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The Peopling of the North Atlantic: Isotopic Results from Norway
T. Douglas Price and Elise Naumann

Journal of the North Atlantic, Special Volume 7 (2014): 88–102

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Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. Price and E. Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 88 Introduction For the investigation of the early Viking colonists of the North Atlantic islands, our focus in this special volume is on Iceland and Greenland where there are significant numbers of preserved and excavated burials available for study. Questions concerning the origins of the early inhabitants of these two major centers of Norse settlement in the Atlantic remain unanswered and the raison d’être for our investigations. There are few skeletal remains from the Faroe Islands and none from the Viking settlement at L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland. There are Viking burials on the Shetlands, Orkneys, and the Western Isles. In terms of initial settlement, however, these islands were occupied before the arrival of the Norse. We also have some data from Dublin and the Isle of Man related to the Viking occupation, although too little is known isotopically about much of the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, and mainland Scotland. There are a number of published studies of Viking graves and mass burials in Britain. We also have a substantial data set from Norway— the primary homeland for the Viking expansion in the North Atlantic—for comparison with these colonies. We have some baseline and human data from Sweden and Denmark, but these areas seem less relevant as places of origin. It is also the case that the other important homelands for the settlers of the North Atlantic lie in northern Britain and Ireland. The strontium and oxygen isotopic signatures of these areas are almost identical to those of Norway. For this reason, isotope proveniencing is unable to distinguish these areas. We will focus on Norway with the understanding that northern Britain and Ireland are also included in this definition of homeland. We have measured 200 samples for strontium isotopes from Norway. This total includes 144 humans and 56 floral and faunal samples. Biological samples including the plants and animals are discussed in Price et al. (2015 [this volume]). The very old rocks of the FennoScandinavian Shield and the Caledonides Province in Norway generally manifest high 87Sr/86Sr values ranging from 0.715 to 0.760 and even higher. Bioavailable values from floral and faunal samples, however, are generally lower and range from 0.707 to 0.725 with an average around 0.713. The impact of sea spray and rainfall and marine food sources in coastal areas is likely substantial and reduces the terrestrial 87Sr/86Sr values in human tooth enamel in many places. The location and ratios for the human samples from Norway are shown in Figure 1. We begin with a general overview of strontium isotope results. Oxygen and carbon isotopes in human tooth enamel are also included here in order to characterize baseline information for Norway and to examine variation in these ratios around the country. Information on the samples and the isotopic data are provided in Appendix 1. We then present case studies from several Viking and medieval towns. The conclusions summarize the result of our investigations of isotopes in archaeological human tooth enamel from Norway and the implications for the identification of migrants to Iceland and Greenland. Strontium Isotopes The 144 samples of human tooth enamel and bone from Norway were measured for their strontium isotope ratio (Appendix 1). Many of these The Peopling of the North Atlantic: Isotopic Results from Norway T. Douglas Price1,* and Elise Naumann2 Abstract - Norway was the likely homeland of many of the early colonists of the North Atlantic and it is essential to have information on the strontium isotopic values present in the country. Much of the population today as in the past lives on the coast and it is that area where most of the prehistoric remains are found as well. In this study several hundred samples were measured for strontium isotopic ratios, including 200 samples from Norway. This total includes 144 human teeth and bone and 56 floral and faunal samples. Although much of the Norwegian landscape is composed of very old rocks with high 87Sr/86Sr values, the coastal location of the human population means that marine influences are high in terms of sea spray and seafood consumption so that strontium isotope ratios are substantially lower than expected from the geology. Bioavailable values from floral and faunal samples generally range from 0.707 to 0.725 with an average around 0.713. Measurements of human teeth revealed an average value of 0.713 ±1s.d. 0.0033. Case studies from large sets of human burials at Bryggen, Trondheim, and Hamar are also discussed. Viking Settlers of the North Atlantic: An Isotopic Approach Journal of the North Atlantic 1Laboratory for Archaeological Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. 2University of Oslo, IAKH, Postbox 1019 Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway. *Corresponding author - tdprice@wisc.edu. 2015 Special Volume 7:88–102 Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. Price and E. Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 89 samples were measured in the hope of obtaining baseline, bioavailable information. It is certainly the case that some of these individuals had moved from their birthplace to the place of burial and are not local. Some of the domestic animals measured for baseline information may also have been taken to market or moved for other reasons. Nevertheless, the goal was to obtain an indication of the range of values in Norway in general and in some of the towns and places that may have been the original homes of the settlers and colonists that spread across the North Atlantic. Variability in strontium isotope ratios in human tooth enamel in Norway is pronounced. The range of 87Sr/86Sr for the 144 samples is 0.7075–0.7317, with a mean of 0.7125 and standard deviation of ± 0.0033. A bar graph of these data in rank order is presented in Figure 2. All but 11 of the human samples Figure 1. Strontium isotope ratios from human tooth enamel from Norway. Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. Price and E. Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 90 fall between 0.709 and 0.718. There are four values below 0.709 and five values above 0.720. The two lowest values, 0.7075 and 0.7076, are an individual from Larvik (Vestfold) and a 25-year-old female from West Norway (Gulen, Sogn), both likely born in Iceland. There is very little overlap between the 87Sr/86Sr values from Norway and those from Iceland, making the identification of local and nonlocal individuals on Iceland rather straightforward. The two other low values at 0.7083 and 0.7087 may well be migrants to Norway from elsewhere, given the very rare occurrence of values below 0.709. There are four rather segregated values between 0.720 and 0.722 that may represent the maximum values for humans born in Norway. There is one higher value in the data set at 0.7317, but it is so distinct from the other values and so high that this was very likely an individual born in Greenland, possibly in the Western Settlement, who migrated to Norway. The map of Norway with isotope data (Fig. 1) provides information on the distribution of human samples and the range of variation in 87Sr/86Sr values. When there was more than one sample from a site, values were averaged. The human remains may, of course, be non-representative if they are non-local individuals, i.e., moved to the place of burial from elsewhere or if diets included a substantial amount of food from the sea. Several patterns emerge from the distribution of human values. It is clear that a number of the lower values from Norway are found in the coastal area where marine diets may have been prevalent and sea-spray effects most pronounced. These lower values are also noticeable in the Oslo fjord area where the glacial moraine and marine sediments may contribute to values around 0.709-0.710. Inland areas in general show a much higher average 87Sr/86Sr value. At the same time, at least virtually all of the population on the west coast of Norway lived along the sea. The general pattern of lower values in coastal areas is strong. A number of higher values are also found along the coast, and in several cases in close proximity to lower ratios. These higher values might represent either individuals born inland who moved to coastal areas or individuals who did not consume a large proportion of marine foods in their diet. A histogram of these same data is also informative and provides a sense of the relative abundance of different ratios in Norway (Fig. 3). There are several modes in the distribution—0.7105, 0.712, 0.713, 0.715, and 0.7175—that may characterize the major bioavailable baseline values for Norway. Although there are modes, it is also clear that the ratios overlap among all of these central points with the possible exception of the values around 0.7175. It is also important to remember that the consumption of marine foods, and sea spray and rainfall in coastal areas, will dampen higher strontium isotope ratios, shifting higher values lower. Oxygen Isotopes The δ18OPDB data from human tooth enamel in Norway also exhibits a wide distribution of values. The mean of the 87 measurements is -5.1‰ ± -1.3 with a range from -1.42‰ to -7.72‰. A histogram of these values is shown in Figure 4. The extreme values of -7‰ and -1‰ reflect water VSMOV values of -11‰ and -1‰, respectively. The -1‰ value is enigmatic, very rare anywhere in Figure 2. Bar graph of ranked 87Sr/86Sr from 144 samples of human tooth enamel from Norway . Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. Price and E. Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 91 Europe, and may be an aberrant value; it is shown to be an outlier distinct from the other values on the histogram. The very negative oxygen values should indicate an origin in an area from the westcentral coast of Norway across to the Oslo fjord area in a band perhaps 200 km wide north–south, based on comparable values in modern precipitation (see Price et al. 2015 [this volume]:fig. 19). Values for enamel carbonate have been reported for a number of locations in the study area, and some of this information is summarized in Table 1. These samples include some non-local individuals at almost every site. Nevertheless the mean value for δ18Oenamel can provide some indication of expected local ratios. The pattern is as expected from the rainfall values, with somewhat higher average values found in more northerly Scandinavia. Values more negative than -5.0‰ are seen in parts of Sweden (Fäslegården) and at Hamar and Trondheim in Norway. Sites like Bryggen in modern Bergen, Birka outside Stockholm, and Kopparsvik on the island of Gotland have values more positive than -5.0‰. Uppåkra, outside of modern Lund, has an average value of -5.0‰. Values in southern Sweden, Denmark, and northern Germany generally average between -4.0‰ and -4.5‰ across a broad area. Values on other Baltic islands (Kopparsvik on Gotland and Ndr. Grødbygård on Bornholm) average -4.7‰ and -4.9‰, respectively. A plot of δ18O vs. 87Sr/86Sr from Norway (Fig. 5) reveals a generally negative trend with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.488 (n = 55, significant at 95%). This correlation records a relationship between the variables in which more negative oxygen values are found with more positive strontium values. This relationship in part reflects the lower strontium values along the coasts Table 1. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ 18Oenamel ‰) in human tooth enamel from archaeological sites in northern Europe. Site Country n Min Max Mean ± sd Source Hamar Norway 17 -7.7 -4.9 -6.3 ± 0.8 Unpublished Bryggen Norway 15 -5.3 -3.2 -4.3 ± 0.7 Unpublished Trondheim Norway 9 -7.6 -4.5 -6.0 ± 1.1 Unpublished Birka Sweden 29 -7.4 -2.2 -4.9 ± 1.2 Unpublished Fäslegården Sweden 42 -10.3 -4.2 -8.1 ± 1.5 Sjögren et al. 2009 Kopparsvik Sweden 44 -6.4 -2.5 -4.7 ± 1.1 Unpublished (Gotland) Uppakra Sweden 10 -6.8 -3.3 -5.0 ± 0.9 Price 2013 Sebbersund Denmark 7 -4.7 -3.3 -4.0 ± 1.5 Price et al. 2012 Trelleborg Denmark 41 -5.8 -1.7 -4.4 ± 0.7 Price et al. 2011 Galgedil Denmark 34 -6.0 -2.5 -4.2 ± 0.7 Unpublished Ndr. Grodbygaard Denmark 36 -6.4 -3.6 -4.9 ± 0.6 Price et al. 2013 (Bornholm) Haithabu Germany 53 -6.8 -2.7 -4.0 ± 0.8 Unpublished Figure 4. Histogram of 87 δ 18O values for human enamel from Norway. Figure 3. Histogram of 144 enamel 87Sr/86Sr values from Norway. Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. Price and E. Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 92 due to marine effects. Strontium isotope ratios are generally higher inland where oxygen isotope ratios may be somewhat lower. There are two values below -7‰, and they have high strontium values (0.713 and 0.718, respectivley). Both of these samples are from Hamar in eastern Norway where δ18OPBD values are expected to be between -7‰ and -9‰. It is important to reiterate that most of the southwest coast of Norway, from Stavanger to Trondheim has predicted δ18OVSMOV values between -6‰ and -7‰ for annual precipitation. This is the region from which the original settlers of Iceland and other parts of the North Atlantic were said to have come in the Icelandic Sagas. Converting the enamel δ18OPDB values to δ18OVSMOV yields a value of -6.4‰ (Chenery et al. 2012), which fits very well with the predicted values for precipitation in this area. Thus, we would expect that individuals from Norway for the most part would have δ18OPDB in human enamel between -2.5‰ and -6.5‰. Carbon Isotopes The measurement of carbon isotope ratios in bone collagen is well known in archaeology from the study of marine resources and C4 plants in human diets (e.g., Schoeninger and DeNiro 1982, Tauber 1981, van der Merwe and Vogel 1978). The method has been in use for a number of years and is well established. Carbon also is present in the mineral, or carbonate, portion of bone and tooth enamel, where it too contains information on diet (e.g., Sullivan and Krueger 1981), although there are potential problems with contamination. In this study, carbon isotope ratios were measured in the apatite mineral in tooth enamel (δ13Cen). This tissue provides different information on diet than bone collagen. Tooth enamel—and the carbonate and phosphate minerals where carbon is bound— forms during childhood. Bone collagen provides a record of adult diet; tooth enamel is a record of the diet of early childhood. Values for δ13Cen vary from approximately 1.0‰ to -18.0‰. Experimental studies have shown that collagen carbon comes largely from dietary protein, while apatite carbon more accurately reflects the isotopic composition of the total diet (Ambrose and Norr 1993). Protein-poor foods will be reflected in carbon isotopes in carbonate when consumed in even small amounts, whereas they will be reflected in collagen only when consumed in sizeable proportions (Harrison and Katzenberg 2003). The carbon isotope ratios from human enamel for 87 Norwegian burials have a mean of -14.7‰ ± 1.3 with a range from -11.25‰ to -17.31‰. A histogram of the distribution of these values is provided in Figure 6. These values show a rather continuous distribution between -15.5‰ and -13.5‰ reflecting variation in the childhood diets of the Norwegian population with more to less marine foods. Comparison of the mean δ13C value at several Norwegian sites with other locations across Scandinavia and northern Germany (Table 2) documents a strong similarity among these carbon isotope ratios. There is no clear pattern of variation among these sites. The diet of the overall area appears to be largely terrestrial although some of the variation is likely due to marine foods in the diet. There is convincing evidence that the consumption of marine foods, especially fish, increased substantially in northern Europe between the late Iron Age and the end of the Middle Ages. Barrett and Rich- Figure 5. Scatterplot of δ18O vs. 87Sr/86Sr for 55 samples of human tooth enamel from Norway. Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. Price and E. Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 93 -21.1‰. The percentage of seafood in the coastal diets was inferred to be on the order of 75%, while the values for the inland population were thought to reflect a diet with less than 10% marine resources. Case Studies We can look at isotopic variation in Norway in more detail by examining localities where a number of individuals from a single cemetery or community have been analyzed. There are three places of interest: Trondheim, Bryggen, and Hamar. The remains from Trondheim come from two medieval cemeteries. The samples form Bryggen, the medieval town in modern Bergen, come from three burial grounds there — Nykirken, Lille Ovregt, and Bryggen itself. Hamar refers to a medieval churchyard in the interior town of the same name. Information on the number of samples and mean and s.d. for 87Sr/86Sr for burials from these sites appears in Table 3. Also in this table are measurements on samples of pig bones from Bryggen for comparison with the human remains. The s.d. for these samples provides some additional information. The two coastal towns, Trondheim and Bryggen, have higher standard deviations. Hamar, an inland location, has a relatively low s.d. and a value close to the Bryggen pigs. The distribution of data for each location is not normal. The three locations are discussed in detail below. Bryggen In the case of Bryggen, the 16 pigs have a mean value of 0.7111 that provides a terrestrial bioavailable baseline for the medieval town. Among the humans, the mean is slightly higher at 0.7121 for 22 samples with a s.d. of ± 0.004. A graph of the ranked 87Sr/86Sr values for human enamel is shown in Figure 7. These values are highly variable and appear to confirm the archaeological and historical evidence that Bryggen was a major destination for people from elsewhere in Norway and ards (2004) analyzed collagen carbon isotope ratios in 54 burials from northern Scotland and the Orkney Islands. Significant fish consumption appeared in the Viking Age (9th to 11th centuries AD), followed by a peak in marine protein consumption from approximately the 11th to the 14th centuries AD, particularly among men, after which the importance of fish in the diet returned to Viking Age levels. Evidence for a substantial difference between coastal and inland diets in early medieval Norway comes from another study of carbon isotopes in bone collagen (Johansen et al. 1986). Burials from the coastal site of Træna (Nordland) had a range of δ13Ccol values between -15.7‰ and -19.0‰, while bone samples from the inland site of Heidal (Oppland) exhibited values ranging from -19.9‰ to Table 2. δ 13C values (‰) in human enamel from sites across Scandinavia with n, minimum, maximum, mean and 1 sd. Site Country n Min Max Mean ± sd Source Hamar Norway 19 -15.0 -11.2 -13.5 ± 1.2 Unpublished Bryggen Norway 24 -16.9 -11.3 -14.7 ± 1.7 Unpublished Trondheim Norway 9 -16.1 -14.5 -15.5 ± 0.6 Unpublished Birka Sweden 29 -16.3 -14.0 -15.2 ± 0.6 Unpublished Fäslegården Sweden 42 -15.5 -13.4 -14.4 ± 0.6 Sjögren et al. 2009 Kopparsvik Sweden 44 -16.8 -10.2 -14.5 ± 1.4 Unpublished (Gotland) Uppakra Sweden 10 -15.8 -13.9 -14.5 ± 0.5 Price 2013 Sebbersund Denmark 7 -15.7 -12.0 -13.5 ± 1.4 Price et al. 2012 Trelleborg Denmark 41 -15.5 -12.8 -14.0 ± 0.7 Price et al. 2011 Galgedil Denmark 29 -15.5 -12.8 -14.7 ± 0.4 Unpublished Ndr. Grodbygaard Denmark 36 -15.3 -9.4 -13.6 ± 1.2 Price et al. 2013 (Bornholm) Haithabu Germany 53 -16.9 -11.3 -14.4 ± 0.1 Unpublished Figure 6. Histogram of δ13C values for human enamel from Norway. Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. Price and E. Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 94 was -4.4‰ ± 0.8 with a range from -3.0‰ to -5.8‰. Carbon isotope ratios averaged -14.7‰ ± 1.2, with values from -13.7‰ to -16.9‰. No particular pattern or unusual value was noted in these data. Hamar Medieval Hamar was a small market center (kaupang) and the only inland town in Norway, located some 100 km north of Oslo. Hamar kirke was the medieval cathedral and churchyard in the town and the location of the bishop’s palace. The inhabitants of this small town lived a somewhat rural life, while the high-status members of the ecclesiastical community enjoyed a more urban status (Bagge 1998). Archaeological investigations around the medieval cathedral ruins at Hamar in the 1990s (e.g., Reed 1998) have resulted in well-documented skeletal material, comprising the remains of more than 1000 individuals (Sellevold 1991, 1996). During the Christian Middle Ages, the burial customs were rather uniform and grave goods were few (Sellevold 1996). Status differences among the dead are not readily apparent. It is not known Northern Europe. There is one low value (0.7083), a series of 12 samples with similar values around 0.710, and then distinct change in the curve of the line as values increase rapidly with much more variation present. The group of 12 individuals with similar values around 0.710 were perhaps members of the local Bergen population. Their 87Sr/86Sr values are very close to the pigs. The higher human values may represent either diets with less marine intake or individuals who grew up away from the coast in the interior areas of western Norway (or elsewhere) and moved to Bryggen. Because the values are quite high, they are likely Norwegian in origin. Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were also measured on 24 Bryggen samples. The mean δ18O value Figure 7. Ranked 87Sr/86Sr values from 21 human enamel samples from Bryggen. Table 3. 87Sr/86Sr mean and s.d. for Viking and Medieval human and pig samples from three locations in Norway. Site n Mean s.d. Trondheim 10 0.7155 ± 0.007 Hamar 19 0.7148 ± 0.002 Bryggen 22 0.7121 ± 0.004 Bryggen Pigs 16 0.7111 ± 0.002 Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. Price and E. Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 95 whether the Hamar cathedral cemetery was used as a parish churchyard for the Hamar market town, or whether it was mainly reserved for the ecclesiastical community associated with the bishop’s palace and the cathedral (Sellevold 2001). Bioarchaeological studies have revealed certain differences in skeletal morphology that may be attributed to status (Sellevold 2001). Strontium, oxygen, and carbon isotopes were measured on samples of human tooth enamel from the cathedral cemetery Appendix 1. There is only one female and two unidentified individuals among the males in the sample set. The largely male 87Sr/86Sr values for 18 samples had a mean ± s.d. of 0.7150 ± 0.002 with a range between 0.7112 and 0.7178. A bar graph of these ranked values is shown in Figure 8. There is one lower value at 0.7112 and then a generally continuous increase from 0.7123 to 0.7147. This range represents a fairly narrow degree of variation in the strontium isotope ratios. There is no baseline bioavailable data from the Hamar area, so it difficult to identify locals and non-locals from the strontium isotope ratios. On the other hand, given the high 87Sr/86Sr values for the interior geology of Norway and the rather continuous range of values from Hamar kirke, it may be that most of the individuals are from the local region. The one individual with a particularly low value may be from elsewhere in Norway. The 19 δ18O values from Hamar have a mean and standard deviation of -6.3‰ ± 0.8 with a range from -4.9‰ to -7.7‰. A plot of 87Sr/86Sr against δ18O (graph not shown) provides little information for identifying non-locals. Carbon isotope ratios for 17 samples at Hamar average -13.5‰ ± 1.2 with a range from -11.2‰ to -15.0‰ and do show some interesting patterning when cross-plotted with strontium (Fig. 9). It is important to remember in this case that the range of carbon isotope ratios in enamel varies with marine foods in the diet such that more positive enamel values indicate a higher marine component. In Norway, most values for δ13Cenamel fall between -16‰ and -13‰. For the Hamar data, there are 5 individuals greater than -13‰ and four more above -14‰, values that reflect a more marine diet. These individuals were likely not born in Hamar and probably moved here during their lifetimes. For comparison, δ13C values from human enamel from sites across Scandinavia are listed in Table 3 with n, minimum, maximum, mean, and 1 sd. Mean values from the sites range between -15.5‰ at Trondheim to -13.5‰ at Hamar and Sebbersund in northern Denmark. The values are generally very similar among the sites and likely reflect a diet of largely terrestrial domestic foods. More positive values should indicate a larger proportion of marine Figure 8. Bar graph of ranked 87Sr/86Sr values from enamel samples from Hamar Kirke, Norway . Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. Price and E. Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 96 Trondheim Samples of human tooth enamel from Trondheim come from excavations of two medieval cemeteries in the center of the city, at Sondregatan (8 samples) and the Library (2 samples). The ten samples together have a mean 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7155 ± 0.007, with a range from 0.7096 to 0.7317. A bar graph of ranked values is shown in Figure 11. Values are wide ranging in both cemeteries. Baseline 87Sr/86Sr is difficult to determine in such cases, but it would appear likely that the values around 0.710 are those of local individuals with a diet high in seafood and that the higher values reflect non-local persons from terrains with higher strontium isotope ratios. The 0.731 individual has the highest value recorded in Norway, far greater than any other, and could well be a migrant from Greenland to Norway. Carbon and oxygen isotopes were also measured on 9 of these samples from Trondheim. The carbon isotope ratios average -15.5‰ ± 0.6 with a narrow range from -14.5‰ to -16.1‰, directly in the middle of the distribution for Norway and typical for coastal values. Plots of carbon isotopes vs. strontium and oxygen were not enlightening (graphs not shown). The oxygen isotopes have a mean of -6.0‰ ± 1.1 with a range from -4.5‰ to -7.6‰. A plot of 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O values for the 9 enamel samples from Trondheim is intriguing (Fig. 12). There appear to be three groups of samples: (1) 2 samples with low strontium ratios and δ18O near -4.5‰, (2) 4 samples with varied 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O just above -6‰, and (3) 3 samples with mid-range 87Sr/86Sr and d18O between -7‰ and -8‰. These three groups may represent three different places of origin for the individuals sampled from the Trondheim cemeteries. Converting enamel δ18OPDB to δ18OSMOW provides a minimum (-12‰) and maximum (-7‰) value for the Trondheim data (Fig. 12). Based on modern precipitation values, oxygen isotope ratios -7‰ and -9‰ are expected for Trondheim. These values fit with the first two groups described above. These resources in the diet although this pattern does not make sense in terms of Hamar as an inland site in southern Norway. Lead isotopes were measured for some of the Hamar enamel samples. A scatterplot of 13 87Sr/86Sr vs. 206Pb/207Pb values for these samples is shown in Figure 10. Two samples plot outside of the very linear distribution of 206/207 values concentrated around the ratio of 1.18. These two samples have relatively high 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.7152 and 0.7176 and are likely non-local to Hamar. The two are a 20–22 year-old male (Grave 25) and a 6–7 year-old child (Grave 78), respectively. Figure 9. Scatterplot of 87Sr/86Sr and δ13C values for 17 enamel samples from Hamar, Norway. Figure 10. 87Sr/86Sr plotted against 206Pb/207Pb for 13 Hamar enamel samples. Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. Price and E. Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 97 of information. These data confirm that strontium isotope ratios are highly variable in Norway and the definition of a local signal is difficult. It is certainly the case that some of the highest 87Sr/86Sr values that we have recorded in this study (with the exception of Greenland) come from Norway. The range of 87Sr/86Sr values of samples from Norway fall approximately between 0.709 and 0.721. There are so few values below 0.709 that this values are also found across south-central Norway and are in no way limited to the Trondheim region. The three more-negative values should be from more northerly areas or higher elevations. Conclusions Isotopic analyses of human teeth and biological samples from Norway provide a significant amount Figure 11. Bar graph of 10 87Sr/86Sr values from Trondheim. Blue = Sondregatan; red = Library. F i g u r e 1 2 . Scatterplot of 87Sr/86Sr and δ 1 8O values for 9 enamel samples from Tr o n d h e i m , Norway. Enamel and rainfall values are given on the left and right side of the plot, respectively. Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. Price and E. Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 98 value is a reasonable cut-off point for individuals born in Norway. There are two bioavailable values from around the Oslo fjord of 0.708, but consumption of seafood by humans in this coastal area would raise the enamel value toward 0.7092. In any case, the incidence of individuals below 0.709 in Norway is extremely low. Lower 87Sr/86Sr values are most common along the coasts, where much of the population of Norway has lived for centuries. In these areas, lower ratios above 0.7092 are likely the result of a mixed diet of terrestrial and marine resources, which reduce the ratio depending on the proportion of marine foods in the diet. The higher values from Norway are likely individuals who either lived in the interior, were born in the interior and later moved to the coast, or did not eat much seafood. There are two values above 0.730 and two below 0.708 that are very unusual and likely document two Greenlanders and two Icelanders, respectively, who migrated to Norway. It is important to remember that migration is a two-way street. There may also be a number of Norwegian-born individuals who migrated to Iceland or Greenland only to return home. The isotopic data from childhood in the teeth of these individuals would not reveal this movement. For the most part, carbon and oxygen isotopes were not particularly useful in distinguishing individuals within Norway. The carbon isotopes provided some information on childhood diets and especially the role of seafood in nutrition, but little geographic patterning was observed beyond a general coast–inland differentiation. Lead isotopes provided some insight into outlier samples at Hamar that likely represent non-local individuals and offer promise of more resolution in future studies. Acknowledgments We would like to express our gratitude to Per Holck (University of Oslo), Anne Karin Hufthammer (Bergen Musem), Berit Sellevold (Norwegian Insitute for Cultural Heritage Research in Oslo), and Åsa Dahlin Hauken (Univeristy of Stavanger), for assistance with permissions and samples, and to James Burton (Laboratory for Archaeological Chemistry at the University of Wisconsin-Madison) for all his hard labor. We also thank Paul Fullagar (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) and David Dettman (University of Arizona) for assistance with analysis. We are grateful to the US National Science Foundation and the Univeristy of Oslo for funding aspects of this project. Literature Cited Ambrose, S.H., and L. Norr. 1993. Experimental evidence for the relationship of the carbon isotope ratios of whole diet and dietary protein to those of bone collagen and carbonate. Pp. 1–37, In J.B. Lambert and G. Grupe (Eds.). Prehistoric Human Bone: Archaeology at the Molecular Level. Springer, Berlin, Germany. Bagge, S. 1998. Mennesket i middelalderens Norge. Tanker, tro og holdninger 1000–1300. H. Aschehoug & Co., Oslo, Norway. Barrett, J.H., and M.P. Richards. 2004. Identity, gender, religion, and economy: New isotope and radiocarbon evidence for marine resource intensification in Early Historic Orkney, Scotland, UK. European Journal of Archaeology 7:249–271. Chenery, C.A., V. Pashley, A.L. Lamb, H.J. Sloane, and J.A. Evans. 2012. The oxygen isotope relationship between the phosphate and structural carbonate fractions of human bioapatite. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 26:309–319. Harrison, R.G., and M.A. Katzenberg. 2003. Paleodiet studies using stable carbon isotopes from bone apatite and collagen: Examples from southern Ontario and San Nicolas Island, California. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 22:227–244. Johansen, O.S., S. Gulliksen, and R. Nydal. 1986. 13C and diet: Analysis of Norwegian human skeletons. Radiocarbon 28:754–761. Price, T.D. 2013. Human mobility at Uppåkra: A preliminary report on isotopic Proveniencing. Pp. 157–169, In B. Hårdh and L. Larsson (Eds.). Studies at Uppåkra, An Iron Age City in Scania, Sweden. Institute of Archaeology, Lund, Sweden. Price, T.D., K.M. Frei, A. Dobat, N. Lynnerup, and P. Bennike. 2011. Who was in Harold Bluetooth’s army? Strontium isotope investigation of the cemetery at the Viking Age fortress at Trelleborg, Denmark. Antiquity 85:476–489. Price, T.D., J.N. Nielsen, K.M. Frei, and N. Lynnerup. 2012. Sebbersund: Isotopes and mobility in an 11th– 12th c. AD Danish churchyard. Journal of Archaeological Science 39:3714–3720. Price, T.D., M. Naum, P. Bennike, N. Lynnerup, K.M. Frei, H. Wagnkilde, and F.O. Nielsen. 2013. Investigation of human provenience at the Early Medieval cemetery of Ndr. Grødbygård, Bornholm, Denmark. Danish Journal of Archaeology 1:93–112. Price, T.D., K.M. Frei, and E. Naumann. 2015. Isotopic baselines in the North Atlantic region. Journal of the North Atlantic Special Volume 7:103–136. Reed, S. 1998. De arkeologiske undersøkelsene. Statsbygg 1998:13–15. Schoeninger, M.J., and M.J. DeNiro. 1982. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of bone collagen from marine and terrestrial animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48:625–639. Sellevold, B.J. 1991. Skjelettfunnene ved Hamar domkirkeruin 1991. Pp. 7–14, In R. Pedersen (Ed.). Fra kaupang og bygd 1991. Hedmarksmuseet og Domkirkeodden, Hamar, Norway. Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. Price and E. Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 99 Sellevold, B.J. 1996. Middelalderens mennesker: Om knokler som kunnskapskilde. In M. Rindal (Ed.). Studier i kilder til vikingtid og nordisk middelalde. KULT skriftserie 46, Norges forskningsråd, Oslo, Norway. Sellevold, B.J. 2001. From Death to Life in Medieval Hamar: Skeletons and Graves as Historical Source Material. Acta Humaniora 109. Unipub Forlag, Oslo, Norway. Sjögren, K.-G., T.D. Price, and T. Ahlström. 2009. Megaliths and mobility in southwestern Sweden: Investigating relations between a local society and its neighbours using strontium isotopes. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 28:85–101. Sullivan, C.H., and H.W. Krueger. 1981. Carbon isotope analysis of separate chemical phases in modern and fossil bone. Nature 292:333–335. Tauber, H. 1981. δ13C for dietary habits of prehistoric man in Denmark. Nature 292:332–333. van der Merwe, N.J., and J.C. Vogel. 1978. 13C content of human collagen as a measure of prehistoric diet in woodland North America. Nature 276:815–816. Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. Price and E. Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 100 Appendix 1. Strontium, oxygen, and carbon isotope ratios on human enamel from Norway. Individual No. Site Element Sr86/Sr87 δ18Oenamel δ13Cenamel A3705 Sør-Kil, Øvre Sjødalen M1 0.7129 -4.4 -15.3 A4480 Marøystrand M1 - -3.0 -14.7 A5274 Bodø M1 - -4.7 -15.3 A4295 Havsteinen, Herøy #28 0.7099 -5.1 -14.1 A5115 Holkestadvika, Steigen M1 - -4.2 -13.7 A4511 Rønvik, Bodø M1 0.7130 -5.5 -16.6 A5117 Rossøy, Steigen M1 0.7141 -3.1 -15.7 A4562 Skarstein, Deverberg M1 0.7106 -1.4 -14.9 A4779 Ytre Torget M1 0.7102 -3.6 -16.4 A1505 Offerøy, Lødingen M1 0.7097 - - A1579 Løvøy, Steigen M1 0,7116 -3.4 -15.7 A4007 Senja #18 0,7091 -3.2 -14.4 A995/A2806 Helgøy, Karlsøy M1 0,7109 -5.5 -15.6 A996/A2806 Helgøy, Karlsøy M1 0,7134 -5.5 -15.7 Sola m. grave 4 Sola medieval Churchyard ULM1 0,7181 - - A3171 Gulen, Sogn Unknown tooth 0,7076 -5.5 -15.8 A5036 Møre, Nord-trøndelag Unknown tooth 0,7108 -3.7 -14.0 A7418 Kristiansand, Vest-Agder Unknown tooth 0,7115 - - A1515 Oseberg, Vestfold Unknown tooth - -4.6 -15.8 A1515 Oseberg, Vestfold Unknown tooth 0,7114 - - JS 988 246/2 Lille Øvregt./Domkirkeplass M2 0,7125 -4.9 -15.4 JS 988 246/3 Lille Øvregt./Domkirkeplass M2 0,7104 -3.8 -14.4 JS 988 246/4 Lille Øvregt./Domkirkeplass Unknown tooth 0,7103 -3.0 -13.7 JS 988 146/67 Lille Øvregt./Domkirkeplass M2 0,7134 -5.8 -15.3 JS 988 246/66 Lille Øvregt./Domkirkeplass M2 0,7101 -3.6 -14.8 JS 1023/1 Lysekloster M2 0,7126 -4.4 -15.8 JS 1037/1 Nykirken M2 0,7099 -4.4 -13.3 JS 1037/2 Nykirken M2 0,7127 -5.6 -15.9 JS 1037/3 Nykirken M2 0,7099 -5.3 -13.1 JS 1037/5 Nykirken M2 0,7097 -3.9 -14.6 JS 1040 75004 Bryggen, Gullskoen P4 0,7219 -5.1 -15.5 JS 1040 75061 Bryggen, Gullskoen M2 - -4.3 -14.0 JS 1040 75013 Bryggen, Gullskoen M1 0.7105 -3.6 -15.2 JS 1040 75009 Bryggen, Gullskoen M1 0.7083 -3.2 -16.9 JS 1040 75019 Bryggen, Gullskoen P4 0.7104 -5.3 -11.3 JS 1040 75032 Bryggen, Gullskoen P4 0.7109 -3.8 -14.4 JS 1040 75024 Bryggen, Gullskoen P4 0.7209 -5.1 -15.6 JS 1040 75038 Bryggen, Gullskoen P4 0.7147 -5.1 -15.3 JS 1040 75040 Bryggen, Gullskoen M1 - -3.5 -15.3 JS 1040 75060 Bryggen, Gullskoen M2 - -3.8 -13.8 JS 1040 75229 Bryggen, Gullskoen M1 0.7100 -4.3 -14.9 JS 1040 76335 Bryggen, Gullskoen M1 0.7103 -4.9 -14.4 JS 1040 76341 Bryggen, Gullskoen P4 0.7152 -4.0 -15.6 JS 1040 70301 Bryggen, Gullskoen M2 0.7095 -3.9 -13.8 C51006/HKH 11658 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 28 0.7132 -7.6 -14.1 C51006/HKH 11657 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 28 0.7123 -5.3 -11.3 C51006/HKH 11663 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 38 0.7133 -7.0 -12.6 C51006/HKH 11664 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 28 0,7170 -5.8 -14.6 C39990/HKH 11654 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 48 0,7135 -4.9 -14.1 C39990/HKH 11654 Hamar Cathedral Fibula 0,7136 - - C39990/HKH 11725 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 28 0,7130 -6.0 -14.3 C39990/HKH 7754 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 16 - -5.2 -14.5 C39990/HKH 7806 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 18 - -7.1 -12.5 C37624/HKH 7826 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 38 0,7150 C37624/HKH 7822 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 17 0,7146 -6.9 -15.0 C37624/HKH 7832 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 18 0,7173 - - C37624/ HKH 7834 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 18 0,7176 -7.7 -14.7 C37624/ HKH 7808 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 25 0,7112 -5.5 -13.6 C37624/ HKH 7824 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 17 0,7134 -5.9 -13.5 C37624/ HKH 7897 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 17 0,7152 -6.2 -12.4 C37624/ HKH 7901 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 17 0,7157 -6.3 -13.9 C37624/ HKH 7917 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 17 0,7178 -5.9 -12.1 C39990/ HKH 11438/ 11413 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 18 0,7140 -6.7 -11.2 C39990/ HKH 11427/ 11419 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 17 0,7162 -6.9 -14.0 Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. 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Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 101 Individual No. Site Element Sr86/Sr87 δ18Oenamel δ13Cenamel C51006/ HKH 11588 Hamar Cathedral Tooth 16 0,7176 -5.8 -14.5 AS1 Trondheim M2 0,7203 -7.3 -14.5 AS17 Trondheim Unknown 0,7141 -5.9 -15.7 ASSK148 Trondheim M1 0,7108 - - AV27 Trondheim M2 0,7144 -7.3 -16.0 AV29 Trondheim M2 0,7317 -5.7 -16.1 SK169 Trondheim Unknown 0,7156 -5.7 -15.4 Sk192 Trondheim M1 0,7107 -4.5 -16.1 AM95 Trondheim PM1 0,7096 -4.6 -14.6 KA52 Trondheim M3 0,7178 -7.6 -15.1 N3915 Trondheim M3 0,7104 -5.7 -15.6 5780h Ullaland av Bo, Farm #26, Ha k Bone 0,7115 - - 4792aa Ullaland av Bo, Farm #26, Ha k Bone 0,7108 - - 5183b Storrheia, Store Svela Bone 0,7116 - - 5186d Storrheia, Store Svela Bone 0,7122 - - 5179o Storrheia, Store Svela Bone 0,7100 - - 5184b Storrheia, Store Svela Bone 0,7125 - - 5182f Storrheia, Store Svela Bone 0,7108 - - 5181f Storrheia, Store Svela Bone 0,7122 - - 4549g Store Oma, Farm #13 Time k Bone 0,7116 - - 4960b Store Oma, Farm #13 Time k Bone 0,7132 - - 5789g Store Oma, Farm #13 Time k. Bone 0,7151 - - 11771a Gausel, Stavanger Bone 0,7124 - - 11772m Gausel, Stavanger Bone 0,7184 - - 11761ag Gausel, Stavanger Bone 0,7152 - - 11776i Gausel, Stavanger Bone 0,7126 - - T19564/ A Tomeide, Tomma, Nordland M2 0,7114 - - T19564/ B Tomeide, Tomma, Nordland M2 0,7102 - - T19564/ C Tomeide, Tomma, Nordland M1 0,7096 - - T19564/ D Tomeide, Tomma, Nordland M1 0,7098 - - A253 Lødingen, Nordland M1 0.7175 -4.9 -16.0 A642 Leines, Nordland M2 0.7109 -4.5 -15.5 A1522 Rønvid, Bodø M2 0.7109 - - A1648A Søndre Mæla, Gjerpen, Telemark M3 0,7138 - - A1648B Søndre Mæla, Gjerpen, Telemark M2 0,7110 - - A4049 Hillesøy, Troms PM1 0,7118 - - A4182 Hillesøy, Troms M2 0,7106 - - A4183 Hillesøy, Troms M3 0,7104 - - A4184 Hillesøy, Troms M1 0,7110 - - A4304 Lille Arnestad, Åmot, Hedmark M2 0,7159 - - A4638 Indre Hernes, Bodø M2 0,7097 - - A4688 Værøy, Nordland Unknown tooth 0,7094 - - A4689 Værøy, Nordland Unknown tooth 0,7104 - - A4719 Voss, Hordaland PM 0,7145 - - A4720 Voss, Hordaland M2 0,7213 - - A3709 Nesna, Nordland M1 0,7092 - - A3985 Nesna, Nordland M3 0,7099 - - A4001 Brønnøy, Nordland M1 0,7133 - - A4268 Brønnøy, Nordland M2 0,7098 - - A4280 Herøy, Nordland M1 0.7102 - - A4295 Herøy, Brønnøy Nordland 2M 0.7098 - - A4296 Brønnøy, Nordland M1 0.7105 - - A4300 Bindal, Nordland M2 0.7107 - - A4448 Tjøtta, Nordland M1 0.7103 -3.9 -14.5 A4479 Brønnøy, Nordland M2 0.7103 - - A4491 Dønna, Nordland M2 0.7095 - - A4502 Sømna, Nordland M1 0.7106 - - A5304 Tomsvik, Nesna, Nordland M1 0.7116 - - A5317 Herøy, Nordland M1 0.7092 - - A3692 Trondnes, Troms M2 0.7105 - - A3999 Rønvik, Nordland M1 0.7109 - - A4303 Bodø Teglverk, Bodø M unknown 0.7122 - - A4420 Sletten, Nordland M1 0.7103 - - A4512 Rønvik, Nordland M1 0.7130 - - A4615 Lenvik, Hillesøy, Troms M1 0.7105 - - A4621 Vesterparten, Nordland M1 0.7106 - - Journal of the North Atlantic T.D. 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Naumann 2015 Special Volume 7 102 Individual No. Site Element Sr86/Sr87 δ18Oenamel δ13Cenamel A4642 Ytre Elgnes, Trondnes, Troms M2/#45 0.7128 -4.6 -13.4 A4643 Bessebostad, Trondenes, Troms M3 0.7109 - - A4727 Stokke, Lødingen M2 0.7116 -4.6 -14.6 A4759 Slagstad, Bjarkøy, Troms M1 0.7098 - - A5187 Gildeskål, Nordland M1 0.7093 - - A5195 Vikran Nordre, Steigen, Nordland M1 0.7104 - - A5287 Søberg, Bø, Nordland M2 0.7100 - - A5301 Stokke, Tjeldsund, Nordland Unknown tooth 0.7124 - - A4691b Steigen, Nordland M1 0.7106 - - A5276 Larvik, Vestfold M2 0.7109 -5.6 -15.7 A5280 Larvik, Vestfold M1 0.7087 -3.2 -13.3 A5281 Larvik, Vestfold M1 0.7075 -2.4 -13.9 A1516 Høland, Akershus M2 0.7170 -6.5 -15.4 A3700 Lunner, Oppland M1 0.7135 -6.4 -15.9 A4005 Ringsaker, Hedmark M2 0.7179 -6.3 -14.9 A4006 Ringsaker, Hedmark M3 0.7132 -4.3 -13.7 A2808 Gran, Oppland M1 0.7101 -6.0 -14.7 A1521 Brevik, Telemark M unknown 0.7126 -4.2 -16.5 A1520 Lunner, Oppland M2 0.7100 -7.7 -14.7 A1518 Åsnes, Hedmark Pm1 0.7182 -6.7 -15.5 A3697 Skien, Telemark M2 0.7106 -5.2 -13.5 C52214 Gulli, Vestfold Unknown tooth 0.7102 -5.5 -17.3 A3777 Jevnaker, Oppland M1 0.7170 -5.9 -17.3