds.). 2006. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE. 367 pp. $24.95, softcover. ISBN 9780803273610. The editors, with a foreword by Judith Antell, a preface by Brian Hosmer, and an afterword by Shepard Krech III, have presented the nature and evolution of traditional ecological knowledge as it relates directly to native American culture. A view of narrower current issues, such as the problems of storing nuclear waste on modern reservations, and historical/archeaological topics, such as Pleistocene extinctions, are also discussed. This work brings together an interdisciplinary group of scholars from academic institutions and Native American communities. J.E. Evolution and Learning: The Baldwin Effect Reconsidered. Bruce H. Weber and David J. Depew (Eds.). 2007. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 352 pp. $25, softcover. ISBN 9780262731812. The Baldwin effect was, in essence, the notion that learned behavior could affect the rate and direction of evolutionary change. The essays in this book discuss the originally proposed effect, how it was modified over a period of time, and its possible contribution to empirical and theoretical evolutionary studies. Some of the topics include the nature and role of niche construction, the emergence of consciousness and language, and the effect in computational cognitive science. This volume is an outstanding study for philosophers and theorists of a variety of ontological and epistemological backgrounds. J.E. Fly. Steven Connor. 2006. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. 224 pp. $19.95, softcover. ISBN 1861892942. With numerous black-and-white and full-color illustrations and photographs, Steven Connor has written a captivating exploration of this ubiquitious insect. Drawing upon research into the popular culture—myth, literature, politics, religion, film— through the ages surrounding the much-maligned fl y, as well as knowledge of its biology, Connor manages to bring to the reader an appreciation of its significant role in human history and of the amazing beauty and wonder of its biological design. A unique blend of cultural history and scientific guide, this Book Reviews 2007 377 book is highly recommended for all who want to broaden their understanding of a small creature that looms large in our lives. K.G. Arkansas Butterfl ies and Moths, Sixth Edition. Lori A. Spencer. 1970. Ozark Society Foundation, Little Rock, Arkansas. 295 pp. $27.95, softcover. ISBN 0912456256. With a foreword by Robert Michael Pyle, Lori A Spencer continues the nature series first penned by Carl Hunter for the Ozark Society Foundation with his popular field guides. This book is a well-designed and beautifully presented reference guide and resource for those interested in identifying and familiarizing themselves with the lepidoptera of the Arkansas region. A well-written introduction provides useful background on the general biology of moths and butterfl ies along with a silhouette key for quickly identifying specimens to family. The main body of the text presents the species organized by family. Each entry offers descriptive charactericstics and life-history information accompanied by a full-color photograph. Thirty drawings, resource lists, checklists, glossary, references, and multiple indices round out the usefulness of this guide. J.E. and K.G. Maya Political Science: Time, Astronomy, and the Cosmos. Prudence M. Rice. 2004. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX. 352 pp. $24.95, softcover. ISBN 0292705697. Dissatisfied with the previously proposed models for the political organization of the Classic period lowland Maya civilization, Rice proposes using a "direct-historical approach." Integrating modern ethnography with Maya and Spanish commentary from the contact, conquest, and Colonial periods and inscriptions from the Classic period, the author argues that Maya geopolitical organization was based on the cyclic temporal calendar and the division of the cosmos into four cardinal directions. After introducing her approach, Rice then examines other models, the Maya cosmology and calendrical science, the archaeological/historical record of Tikal and other Classic period realms, and fi- nally, implacations of her "May Model" on various apsects of Mayan culture. Illustrated with numerous black-andwhite charts, diagrams, drawings, and photographs. An extensive bibliography provides numerous sources for further research on the subject. This book is an interesting and insightful resource for students of Latin American history and culture. K.G. Nature and National Identity after Communism: Globalizing the Ethnoscape. Katrina Z.S. Schwartz. 2006. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA. 312 pp. $27.95, softcover. ISBN 0822959429. In this work, the author examines the intersection of environmental politics, national identity, and globalization in Latvia. It is based on extensive research and discourse analysis, and it explores Latvia’s post-Soviet responses to political pressures, biodiversity, conservation, and rural development, as well as the economic assistance from Europe. This book is part of the Pitt series in Russian and east European studies, and sheds light on a subject matter that is little understood in the larger context of the global market. It is an excellent resource for students of international affairs. J.E. Neural Networks and Animal Behavior. Magnus Enquist and Stefano Ghirlanda. 2005. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, and Oxford, UK. 253 pp. $39.95, softcover. ISBN 0691096333. By applying neural network theory, the authors attempt to better answer the question of how we can make better sense of animal behavior. The authors show how scientists can use Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to analyze animal behavior, test generalizations among various species, and explore the principles of the nervous systems. Early chapters provide an overview of the current understanding of animal behavior and the basics of neural network 378 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 6, No.4 models. Subsequent chapters examine learning and ontology, the evolution of behavior systems, and a comparison of neural networking to other approaches. Illustrated with numerous diagrams, and supplemented with an extensive bibliography, this book is recommended for students, and researchers in the field of animal behavior. J.E. and K.G. Tropical Rain Forests: An Ecological and Biogeographical Comparison. Richard Primack and Richard Corlett. 2006. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA. 319 pp. $82.95, hardcover. ISBN 0632045132. In this book, the distinctive characteristics of rain forests from tropical Asia, to tropical America, to Africa, Australia, Madagascar and New Guinea are viewed and compared with emphasis on their climates, biographical histories and environments. Several chapters are devoted to the plant and animal species inhabiting rain forests, as well as to the human impact on those environments. With a wide variety of interesting photographs, maps, charts and diagrams, this book is invaluable reading for both graduate and undergraduate students in a wide range of disciplines, and poses questions that will prove to be of special interest to field researchers. J.E. What a Book Can Do: The Publication and Reception of Silent Spring, Second Edition. Priscilla Coit Murphy. 2005. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA. 254 pp. $22.95, softcover. ISBN 9781558495821. The original publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring in 1962 resulted in widespread debate regarding hazards of pesticides on humans and the environment. Priscilla Coit Murphy explores the reasons why the book made such a dramatic impact and points to how a news-making book may enable a single voice of timely warning to be heard internationally. Carson’s book turned out to be an agent for change and raised questions about science, the media, and the right to know. This subsequent study of Carson’s work, and the reasons for its success, is an excellent choice for public relations case studies, and a useful resource for journalism students and those interested in the history of science and its political impacts. J.E. The Science of Describing Natural History in Renaissance Europe. Brian W. Ogilvie. 2006. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. 431 pp. $45, hardcover. ISBN 0226620875. In this study, the author takes the practice of description to the fore and offers a refreshingly new analysis and interpretation of a neglected field of early modern culture. He outlines the development of botany as an emerging science of the sixteenth and early seventeenth century, and includes the ideas, traditions and inventions of the early naturalists, as well as their practices. This book is a valuable reference for both historians and scientists. J.E. Ecological Stoichiometry: The Biology of Elements from Molecules to the Biosphere, Second Edition. Robert W. Sterner and James J. Elser. 2002. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, and Oxford, UK. 439 pp. $45, softcover. ISBN 0691074917. With a foreword by Peter Vitousek, and with each chapter following a logical progression, the authors clearly show how an understanding of biochemical deployment of elements in organisms from microbes to metazoa possibly provides the key to understanding both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This book is an interesting study and will prove highly useful for advanced students in the fields of biology, zoology, and chemistry. J.E. The Chocolate Tree: A Natural History of Cacao, Second Edition. Allen M. Young. 2007. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 240 pp. $24.95, softcover. ISBN 9780813030449. Considered a classic on the subject matter, this book was first published in 1994. This revised and expanded edition provides Book Reviews 2007 379 a full spectrum of understanding on cocoa cultivation. The author describes the past and present production methods and pollination biology of the cocao, the studies that relate to the consumption of chocolate as it benefits both physical and mental health, as well as the archeological evidence that clearly points to the wide use of cacao in early times. In the final chapter, the author discusses the impact of large-scale cultivation and the potential for ecologically sustainable production methods. This book is an interesting and informative read for anyone who appreciates chocolate. J.E.and K.G. Science vs Religion? Intelligent Design and the Problem of Evolution. Steve Fuller. 2007. Polity Press, Malden, MA. 179 pp. $19.95, softcover. ISBN 9780745641225. This work by Steve Fuller is an interesting approach to a subject matter that is highly controversial. The author manages to provide the historical, philosophical, and intellectual context for the debate, and shows how much of it is traditional or new. He provides the political background that reveals how "science vs. religion" is in fact a false dichotomy disguising other institutionally driven confl icts, and how the unique circumstances in the United States make it such a heated legal battleground for this issue. This book is an outstanding work that is sure to provide much new and needed insight into the ongoing debate. J.E.and K.G. The Magnificent Flora Graeca. Stephen Harris. 2007. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. 189 pp. $60, hardcover. ISBN 9781851243068. This volume is a celebration of John Sibthorp’s quest to catalog the fl ora and fauna of the eastern Mediterranean in 1786 and the publication of his Flora Graeca, a lavishly illustrated book that was illustrated by Ferdinand Bauer, who traveled with Sibthorp. Harris chronicles the planning, fieldwork, writing, and publishing of this set of ten double folio albums of which only 25 copies were printed and hand colored. One hundred color plates represent the nearly one thousand illustrations that accompanied the original Flora Graeca and are beautifully reproduced in this volume. The text includes biographical information and provides the geographical and historical framework for Sibthorp’s two trips to the Greek islands and the Ottoman Empire. Those with an interest in this region, botanical exploration, or botanical illustration will appreciate this book. C.R. Making Sense of Evolution: The Conceptual Foundations of Evolutionary Biology. Massimo Pigliucci and Jonathan Kaplan. 2006. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. 300 pp. $28, softcover. ISBN 0226668371. Both philosophical and scientific, this look at evolutionary biology is meant to inspire thought and further discussion between the two fields. Beginning with ways to conceive fitness and natural selection, the authors address detection of natural selection in populations and debate the level at which selection, at either the individual or population level, is detectible. The idea of adaptation is tackled in several chapters, beginning with a critique of genetic variance-covariance matrices used to measure constraints on selection, then with the presence of spandrels (traits that may not be present for any good reason), and finally with a discussion of the determination of the function of biological traits. The authors then discuss their ideas in the context of macroevolution and speciation. They end with a look at null hypotheses and suggest some different ways of formulating experiments and presenting their results. Helpful diagrams and sidebars are included as well as an extensive references section. C.R. Brewing Justice: Fair Trade Coffee, Sustainability, and Survival. Daniel Jaffee. 2007. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 331 pp. $21.95, softcover. ISBN 9780520249592. This 380 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 6, No.4 Announcement and Call for Papers - 2008 Gopher Tortoise Council Meeting October 3 and 4, 2008 at the Oceanside Inn and Suites, Jekyll Island, GA Please join us for the Annual meeting of the Gopher Tortoise Council at beautiful Jekyll Island, GA. The meeting will feature a special session on Friday of presentations on Wildlife and Ecosystem Health, with confirmed presentations by Elliot Jacobson, Sonya Hernandez Divers, Charles Innis, Steven H. Divers, Terry Norton, John Maerz, Scott Connelly, Nancy Stedman, Lori Wendland, Matt Aresco, Kimberely Andrews, and Greg Lewbart. Saturday, the scientific program continues with contributed presentations and posters on any topic relating to the Gopher Tortoise and the longleaf pine ecosystem. There will be plenty of time for relaxing and socializing, and enjoying good food and drink at a Low Country Boil Friday night and a barbecue Saturday night. Also, a tour of the Georgia Sea Turtle Center will be offered Friday evening. For more information and registration information, please visit the Gopher Tortoise Councilʼs website: http://www.gophertortoisecouncil.org/events.php. work is an impressive account regarding the relationships and ethics embedded in fair trade coffee, and the author engages the reader as he evaluates the gains and losses of fair trade for Mexican peasants. It is a pioneering study of the variety of fair trade movements, and a prospectus for a more radical vision. This is a useful study for those involved in market economies and the international relationships born out of global trade. It also provides thoughtful alternatives to the status quo of the World Trade Organization. J.E. Raptors of Eastern North America. Brian K. Wheeler. 2003. Princeton University press, Princeton, NJ. 439 pp. $29.95, softcover. ISBN 9780691134765. Raptors of Western North America. Brian K. Wheeler. 2003. Princeton University press, Princeton, NJ. 544 pp. $29.95, softcover. ISBN 9780691134772. These two volumes provide species accounts for 26 and 33 species, respectively. Each includes details of the species’ plumage and biology. Accounts are well illustrated with numerous color photographs showing various plumages of adults, subadults, and juvenile birds, both male and female, that are annotated with characteristics to notice in each. Biological topics covered include habitat, habits, feeding, fl ight, voice, status and distribution, nesting, and conservation. Range maps are large and easy to read. A general glossary is provided as well as separate glossaries for anatomy and feathers, plumage and age, and fl ying and perching. Hawk watchers and bird watchers of all abilities will appreciate these two volumes. C.R. Charles Darwin: Geologist. Sandra Herbert. 2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca NY. 485 pp. $39.99, hardcover. ISBN 0801443482. Details the development of Darwin as a scientist and in particular his work as a geologist, with the implication that, as well as standing on its own, his geological background influenced his later thinking in biology. Includes analysis of the geological aspects of Darwin’s voyage on the Beagle. Scholarly, drawn directly from Darwin’s papers. Contains extensive notes and bibliography. Useful for scholars and those devoted to history of science. S.O’M. Book Reviewers: S.E. = Stephen Eddy, J.E. = John Elliot, K.G. = Keith Goldfarb, N.L. = Nancy Lovejoy, S.O’M. = Sarah O'Malley, C.R. = Cathy Rees.