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2009 SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST 8(2):325–334
Soil Moisture and Temperature: Tolerances and Optima
for a Non-native Earthworm Species, Amynthas agrestis
(Oligochaeta: Opisthopora: Megascolecidae)
D. Russell Richardson1, Bruce A. Snyder1, and Paul F. Hendrix1,2,*
Abstract - Field observations indicate an invasion by the non-native, Asian earthworm
species Amynthas agrestis (Goto and Hatai 1899) in the Great Smoky Mountains National
Park (GSMNP). The aim of this study was to determine if A. agrestis was capable
of surviving in the ridge-top soil along an invasion front in a mesic–xeric habitat gradient
in GSMNP. Additionally, this study sought to determine optimum and tolerance
conditions for A. agrestis within a range of soil moistures and temperatures. Investigating
soil temperature and moisture as parameters of earthworm survivability will
allow for more predictive power when investigating the GSNMP invasion. Although
A. agrestis invasions are widespread in eastern North America, few studies have
addressed factors that may infl uence their distribution and their potential impacts on
ecosystem processes. Using incubators and PVC tube microcosms, it was determined
that A. agrestis was able to survive in the GSMNP ridge-top soil at temperatures of 12
°C and 25 °C. No survival was observed at temperatures of -5, 5, or 35 °C at any soil
moisture level. No survival occurred in 25 °C dry (8% gravimetric water) treatments.
Of the conditions tested, maximum survival plus fresh-weight maintenace occured
at 12 °C and mid-moisture (24% gravimetric water), but highest activity and effects
on litter and soil structure occurred at 25 °C and high soil moisture (57% gravimetric
water; field capacity). Soil moisture contributed to the success of A. agrestis at higher
temperatures within the tolerance conditions; more moisture increased the survival
rate and decreased weight-loss.
Charles Darwin was among the first scientists to recognize the importance
of earthworms in soil processes (Feller et al. 2003). Numerous studies
have confirmed this importance (Satchell 1983), not only in pedogenesis
(Darwin 1881), but also in nutrient cycling (James 1991, Robinson et al.
1992, Wilcox et al. 2002).
Exotic soil fauna and plants are capable of altering nitrogen and carbon
cycles of entire ecosystems (Ehrenfeld and Scott 2001). Exotic earthworms,
specifically, are known to affect soil processes and thus alter entire ecosystems
in a “bottom up” manner (Hendrix and Bohlen 2002). Impacts of exotic
earthworm invasion in the northern forests of North America, primarily by
European Lumbricidae, included changes in nitrogen and carbon cycles, increased
rates of erosion, and endangerment or extirpation of native species
(Bohlen et al. 2004a,b; Frelich et al. 2006).
1Odum School of Ecology, 1033 East Green Street, University of Georgia, Athens,
GA 30602-2202. 2Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia,
Athens, GA 30602-2202. *Corresponding author - firstname.lastname@example.org.
326 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 2
Amynthas agrestis (Goto and Hatai) is an invasive earthworm originating
from southeast Asia, with a current North American distribution in at least 16
states, mostly the eastern United States from Maine to Florida, but also as far
west as Oklahoma (Reynolds 1978, Reynolds and Wetzel 2004). Currently,
an invasion front is being studied in the Great Smoky Mountains National
Park (GSMNP, NC and TN) (Snyder 2008). The leading edge of the front
appears to be moving along riparian corridors, but specimens have occasionally
been found on xeric ridge tops that are dominated by Pinus strobus
L. (White Pine). If A. agrestis is able to survive under these more extreme
environmental conditions, its invasion of GSMNP could be more rapid and
extensive than previously expected.
The lack of knowledge regarding A. agrestis and other Asian species
stands in contrast to the relatively better-studied European lumbricids. Little
is known of most Amynthas species beyond the physical zoological description
(Burtelow et al. 1998). Burtelow et al. (1998) reported that Amynthas
gracilis invasion decreased soil organic matter in the O horizon by 36%,
increased soil pH by more than 1 pH unit, increased microbial biomass,
and increased denitrification rates by more than two-fold. Reynolds (1978)
reported that A. agrestis is extremely active. Callaham et al. (2003) contributed
that A. agrestis behaves as if it is epigeic, also noting its high activity.
Reynolds (1978) noted the wide distribution of A. agrestis in Tennessee,
mainly in disturbed sites. Callaham et al. (2003) noted the invasiveness of
A. agrestis, as the authors report its occurrence in relatively undisturbed, remote
locations. The ability of A. agrestis to invade undisturbed soils is very
noteworthy, as previous papers have postulated that non-native earthworms
tend to be invasive mostly where a disturbance has occurred (Kalisz and
Dotson 1989, Kalisz and Powell 2000, Kalisz and Wood 1995).
Due to the importance of earthworms in soil processes, we sought more
information about the exotic earthworm A. agrestis to determine the impacts
this new species may be having on soil processes and other biota in the
GSMNP. Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand the pattern of
invasion by A. agrestis, with respect to its ability to survive within a range
of soil temperatures and moistures in the ridge-top soil in the GSMNP, and to
estimate its potential effects on soil structure and organic-matter dynamics.
The A. agrestis invasion front currently being studied is on the western
edge of the GSMNP along the Chilhowee Reservoir (35°33.0'N, 83°60.5'W).
The topography of the area is rugged, with alternating valleys and ridges. Valleys
are dominated by Acer spp. (maples), Quercus spp. (oaks), Liquidambar
styracifl ua L. (Sweetgum), and Liriodendron tulipifera L. (Tulip Poplar),
while the more xeric ridges are dominated by White Pine. In general, the area
is classified as mesic–xeric oak-dominated climax forest (Whittaker 1956).
2009 D.R. Richardson, B.A. Snyder, and P.F. Hendrix 327
Ridge soils are a complex of moderately deep Junaluska and deep
Brasstown soils, fine-loamy, mixed, subactive, mesic Typic Hapludults.
Valley soils are a complex of shallow Cataska soils and moderately deep
Sylco soils, which are loamy skeltal, mixed, active (Sylco) or semi-active
(Cataska), mesic Typic Dystrudepts (USDA NRCS and USDOI NPS 2007).
Soil temperature was monitored during 2006 and 2007 (Snyder et al., in
press); minimum and maximum temperatures recorded on the ridge were
-0.56 °C (December 2006) and 32.4 °C (August 2006), respectively. Soil
moisture, measured gravimetrically in October 2007, was highly variable
across the field site. Moisture averaged 15.1% (n = 52), with a minimum of
2.6% and a field capacity of 57.0%.
Approximately 160 mature A. agrestis individuals were collected during
a single day by searching through leaf litter from the low-lying areas
of the field site. Soil was collected from five random locations at the top
of a nearby uninvaded ridge. Litter was collected from the same ridge in a
stand dominated by White Pine. Microcosms were constructed from PVC
pipe to be 15 cm in height and 10.2 cm in diameter. Mesh screen was attached
to the bottom of the PVC tubes to allow the water to drain from the
soil. The microcosms were each covered with a perforated plastic cap to
allow air flow. Soil was first prepared by coarse (1-cm) sieving to remove
rocks and large aggregates, and then homogenized. A 12-cm depth of soil
was added to each microcosm, along with 250 cm3 White Pine litter (≈8 g
air-dry weight) on the surface, approximately the amount of surface litter at
the study site. Soil moisture was adjusted gravimetrically to desired levels.
Earthworm fresh weight was recorded. Two earthworms were placed on
the litter surface of each microcosm, and immediately placed into incubators
set to desired temperatures as described below. Although maximum
field density at the site has been estimated at 40 individuals·m-2, A. agrestis
populations often display patchy distributions with much higher localized
densities; our use of two earthworms per microcosm represents these
higher-density areas where we expect significant impacts of A. agrestis on
Soil moisture was measured gravimetrically and adjusted daily or every
other day as needed. Microcosms were maintained within three moisture
regimes (low, medium, and high) and five temperatures (-5, 5, 12, 25, and 35
°C). The temperatures were selected to cover a wide range of temperatures
over which A. agrestis might survive. Low moisture was established as 8%
gravimetric water (air-dried soil), high moisture was 57% gravimetric water
(field capacity), and medium moisture was 24% gravimetric water, to establish
a soil moisture intermediate to the two extremes. Control microcosms
with no earthworms were constructed for all moisture regimes at expected
328 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 2
optimum temperatures (12 and 25 °C) to assess earthworm effects on surface
litter and soil structure. Each treatment was replicated three times.
Microcosms were deconstructed immediately following removal from
the incubators. Since microcosms were removed upon observation of mortality,
the 12 and 25 °C treatments ran for the full four weeks, but the other
treatments were removed after three days. Because litter was mixed with soil
in several treatments, all litter was removed from the microcosms using a
standard effort to reduce the effects of unequal litter removal. Earthworms
were removed, brushed gently to remove litter, and the fresh weight was
recorded per microcosm. Earthworm mass was not recorded for any dead
earthworm in a state of decomposition.
Soil was removed in 4-cm increments by careful removal with a steel
spoon. Each soil layer was placed in a paper bag, weighed, and oven dried
to measure soil moisture and to prepare the soil for wet-sieving. Because of
the visually obvious effects of A. agrestis on soil structure, soil from the 25
°C high-moisture treatment was selected for soil aggregate analysis (Six et
al. 2000) to separate each layer into water-stable aggregate (WSA) fractions
and fine particulate organic matter fractions. WSA fractions from the 25 °C
high-moisture treatment were analyzed for total carbon using a Carlo Erba
NA1500 CHN Combustion Analyzer (Carlo Erba, Milan, Italy).
Optimum soil moisture and temperature conditions were investigated
by examining changes in earthworm fresh weight between start and finish
of the experiment, average earthworm survival, percent change in litter,
and formation of WSA (i.e., castings). Statistical analyses were performed
using Axum 7 software (Mathsoft 2001). Survival data were analyzed by
two-way analysis of variance on arcsine-square root transformed data.
Litter, soil aggregate, and soil-carbon data were analyzed by paireddifference
t-tests on relevant temperature and moisture treatments
combinations. No significant treatment effects were found for soil carbon,
so results are not presented.
Amynthas agrestis was found to tolerate GSMNP ridge-top soil under
certain laboratory conditions (Table 1). 100% mortality was observed in -5,
5, and 35 °C temperature treatments within three days. Survival occurred in
Table 1. Mean percent survival (± standard error, n = 3) of Amynthas agrestis individuals after
28 days of incubation.
Moisture -5 °C 5 °C 12 °C 25 °C 35 °C
Low (8%) 0 0 43.8 ± 22.9 0 0
Medium (24%) 0 0 79.4 ± 6.6 24.0 ± 24.0 0
High (57%) 0 0 69.3 ± 3.5 51.1 ± 27.8 0
2009 D.R. Richardson, B.A. Snyder, and P.F. Hendrix 329
12 °C treatments at all soil moisture levels; survival was also observed in
the 25 °C mid-moisture treatment and 25 °C high-moisture treatment. Temperature
significantly affected survival, regardless of moisture conditions
(Table 2). The temperature tolerance of A. agrestis appears to be greater
than 5 °C and less than 35 °C, with optima possibly between 12 and 25 °C.
Interestingly, A. agrestis was unable to survive at low soil moisture levels at
25 °C, yet was able to tolerate low soil moisture levels at 12 °C. Among the
microcosms with surviving earthworms, a loss of fresh weight was observed
(Fig. 1); however, weight loss was dependent upon temperature (Table 2).
Treatments at 12 °C showed less weight loss than 25 °C treatments with corresponding
Table 2. Analyis of variance table showing main and interactive effects of temperature and soil
moisture on survival and weight loss of Amynthas agrestis in laboratory incubations.
Dependent variable Independent variable df Sums of squares F P
Survival Temperature 1 0.028 9.99 0.008
Moisture 2 0.011 1.95 0.18
Temp*moisture 2 0.007 1.21 0.33
Error 12 0.034
Weight loss Temperature 1 0.008 7.93 0.015
Moisture 2 0.005 2.52 0.12
Temp*moisture 2 0.0009 0.45 0.64
Error 12 0.011
Figure 1. Mean fresh weight of Amynthas agrestis remaining as a percentage of initial
fresh weight after 28 days of incubation. Error bars indicate standard error (n = 3).
330 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 2
A comparison of amounts of litter incorporated into soil (Fig. 2) revealed
that earthworm activity was significantly increased in the 25 °C high moisture
treatment (t = 5.14, P = 0.007). The formation of WSA in the 25 °C
treatment with earthworms was significantly higher in the top 4 cm of soil
(t = 2.7, P = 0.03) compared to the 25 °C treatment without earthworms,
indicating a high level of A. agrestis activity (Fig. 3).
The aggregate data confirms Callaham et al.’s (2003) observation that A.
agrestis has an epigeic ecological strategy, since the only significant effects
on soil structure occurred in the top 4 cm. Although maximum survival of A.
agrestis occurred at 12 °C, A. agrestis appeared to have had highest activity
at a combination of 25 °C temperature and soil moisture at field capacity. The
amount of A. agrestis activity in the 25 °C high-moisture treatment might
have led to a limitation of food resources, which in turn may have been responsible
for the higher mortality in otherwise optimal conditions. Greater
resolution is needed to determine more precise temperature optima.
Because so little is known about ecological aspects of A. agrestis, inferences
may be drawn from other Asian earthworm species that are congeners
or in closely related genera (i.e., pheretimoid earthworms formerly in the
genus Pheretima, which has been split into 10 genera; see Chang and Chen
Figure 2. Change in litter mass in temperature and soil moisture treatments in which
earthworms survived. Asterisk indicates significance (P < 0.01). Error bars indicate
standard error (n = 3).
2009 D.R. Richardson, B.A. Snyder, and P.F. Hendrix 331
Figure 3. Water-stable soil aggregates greater than 2 mm in the 25 °C and high soil
moisture treatment. Asterisk indicates significance (P < 0.01). Error bars indicate
standard error (n = 3).
2005), and these data may be compared with the findings of this study.
El-Duweini and Ghabbour (1965) list soil water content as a key factor to
understanding the distribution of Egyptian earthworms including Metaphire
californica (Kinberg) and Polypheretima elongata (Perrier). Fragoso et al.
(1999) reported that temperature tolerances for A. gracilis were between 15
and 26 °C and those for A. corticis were 13 to 26 °C. Grant (1955a, b) studied
the temperature preferences and moisture relationships of A. hupeiensis
(Michaelsen). He found a temperature preference for between 15 and 23 °C
and a soil moisture preference for the highest soil moisture possible in the
In studies of non-pheretimoid, subtropical earthworms, Viljoen and
Reinecke (1992) and Hallat et al. (1992) reported results consistent with the
conclusions of this study, namely that reproductive success for the epigeic
earthworms they studied (Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and Perionyx excavatus
(Perrier), respectively) were optimal at 25 °C and a high moisture
level. These studies therefore support our observation that conditions for
maximum activity of A. agrestis exist at approximately 25 °C and field capacity
Since the duration and primary aim of our study did not allow us to
investigate reproduction, it is unknown how soil temperature and moisture
may affect A. agrestis population dynamics. There remains a need to
conduct microcosm studies that factor in other biological parameters such
332 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 2
as reproduction. However, by comparing data from the studies mentioned
above along with the data from this study, particularly earthworm activity
(as indicated by formation of WSA), it appears that optimal conditions for
activity are somewhere around soil field capacity and 25 °C.
Since few A. agrestis individuals were observed on the pine-dominated,
xeric ridge-tops surrounding the invasion front in GSMNP prior to this
study, it was hypothesized that an A. agrestis invasion would be hindered
at these locations. However, the results of this study suggest otherwise. The
likelihood of an extensive invasion in the GSMNP may be higher than we
thought, since A. agrestis is able to survive in ridge-top soil during periods
where soil temperature and moisture conditions are tolerable. Being able to
survive in ridge-top soil when conditions are favorable may allow for migration
through the less favorable ridge-top microclimates, and onto other more
favorable low-lying patches within the GSMNP. Continuous monitoring of
microclimatic conditions along the invasion front at GSMNP might allow
us to predict such suitable invasion corridors based upon the results from
this study. If further study of the A. agrestis invasion reveals a relationship
between actual invasion routes and physiological tolerances, it may be possible
to construct predictive models of the extent of earthworm invasion.
A National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU)
Grant under NSF DEB-0236276 funded this research. We give special thanks to the
following people: Tom Maddox and the Odum School of Ecology Analytical Lab,
Jake Richardson for helping with the microcosms and assisting with the wet-sieving
process, Ching-Yu Huang for technical advice in the lab, Mac Callaham for use of
data-loggers, and J. Craft and S. Ferrell for assisting with the site description.
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