The Inuit of Labrador/Nunatsiavut, the Moravian Brethren, and
Connections with French-speaking Switzerland
Gaston R. Demarée1, Astrid E.J. Ogilvie2,*, and Yvon Csonka3
Abstract - In this paper, contacts between the Moravian Brethren of French-speaking Switzerland, the Moravian missionaries,
and the Inuit Christian converts in Labrador are described. The role of the missionary journals, the annual collection
of gifts for the missions, and, more specifically, the role of Jean-Louis Micheli, philanthropist and member of Eglise évangélique
de Genève are considered. It will be shown that interactions between these varied elements have been instrumental
in the development of a number of scientific fields, in particular: meteorology, climatology, and phenology, as well as
ethnography, and that important contributions to these fields resulted. The Labrador origin of certain items in the collection
of the Musée d’Ethnographie in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, whose provenance has appeared unclear, is suggested on the basis
of these historical and cultural interactions between Labrador/Nunatsiavut, the missionaries, and the Moravian Brethren in
1Royal Meteorological Institute, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium. 2INSTAAR, University of Colorado, Campus Box
450, Boulder, CO 80309-0450, USA. 3Federal Statistical Office, Demography and Migration, Espace de l’Europe 10, CH-
2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland. *Corresponding author - Astrid.Ogilvie@colorado.edu.
The many names by which the Moravian Brethren
were known reflect their activity in several
countries. They were known as both the “Moravian
Brethren” and the “Unity of the Brethren” in
English, as l’Unité des Frères in French, as the
Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine or the Evangelische
Brüder-Unität in German, as the Jednota Bratská
in Czech and as the Unitas Fratrum in Latin. The
Moravian Brethren are Protestant Christians with
pre-reformation spiritual and intellectual origins
that go back to the Bohemian reformer Jan Hus
(ca. 1375–1415). Their name originates from the
country of Moravia, from where, after their virtual
extinction in the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648),
Bohemian Hussite survivors migrated in the early
1700s to Saxony. Here, the charismatic Count
Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf und Pottendorf
(1700–1760) gave them refuge. Zinzendorf was a
religious and social reformer who helped to renew
the Moravian Church. A Moravian colony soon took
shape in the small German village that came to be
called “Herrnhut” (Unter des Herrn Hut = under the
watch of the Lord), not far from the present Czech
and Polish borders. With the help and influence
of the Count, a vast program of 333 foreign missions
to the “heathen” was launched: the Caribbean
(1732), Greenland (1733), Surinam (1735), South
Africa (1737), as well as several other locations.
It has been suggested that it was the pioneer of
the Moravian Greenland mission, Matthäus Stach
(1711–1787), who advocated missionary activity
among the Inuit of the Labrador coast. However, it
is more likely that it was Johann Christian Erhardt
who first suggested an exploration in 1752 (Rollmann
2009). After several journeys of investigation,
a first mission post was ultimately established
at Nain in Labrador in the summer of 1771. Other
stations followed rapidly.
The contribution to various scientific fields by
the Moravian missionaries in Labrador has been
discussed by a number of authors. A few examples
will serve to underline the significance of this contribution.
In this regard, it may be noted that a European
language dictionary of Inuktitut, the Inuit language,
was published by the missionary Friedrich
Erdmann (1810–1873) in 1864 (Inuktitut-German;
Erdmann 1864). The first book specifically on
Inuktitut grammar was written by the missionary
Theodor Bourquin (1833–1914) in 1891 (Bourquin
1891, Nowak, 1999). Early botanical material
provided by the missionaries Benjamin Gottlieb
Kohlmeister (1756–1844) and Johann Georg Herzberg
(1792–1864) was published by Pursh (1814)
and Meyer (1830). See also Bravo (2007), on the
subject of mission gardens during the period 1720
to 1820. Johann August Miertsching (1817–1875),
who had been working as a Moravian missionary
in Okak, Labrador, accompanied the expedition
of Robert McClure on the Investigator from 1850
onwards as an Inuit language translator (Micheli
1857, Neatby 1967, Whiteley 1972). From the mideighteenth
century onwards, the Moravian Brethren
started to collect ethnographical objects from their
foreign missions. These collections later formed the
basis for ethnographical museums (Augustin 1997).
An inventory of the meteorological observations of
the Moravian missionaries in Labrador, and of the
papers published in scientific journals based upon
these observations, was recently made by Demarée
and Ogilvie (2008).
2010 Journal of the North Atlantic 3:24–30
History of the Moravian Brethren
in “La Suisse romande”
Count Zinzendorf’s forebears had aligned themselves
with the Protestants during the Reformation.
Here it may be noted that his grandparents were interested
in Pietism, a movement within Lutheranism
that placed emphasis on individual piety, and Philipp
Jakob Spener (1635–1705), known as the “Father of
Pietism”, was allegedly Zinzendorf’s godfather. Zinzendorf
received his schooling among the Pietists at
the Halle Paedagogium and, together with his friend
Friedrich von Watteville, decided during this period
to engage in foreign missions. Here it may also be
said that the Pietists of Halle were the Protestant
pioneers in such endeavours (H. Rollmann, Memorial
University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL,
Canada, pers. comm.). Dissatisfied with the dogma
of orthodox Lutheranism, Zinzendorf was himself
much attracted to the ideals of pietism. He attended
the University of Wittenberg from 1716 to 1719. As
well as working to help the persecuted Moravians,
Zinzendorf established contacts with Swiss piétistes
and visited Switzerland several times. From
1739 onwards, Moravian societies (also named
Sozietäten) were founded in the Swiss romande, the
name for French-speaking Switzerland in the western
part of the country. The Moravians thus established
numerous friends and allies within the Swiss
protestant environment. In this context, a boarding
school for girls was founded in Montmirail as early
as 1766, and another one for boys at Lausanne in
1837. The latter school was transferred to the castle
of Prangins near Geneva and remained there from
1873 to 1920 (Reichel 1991, 1998–2009).
Journal de l’Unité des Frères
The Journal de l’Unité des Frères or “Journal
of the Unity of the Brethren”, subtitled “Monthly
Bulletin of the Moravian Missions”, was published
(1836–1955) as a monthly bulletin by the Frenchspeaking
Swiss Moravian community. In the early
years of the existence of the journal, it was named
Extraits des Journaux de l’Église de l’Unité des
Frères, or “Extracts from the Journals of the Church
of the Brethren’s Unity”, referring possibly to the
origin of its contributions. The journal was founded
by pastor Lindner from Basle in 1835 and was subsequently
edited/published by J.-P. Michaud, librarian
at Neuchâtel (1835–1837), and by Ballivet and Fabre
at Nismes (1837–1840). The journal was then placed
under the patronage of a group of Brethren (Auguste
Delachaux) at Le Locle from 1840 until 1859, from
which location it was moved to Peseux and Montmirail
(J.-F. Kramer) in 1860. From 1864 onwards,
it was edited by Pastor Reichel at Montmirail, and
later at Peseux. A later editor was Pastor Ernest
Arved Senft at Peseux, who was active in the 1880s
(Girardin 1982, Senft 1888). The focal point for assistance
to the Moravian missions in Labrador was
located at the headquarters of the French-speaking
Moravian community in Montmirail. Pastor Reichel,
mentioned above, helped the cause by giving lectures
on the missionary work in Labrador (Dubois
ca. 1895–1900; Reichel 1866a, 1866b, 1869, 1882).
It was the Moravian missions specifically in Labrador
that became a primary focus for the collecting
of funds and gifts by the activists within the missions
in French-speaking Switzerland. In this regard, it
may be noted that a letter from the Moravian missionaries
in Labrador had been published as early
as in the first years of the publication of the journal
(Lettre des missionnaires d’Okak, au Labrador,
adressée aux directeurs de l’Institut de Montmirail.
Okak, le 6 septembre 1836 – Extraits des Journaux
de l’Eglise de l’Unité des Frères. Second Volume,
N° 19, Janvier 1837, pp. 333–335).
In the report from the mission post Hopedale
in Labrador dealing with the ship-year 1822–1823,
the missionaries express their thanks for the goods
received: “The ship has also brought us, besides our
usual needs, a very pleasant present from several of
our foreign Brethren and Sisters, and friends from
in and around Basel (Switzerland). This consisted
of a considerable stock of dried fruits and was accompanied
by a gracious letter” (Nachrichten aus
der Brüder-Gemeine, 1824, Gnadau, Fünftes Heft,
It is clear that contact existed between the missionaries
and their Inuit flock, and the Moravian
community at Montmirail. This connection is proven
by the insertion in the journal of letters from the
Inuit Moravians to the Director, and to the girls of
the school in Montmirail (e.g., a letter by a young
girl [Elisabeth] of Nain in Labrador addressed to the
pupils of the Institute of Montmirail, Switzerland, on
August 16, 1837—Journal de l’Unité des Frères, 3e
année, N° 35, mai 1838, p. 348). Similarly, a letter
from a young Greenlandic boy (André) from Frederiksdal
(Kujalleq) was addressed to the pupils at
Montmirail (Journal de l’Unité des Frères, 6e année,
Février 1841, pp. 62–63).
A letter written by Br. Carl Gottfried Albrecht,
dated Okak 12 August 1862, expresses thanks to the
missionary friends in French-speaking Switzerland:
“The sympathy of our dear friends attesting to such
kind manners with respect to our mission, excites us
on the one hand to the warmest gratitude, and on the
other hand, humbles us deeply. We have used part
of the cash donation that our benefactors of Frenchspeaking
Switzerland have sent us through your
intervention in order to procure for our poor people
reindeer skins which they use for beds; another part
has been dedicated to food for widows, and to the
26 Journal of the North Atlantic Volume 3
relief of the sick” (Journal de l’Unité des Frères,
28e année, janvier 1863, pp. 31–34). A similar letter,
dated Nain, August 24, 1862, was written by
Br. Johann Traugott Vollprecht: “We thank you for
the gifts that you have forwarded to us …” (Journal
de l’Unité des Frères, 28e Année, janvier 1863, pp.
Every year a sale was organized by the Moravian
community in French-speaking Switzerland in
favor of the missions: “The annual sale in favour of
the Moravian missions will take place at Le Locle,
with the help of God, during the second week of
December 1869. The friends of the missions willing
to help this work are asked to address their parcels
before 4 December to Mrs. Reichel at Montmirail, to
Mrs. L. Reichel at Lausanne, Moravian Institute, or
at Le Locle, either to Mrs Perret-Bréting, or to Mrs.
V. Schütz, N° 135” (Journal de l’Unité des Frères,
34e année, N° 11, Novembre 1869, 3e couverture).
Afterwards, the missionary journal communicated
the result of the sale: “The sale and the lottery in
favour of the missions that took part in December
1870 at Le Locle have produced an amount of 1750
francs. We sincerely thank our friends of the cantons
of Neuchâtel, Vaud and Geneva for their cooperation.
The Comité.” (Journal de l’Unité des Frères,
36e année, N° 2, Février 1871, 3e couverture).
Residing on the shores of the Lac Léman (Lake
of Geneva), several Christian families kept up a correspondence
with Brethren and Sister Moravians
in Labrador, particularly when missionaries from
French-speaking Switzerland went there on missionary
work. An example is Marie Caroline Gysin
(1842–1922), wife of Johann Heinrich Theodor
Bourquin, who went to work in Labrador (1863–
1889). She wrote regarding her travel and arrival with
the missionary ship Harmony in 1863 (see Fig. 1 for
an image of the ship in the harbor at Nain): “When
we were 7 miles from the coast the captain made fire
two canon shots which were soon responded to by the
canon from the shore. […] Goodbye! The Lord will
be with you on the pleasant shore of the Lac Léman,
and with us on the rocky and monotonous beaches of
Labrador ...” (Cochin 1867).
Jean-Louis Micheli and the Labrador Missions
A leading figure in the context of the support to
the Labrador missions of the Moravian Brethren was,
without doubt, Jean-Louis Micheli (1812–1875),
philanthropist and member of Eglise évangélique
de Genève. Micheli was maire (mayor) of the commune
of Jussy from 1842 to 1865. He was a member
of the Société des missions évangéliques de Genève,
where his activities placed him in frequent and cordial
contacts with Professor Gautier (see the section
below on the climatological observations). From
March 1842, and for more than 20 years, he actively
Figure 1. Missions Moraves, Labrador, N° 1” printed at “Impr. Rotogravure S.A., Genève” showing the missionary ship
Harmony in the harbor of the missionary station Nain, as stated on the back of the postcard.
2010 G.R. Demarée, A.E.J. Ogilvie, and Y. Csonka 27
took part in the direction of the evangelical primary
school of the Croix-d’Or, later on established in the
rue des Chanoines. In particular, he tried to interest
the pupils of the Sunday school and of the evangelical
school in the missionary activities. In the school
was a depository, in effect a small museum, of objects
received from Labrador (Ruffet 1875, Naville
Following a revival of interest in the missionary
work, in the summer of 1845, Micheli was asked to
make a presentation at the Casino in Geneva on a
subject related to the missions. The presentation took
place in January 1846 and was so successful that the
Bibliothèque universelle de Genève accepted his text
for publication (Micheli 1846). Micheli also regularly
published on the topic of the Moravian missions
in local and regional religious journals such as the
Semaine réligieuse, Éducation chrétienne (Micheli
1860, 1869). He was also successful in capturing the
interest of Augustin Cochin (1823–1872), a French
politician and writer, prominent among the “Liberal
Catholics”. At a meeting with Cochin and his family
on the shore of the Lac Léman, Micheli communicated
information from documents concerning the
activities of the Moravian missionaries in Labrador.
This information was subsequently used in a paper
by Cochin that also discussed the presence of objects
from Labrador at the Universal Exhibition in
Paris of 1867 (Cochin 1867). He refers in his paper
to the objects from Newfoundland, and particularly
to Inuit carvings of walrus ivory (Group V, Class
XLVI, Leather and Skins, Paris Universal Exhibition
of 1867, pp. 341–344).
Encouraged by the success of his presentation
in Geneva in 1846, Micheli gave another one at the
school with which he was associated. The children
were said to have listened with great interest. Their
curiosity and compassion aroused, they responded
by bringing gifts of toys, colored images, and dried
fruits, accompanied by letters, for the Inuit children
in Labrador. The Headmistress of the Moravian
Institute in Lausanne helped with the expedition of
the gifts. In the autumn of 1847, she forwarded to
Micheli a small parcel containing some objects in
bone and straw, as well as letters that had arrived
from Labrador. In this way, the correspondence between
J.L. Micheli and the Moravian missionaries
began, and every year a crate was sent with gifts for
the Inuit. This exchange ended only with Micheli’s
death (Ruffet 1875). However, that the activity on
behalf of the missions in Labrador was continued
after Micheli’s death may be seen from the following
message: “We ask the friends of Labrador who
would care to add any object to the shipment which
we intend to assemble this year, to send their gift before
20 April, either to Mrs. J.-L. Micheli, Granges
12, Geneva, or to the editor of the Journal at Peseux,
near Neuchâtel ...” (Journal de l’Unité des Frères,
51e année, N° 3, mars 1886). The message was written
on the back cover of the journal.
Micheli’s activity was remembered by the Moravian
community in French-speaking Switzerland as
follows: “For more than twenty years, Mr. Jean-Louis
Micheli corresponded with all stations of Labrador,
sent them rich parcels, appealed in favour of the
interest of his Christian friends, and was very fond
of them because he had adopted them as his children;
he shared their happiness and their sorrows,
and he could write them in all honesty, like Paul to
his children in faith: I do not stop to mention you in
my prayers day and night. Alas! The Harmony will
spread the mourning and sadness from Hopedale to
Rama, by bringing the news of the departure of the
one who has thought about his friends of Labrador
until his deathbed” (Journal de l’Unité des Frères,
40e année, N° 6, juin 1875, pp. 187–188).
The Arctic collections at the Musée
d’Ethnographie at Neuchâtel
The Arctic collections of the Musée d’Ethnographie
de Neuchâtel, Switzerland, have been described
by Csonka (1988). Among the collections
from the eastern Arctic are a number of objects
which may be related to the presence of the Moravian
Brethren in French-speaking Switzerland. However,
it appears that the catalogue of the Museum
does not distinguish adequately between items from
Greenland and those from Labrador (Kaehr 2008).
Certain miniatures in the collection are likely to be
originals from Labrador. These are registered as a
gift from Louis de Coulon (1804–1894), Director
of the communal museums in Neuchâtel from 1829
until his death in 1894.
It is known that three miniatures were given to the
collection by the Rev. Pierre-H. La Trobe (Csonka
1988:167). This person can be identified as Peter
La Trobe (1795–1863), brother of Charles Joseph
La Trobe (1801–1875). Their father was Christian
Ignatius La Trobe (1758–1836). Peter La Trobe was
secretary of the Moravian Church, and, as such, coordinated
all Moravian activity in areas under British
control (which included Labrador). Charles Joseph
La Trobe was the first Superintendent of the Port
Phillip District in Australia from 1839 to 1850 and
became Colonial Administrator of the new colony of
Victoria in 1851. He married Sophie de Montmollin,
an aristocratic Swiss lady, in 1835. He was responsible
for the development of, amongst other things, the
public library, an art gallery and a university (now
named after him, see http://www.latrobe.edu.au/
about/history). On 31 December 1852, he resigned
his position in Victoria. However, two years passed
before he was replaced by the Colonial Office in
28 Journal of the North Atlantic Volume 3
London. Meanwhile, his wife and three younger children
were sent to Switzerland. There his wife died in
Neuchâtel on 30 January 1854. La Trobe left Melbourne
in May 1854 to return home. He subsequently
desired to marry his sister-in-law, Rose-Isabelle de
Meuron, widow of Louis-Auguste de Meuron, who
had taken care of his children since the death of their
mother. Under British law this marriage was prohibited,
and he thus found himself embroiled in legal,
civil, and religious difficulties. However, he decided
nonetheless to marry Rose-Isabelle, and the wedding
took place at Neuchâtel on 3 October 1855 (Reilly
2003a, b). The reason for this digression regarding
Charles Joseph La Trobe is that the authors advance
the hypothesis that his brother Peter La Trobe donated
the three miniatures to the museum on an occasion
related to the wedding.
Other objects in the collection were acquired
through a public sales auction entitled Vente du
Labrador, held for the purpose of benefitting the
Labrador missions of the Moravian Brethren. This
sale took place on Thursday, 21 December 1871, at
10 o’clock in the morning at the rue du Pommier,
no. 10, Neuchâtel, as was announced in the Feuille
d’Avis de Neuchâtel et du Vignoble neuchâtelois,
20.12.1871, p. 5. Some of the objects still have prices
attached to them (R. Kaehr, Curator [now retired],
Musée d'ethnographie de Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel,
Switzerland, 1988 pers. comm. to Y. Csonka).
An ethnic Labrador costume in the collection
was bought in 1912 through the help of the Reverend
Auguste Brindeau, editor of the Journal de l’Unité
des Frères, from Berthold Lenz, Moravian missionary
in Labrador (Csonka 1988:182). Auguste Samuel
Brindeau (1859–1936) was editor of the Journal de
l’Unité des Frères at Neuchâtel from 1904 onwards,
while Berthold August Lenz (1873–1960) was a
missionary in Labrador spending a year away in
Kleinwelka (near Bautzen, Saxony) during 1911/12
(Dienerblätter, Unitätsarchiv, Neu Herrnhut). According
to the registers of the Musée d’Ethnographie
at Neuchâtel (Csonka 1988), certain objects donated
by Louis de Coulon (and one by Eugène Sire) are
given a Greenlandic origin. Csonka (1988) expresses
doubts concerning their origin and, for ethnographical
reasons, ascribes the origin most probably to
Labrador. Given the direct and frequent interactions
between the Labrador Moravian missions, and the
communities of the Moravian Brethren in Frenchspeaking
Switzerland as demonstrated in this paper,
this hypothesis seems very plausible.
Information regarding Climate, Meteorology
The comprehensive meteorological observations
made by the Moravian missionaries in Labrador
have been described in detail by Demarée and Ogilvie
(2008). In this section, the authors note climatic
information regarding Labrador which has specific
origins in Switzerland.
Of particular interest is a group of three papers
dealing with the climate of Labrador. The
author is Jean-Alfred Gautier (1793–1881), mathematician
and founder of the Geneva observatory.
Gautier writes that he obtained the climatological
information from Jean-Louis Micheli (see above).
Gautier notes that Micheli maintained a long-term
correspondence with the Moravian missionaries in
Labrador, and “even with christened and civilized
Eskimos” (Gautier 1870:135–136). This channel
of communication was used by Gautier to send
thermometers, styled in the texts as a “mechanic”
(mécanicien) and made by a Mr. Maurer at the Geneva
observatory, to the missions in Labrador. The
meteorological records from the Moravian missions
in Labrador forwarded to Gautier cover the period
from September 1867 to July 1876, thus spanning
a period of almost nine years. The derived monthly
means of the meteorological observations were published
by Gautier (1870, 1876, 1877).
As noted above, starting in 1836, the Journal de
l’Unité des Frères was published as a monthly bulletin
by the French-speaking Swiss Moravian community.
In the early volumes of the journal, there is
some climatic information, but it is not extensive,
and the source of the information is often not clear.
In particular, it is difficult to distinguish between
secondary climate descriptions that have been copied
(with some delay) from other missionary journals,
and those that were acquired through direct firsthand
information from the Moravian missionaries in
Labrador. However, by the end of the 1840s, more
direct contact between the Moravian missionaries
and the benefactors of the mission in Switzerland,
and hence with the journal, was established, resulting
in a better coverage of climate information.
A note in the journal, published in 1870, announced
a first publication by Gautier on the temperature
in Labrador, and explains the channel for
these observations: “Those among our readers who
are interested in meteorological observations will
be grateful for the following data concerning the
Labrador coast. We owe them to the courtesy of
Professor Gautier of Geneva who, three years ago,
sent to our missionaries at Hopedale, and at Hebron,
thermometers produced with care, and the necessary
instructions to read them regularly twice or thrice
a day. The results of these observations have been
communicated, on 7 April , by Professor Gautier
to the Society of Physics and natural Sciences of
Geneva, in a detailed note […]. Let us first say that
the thermometers have a centennial scale and that
the means indicated are only yet approximate, given
2010 G.R. Demarée, A.E.J. Ogilvie, and Y. Csonka 29
the small number of observation years” (Journal de
l’Unité des Frères, 35e année, N° 9, septembre 1870,
In 1875, Professor Gautier corresponded with
Cleveland Abbe (1838–1916), an American meteorologist,
who had a duplicate manuscript with the
original observations (1776–1784) by Moravian
missionaries in Labrador in his possession. It is
known that Abbe wished to compare his observations
with those belonging to Gautier (Gautier,
ms.). Despite an extensive search, it is not known at
present where either Gautier’s or Abbe’s manuscript
concerning Labrador meteorological observations
are located. However, there are certain weather observation
reports in the Unity Archives in Herrnhut.
On such reports, see also Macpherson 1987, Chenowith
1996, and Demarée and Ogilvie 2008.
Other items containing climate information include
an early missionary journal that was edited by
the Basler Mission (Gazette des Missions évangéliques
1828), and the Bulletin of the Geographical
Society of Geneva, which contains two anonymous
contributions (Anonymous 1860, 1862) with fragmentary
climatological information on Labrador.
These data undoubtedly derive from a member of the
newly created society who was in correspondence
with the missions in Labrador. It may be assumed that
J.L. Micheli is connected with these observations.
It is clear that there were numerous and extensive
interactions between the Moravians of Frenchspeaking
Switzerland on the one hand, and the
Moravian missionaries in Labrador on the other. In
these communications, the voice of the Inuit is faint
compared with that of the other parties. However, it
may be heard more loudly and articulately in the objects
to be found in the museum collections. Along
with the missionary work undertaken in Labrador,
the interactions between very different cultures did
have the effect of adding to scientific contributions
in the fields of meteorology, climatology, and ethnography.
Furthermore, there is sufficient historical
evidence to attribute a Labrador origin to several
items in the Musée d’Ethnographie at Neuchâtel
that had been registered as being from Greenland. It
would be highly desirable to deepen these findings.
Astrid Ogilvie and Gaston Demarée gratefully acknowledge:
US National Science Foundation grants
0629500, 0638897, 0902134; the European Science Foundation
BOREAS programme; and the assistance of the
Universitätsarchiv, Herrnhut, Germany. They also thank
the anonymous reviewers and Professor Hans Rollmann,
for extremely useful criticisms of the paper.
Unitätsarchiv Herrnhut: Dienerblätter. Auguste Samuel
Brindeau (1859–1936), Marie Caroline Bourquin-
Gysin (1842–1922), Peter La Trobe (1795–1863).
Bibliothèque de Genève: Gautier, Jean-Alfred. Correspondances,
Ms. fr. 671–675.
Anonymous. 1860. Nouvelles et correspondances: Labrador.
Bulletin de la Société de Géographie de Genève,
Tome premier, Genève, Switzerland. Pp.113–114.
Anonymous. 1862. Nouvelles et correspondances: Observations
météorologiques au Labrador. Bulletin de la
Société de Géographie de Genève, Tome deuxième,
Genève, Switzerland. Pp. 163–165, 1 planche.
Augustin, S. 1997. Vom Naturalienkabinett zum Völkerkundemuseum:
Zur Geschichte ethnographischen
Sammelns innerhalb der Evangelischen Brüder-Unität
(Herrnhuter Mission). Jahrbuch des Museums für Völkerkunde
zu Leipzig. Bd. 41:81–89.
Bourquin, T. 1891. Grammatik der Eskimo-Sprache, wie
sie im Bereich der Missions-Niederlassungen der Brüdergemeine
an der Labradorküste gesprochen wird.
Auf Grundlage der Kleinschmidtschen Grammatik
der groenländischen Sprache, sowie älterer Labrador-
Grammatiken zum Gebrauch der Labrador-Missionare.
Gnadau, Unitäts-Buchh., XX. 415 pp.
Bravo, M. 2007. Mission Gardens: Natural History and
Global Expansion, 1720–1820. Pp. 49–65, In L. Schiebinger
and C. Swan (Eds.). Colonial Botany: Science,
Commerce, and Politics, 2nd Edition, University of
Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Chenoweth, M. 1996. Ships’ logbooks and ́the year without
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