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The Odonata of Wayne County, MI: Inspiration for Renewed Monitoring of Urban Areas
Julie A. Craves and Darrin S. O’Brien

Northeastern Naturalist, Volume 20, Issue 2 (2013): 341–362

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2013 NORTHEASTERN NATURALIST 20(2):341–362 The Odonata of Wayne County, MI: Inspiration for Renewed Monitoring of Urban Areas Julie A. Craves1,* and Darrin S. O’Brien2 Abstract - Ninety species of Odonata are now verified by specimens for Wayne County, MI, a highly urbanized county in the southeastern corner of the state. This total represents 54% of the total number recorded in the state of Michigan. Thirty-three species not previously reported from Wayne County have been collected since 2000, despite a long history of collecting in the area and relatively little remaining appropriate habitat. These results suggest previous workers may have neglected to do much serious collecting here, and emphasize the need for collecting and monitoring Odonata in urban areas. Introduction Interest in dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) in Michigan dates back over 130 years (O’Brien 2008). Historically, this was part of a larger interest in science and natural history which included organizations based in Detroit, Wayne County, such as the Detroit Scientific Association, founded in 1875 (Farmer 1884) and the Detroit Naturalists Club, an early 20th-century group (UMMZ 2011). Both organizations included many prominent entomologists. One result of this attention was that the Odonata collection in the Insect Division of the University of Michigan’s Museum of Zoology in Ann Arbor (UMMZ) has become the second-largest in the United States and one of the broadest and most thorough in the Western Hemisphere (O’Brien 2008, UMMZ 2011). The earliest reports of Odonata from Wayne County (and Michigan) were published by Hermann Hagen (1877). He reported 16 species from Detroit. Two of Hagen’s students at Harvard University, Henry G. Hubbard and Eugene A. Schwarz, collected in Detroit in 1874, and helped organize the Detroit Scientific Association, which included a large insect collection (Farmer 1884). The Odonata specimens of Hubbard and Schwarz included many early records that have been repeated in the literature for a century or more. From 1900 to 1920, two collectors deposited Odonata specimens from Wayne County in the UMMZ: William W. Newcomb and A.F. Combs. Combined, they contributed 51 specimens representing 18 species. In 1927, C. Francis Byers produced the first dedicated list of Michigan Odonata (Byers 1927), with 120 of the 130 listed species based on specimen data (O’Brien 2008). He listed 20 species for Wayne County, but did not list specific localities. From the 1930s through the 1950s, little collecting was done in Wayne County; six collectors deposited 27 specimens in the UMMZ. 1Rouge River Bird Observatory, Environmental Interpretive Center, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128. 22200 Centennial Lane, Ann Arbor, MI 48103. *Corresponding author - jcraves@umd.umich.edu. 342 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 20, No. 2 In 1958, Edward J. Kormondy published his Catalog of the Odonata of Michigan, based on the UMMZ collection as well as a broad list of published accounts (Kormondy 1958). He listed 44 species for Wayne County. Following Kormondy’s publication, there was a period of reduced collecting in the county. The most important work done in the mid- to late 1990s was the collecting done by UMMZ Insect Division collections manager Mark O’Brien and Kielb’s (1996) paper on regional Libellulidae. Visiting Japanese entomologist Tokihiro Nishida also did some collecting in Wayne County in 1994–1995, and listed 44 species for the county; eight color photos of some of these species are in his paper (Nishida 1999). However, he did not contribute any voucher specimens to the UMMZ. The renewed interest in the state’s odonates around this time sparked the formation of the Michigan Odonata Survey, operating out of the UMMZ, in 1996. All told, prior to 2001, fewer than 20 people contributed just 179 voucher specimens representing 39 species for Wayne County into the UMMZ. An additional 28 species were mentioned in the literature, for a total of 67 species for the county. Study Area Wayne County is located in southeastern Michigan at latitude 42.285°N, longitude 83.261°W (Fig. 1). The county has been the population center of Michigan for well over a century. By 1920, Detroit was already the 4th largest city in the US and the county population was 1.2 million (US Census Bureau 1922). Wayne County covers approximately 1606 km2 (620 mi2), and is highly urbanized. Detroit and its associated suburbs cover 44% of the county’s land area (SEMCOG 2008). As of 2006, sixty-eight percent of county land is developed, and only 4% is wetland (NOAA 2006). The most significant natural areas are those of the Huron-Clinton Metropolitan Authority Metroparks, which cover a total of 2271 ha. These four parks are managed mostly for recreation and contain many groomed areas (especially in riparian zones), but do preserve substantial natural habitat. There are three large rivers in the county. The Detroit River forms the 43-km eastern boundary of the county, as well as the international boundary between the US and Canada. Only 3% of the original coastal wetlands of both sides of the river still remain (Manny 2003). Portions of three branches of the Rouge River flow through and meet the main branch in Wayne County, which drains into the Detroit River; the final four miles of the river are in an artificial concrete channel (Beam and Braunscheidel 1998). The Huron River, a portion of which forms the southern boundary of the county, drains into Lake Erie near the mouth of the Detroit River. Of the portion of the Huron River watershed that is in Wayne County, about a third is developed and a little over 20% is agricultural (LHRWIMC 2005). Both the Detroit and Rouge Rivers are “areas of concern” (environmentally degraded areas that did not meet the objectives of the Great Lakes Water Quality 2013 J.A. Craves and D.S. O’Brien 343 Agreement), and degradation of benthos and habitat loss are still considered impairments in these systems (Esman 2008, Selzer 2008). All the rivers and tributaries in the county suffer from altered hydrology (especially increased flows during storm events), and most from some sort of sedimentation, excess nutrients (especially fertilizer run-off), contamination from organic compounds and heavy metals, and/or pollution in the form of litter and debris. Lentic habitats in the county are all anthropogenic, and include borrow pits, river impoundments, and retention ponds. Only one natural water body occurred in the county, a small (less than 10 ha) lake (Sherzer 1913) that is now a managed ornamental pond in a residential development. Over 80% of existing wetlands are wooded (NOAA 2006). Emergent wetlands are typically small and fragmented, and often heavily invaded by Phragmites australis. Methods We began collecting Odonata in the county in 2001. Because much of the first six years coincided with fieldwork being done on a breeding-bird atlas project, we visited all 22 townships (to the quarter-township level) in the county. In 2007 and 2008, we worked on dedicated Odonata and insect surveys at the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge (Craves 2007, 2008). Over the years, we spent hundreds of hours in the field, often specifically looking for Odonata. Most of our work was with adult Odonata, although we also did some active sampling for larvae, and collected exuviae when encountered. We also compiled records from other sources. We investigated specimens deposited in the UMMZ, and we did a thorough literature search. If the literature Figure 1. Location of Wayne County, MI. 344 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 20, No. 2 indicated important Wayne County specimens were in the collections of other museums, we contacted those institutions for more information. Results The total species count for Wayne County, as represented by voucher specimens deposited in the UMMZ, now stands at 90 (Appendix 1). Each of these species is among the ≈500 specimens we have collected from the county and submitted to the UMMZ through 2011. Thirty-three of these species were entirely new records for the county, with 32 of them first being collected by us. Six of the new county records were also new state records. Of the 179 specimens of 39 species in the UMMZ prior to 2001, we determined that 11 specimens were either misidentified or assigned to Wayne County in error. One specimen (MOS0020889) was identified as Lestes inaequalis Walsh, the only Wayne County record. This was actually L. rectangularis Say. We were able to re-voucher all the 38 remaining species. Of the 28 species only mentioned in the literature prior to 2001, we found that nine species could not be verified by specimens, or existing specimens were misidentified or lacked associated data (Table 1). This was a particular issue with the specimens attributed to Henry Hubbard and Eugene Schwarz. Apparently these early records did not receive serious scrutiny by other compilers of Michigan Odonata lists. We uncovered identification problems, lack of data on specimen labels, and some records without extant specimens. Because of the many uncertainties around the Hubbard and Schwarz records, we do not base any “first” records for Wayne County on them, although we include relevant data in the Tables. We obtained voucher specimens for 18 of the 19 species known only from the literature. In total, we increased the number of verified Odonata species recorded in Wayne County by 52 species. In addition to the list of 90 verified species, we have sight or photo records of five species, and there is a literature and photo record of a sixth species by another observer. We consider these six species as “hypothetical” (Table 2). Finally, we found an undated adult specimen of Ladona julia (Uhler) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution (NMNH) from Detroit, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. This species was not listed by subsequent authors for Wayne County, and we have not included it due to insufficient detail. In Appendix 1, we have also provided an estimate of the abundance and distribution of each species in the county, based on (though not strictly calculated from) specimen, literature, and our sight data; and the terminology used by Glotzhober and McShaffrey (2002). Abundance categories are: rare/infrequent, uncommon, common, and abundant. Distribution categories are restricted/local, limited, widespread, and ubiquitous. To these, we add the categories vagrant, for those out-of-range species that are unlikely to occur on a regular basis, and sporadic, for those species which periodically stage large movements and therefore 2013 J.A. Craves and D.S. O’Brien 345 Table 1. Species included in the literature by other authors now removed from the Wayne County, MI list. Species Rationale Enallagma divagans Selys, Turquoise Bluet Nishida (1999) reported a female from 26 July 1995, a rather late date for this species. Adult Michigan specimens are from May or June, with one from early July (MOS 2011). The latest date for Ohio specimens is 23 July, with most collected prior to early July (McShaffrey and Glotzhober 2000a). We believe this may have been misidentified, as females are very similar to the very common female Enallagma exsulans. Without a specimen, we have omitted it from the list. Enallagma hageni (Walsh), Hagen’s Bluet Kormondy (1958) lists this species for Wayne County, but there is no supporting specimen at the UMMZ. Aeshna clepsydra Say, Mottled Darner Listed by Hagen (1877) and Kormondy (1958), who cited Walker (1912). Walker listed this species from Detroit without a date, based on a female specimen from the MCZ1, which he indicated was collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. There are three Detroit specimens of Aeshna clepsydra in the MCZ, one female and two males. The collectors are not indicated. We have omitted this species due to lack of details. Gomphaeschna furcillata (Say), Listed by Hagen (1877). Byers (1927) and Kormondy (1958) both c ite this record. This is presumably the Harlequin Darner female from the Detroit River discussed in a previous paper by Hagen (1874), where he notes, “... according to H.G. Hubbard, the species is common in August.” Hubbard and Schwarz did collect in Detroit in 1874, but according to Schwarz et al. (1901), these specimens were donated to the NMNH2. We did not find this species in NMNH records. For her research, Gloyd (1940) examined Gomphaeschna specimens, including a female from the Detroit River collected in August by Hubbard; she indicated this specimen was in the MCZ. We found this specimen, which included Gloyd’s verification of identity. August is late in the season for this species, and it would certainly be unusual for it to be common at that time, as stated by Hubbard. Michigan’s dates are all prior to mid-July and are from the Upper Peninsula and northern Lower Peninsula (MOS 2011). Ohio’s records are all prior to 21 June (McShaffrey and Glotzhober 2000b). Due to the dubious date, we have omitted this species from the Wayne County list. Arigomphus furcifer (Hagen in Selys), Hagen (1885) listed a male exuviae from Detroit, collected by H ubbard as “Gomphus spec.” and indicating Lilypad Clubtail it could be Gomphus furcifer or Gomphus notatus. Byers (1927) did not list this species for Wayne County. Kormondy (1958) did, under the synonym Gomphus furcifer, citing the questionable Hagen record. The identity of this missing specimen is therefore unknown. There is also an undated adult male Arigomphus furcifer specimen from Detroit in the NMNH, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz, which was apparently unknown to Kormondy. We have not included it due to lack of accompanying details. 346 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 20, No. 2 Table 1, continued. Species Rationale Arigomphus submedianus (Williamson), Hagen (1885) listed Gomphus pallidus Rambur, based on several specimens including a larval specimen from Jade Clubtail Detroit collected in 1879; we cannot locate this specimen. Byers (1927) and Kormondy (1958) listed Arigomphus submedianus (Williamson) for Wayne County, citing Hagen’s 1885 Gomphus pallidus record. Why they chose to consider Gomphus pallidus as a synonym for Arigomphus (Gomphus) submedianus is a mystery. Arigomphus submedianus has been removed from the Michigan list, as there have been no valid records, and this record is well out of range (O’Brien 2010). Curiously, Arigomphus pallidus (Rambur), the current name for Gomphus pallidus, was not included on the Wayne County list based on Hagen’s specimen. Perhaps it was because that species would have clearly been in error, as it is restricted to the southeastern US (Needham et al. 2000). In an earlier paper, Hagen (1877) listed Gomphus villosipes Selys from Detroit, and included Gomphus pallidus as a synonym. We take this record to refer to Arigomphus villosipes (Selys). Gomphus quadricolor Walsh, Rapids Clubtail Byers (1927) listed Gomphus quadricolor for Wayne County. E.B. Williamson determined this specimen to be Gomphus spicatus, according to Kormondy (1958). Epitheca spinigera (Selys), Spiny Baskettail First listed by Hagen (1877) as Cordulia spinigera based on a female specimen from Detroit. Muttkowski (1911) examined a female Epitheca specimen from Detroit, likely the same one, in the collection of the USNM (NMNH). Muttkowski used this specimen as a paratype for the species Tetragoneuria morio, although he admitted females were difficult to distinguish. Byers (1927) did not list this species for Wayne County. Apparently, most of the specimens Muttkowski studied were later destroyed by a mouse (Gloyd 1953). Kormondy (1959) designated Tetragoneuria morio as an invalid species and a synonym for Tetragoneuria cynosura. Kormondy stated that the female specimens examined by Muttkowski were both from the UMMZ, noted that he examined these specimens, and identified them as actually being Tetragoneuria spinigera. There are no Epitheca spinigera specimens for Wayne County in the UMMZ or the NMNH. Given the lack of specimens and general confusion over their identification, this species has been removed from the Wayne County list. Somatochlora williamsoni Walker, Walker (1925) listed this species from Detroit based on a female collected by Hubbard and Schwarz, housed Williamson’s Emerald in the NMNH. The specimen is correctly identified, but has no date or more specific locality information with it. 1Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. 2National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. 2013 J.A. Craves and D.S. O’Brien 347 Table 2. Hypothetical Odonata of Wayne County, MI, represented by sight or photo records only . Species Year/observer Notes Aeshna canadensis Walker, Canada Darner Literature (see notes), Walker (1912) listed this species from Detroit without a 2010/Marjorie O’Brien, photo date, based on specimens from the MCZ1. We have been unable to confirm if these specimens exist. Basiaeschna janata (Say), Springtime Darner 2006/Craves andO’Brien, sight Dromogomphus spinosus Selys, Black-shouldered Spinyleg 2010/Craves and O’Brien, sight Gomphus vastus Walsh, Cobra Clubtail 2008/Craves and O’Brien, photo Hagenius brevistylus Selys, Dragonhunter 2011/Craves and O’Brien, sight Didymops transversa (Say), Stream Cruiser Literature (see notes), Hagen (1877) listed a record of Macromia transversa 2007/Craves and O’Brien, sight Selys from the Detroit River, and listed Didymops transversa Hagen as a synonym. Byers (1927) and Kormondy (1958) both list Didymops transversa, but not from Wayne County. There is no supporting specimen at the UMMZ. 1Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. 348 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 20, No. 2 may be common and widespread one year but nearly absent the next. The abundance and distribution designations are not meant to be precise, but to give a general idea of the relative status of each species. Discussion In 11 years, we more than doubled the number of verified Odonata species recorded in Wayne County as compared to what had been verified in the previous 125 years; many were widespread and common species. That so few species and specimens had been documented in this long-populous county is perhaps evidence of the perception that surveys of urban areas will not produce much of interest. In contrast, by 1920, there were over 450 specimens representing at least 60 species in the UMMZ from Michigan’s Upper Peninsula (MOS 2011), despite the considerable logistics involved to travel there during that era (O’Brien 2008). While urbanization may be responsible for biotic homogenization (review in McKinney 2006) and declines in arthropods (Blair and Launer 1997, Fattorini 2011, Ishitani et al. 2003), it is also known that urban areas may serve as important refugia for insects (Eyre et al. 2003, McGeoch and Chown 1997, Kutschbach-Brohl et al. 2010, Vermonden et al. 2009), including odonates (Ackerman and Galloway 2003, Aliberti Lubertazzi and Ginsberg 2010, Dolný and Harabiš 2012, Scher and Thièry 2005). In Wayne County, in addition to common or tolerant species, we also found populations with more specific or restricted habitat requirements, e.g., small forest streams (Cordulegaster obliqua (Say)), large rivers (Stylurus spiniceps (Walsh), Macromia taeniolata Rambur), or acidic wetlands (Amphiagrion saucium (Burmeister), Nannothemis bella (Uhler)). Two species, Stylurus notatus (Rambur) and Stylurus plagiatus (Selys), have special concern status in Michigan (MNFI 2007a, b). Those species, along with Hetaerina titia (Drury), Rhionaeschna mutata (Hagen), and Cordulegaster obliqua (Say) are listed as species of greatest conservation need in the state’s Wildlife Action Plan (Eagle et al. 2005). The presence of these uncommon species is an indication that urban habitats—both natural and artificial—may have great conservation value for some species of Odonata in landscapes that are largely degraded by human activities (Dolný and Harabiš 2012, Hunter and Hunter 2008) . A number of species for which we obtained first county records, such as Archilestes grandis (Ramur), Enallagma basidens Calvert, and Enallagma geminatum Kellicott, have been undergoing range expansions in recent years (Beatty et al. 2010, Craves 2006b, O’Brien 1997). Two other species, Erythrodiplax umbrata (L.) and Tramea calverti Muttkowski, are semi-tropical species that have been increasingly recorded as vagrants in northern North America, which could be attributed to climate change (Craves and O’Brien 2007, 2011). Regular surveys of urban areas, in particular those that can act as dispersal corridors, can help detect range expansions, and could be especially valuable in monitoring climate change (Hassall et al. 2007, Hickling et al. 2005, Ott 2010, Parr 2010). 2013 J.A. Craves and D.S. O’Brien 349 A rich assemblage of odonates is often seen as an indicator of ecosystem health (Oertli 2008). Unfortunately, the long-standing lack of enthusiasm for studying urban invertebrates has hindered our understanding of how the habitat fragmentation and heterogeneity so common to urban areas impacts species richness, gene flow, fitness, and dispersal. Both McIntyre (2000), who reviewed entomological literature, and Smith et al. (2009), looking specifically at dispersal by terrestrial stages of stream insects in urban watersheds, reached the same conclusion: studies on how arthropods use urban habitats have been limited, and there is a dearth of data on the effects of urbanization on the distribution, abundance, and dispersal of insects. Urbanization may impact population genetics and species persistence in unexpected ways. Roads adjacent to urban wetlands may hinder adult dispersal through mortality due to collisions with vehicles, or shape populations if there is a bias in the sex of individuals that tend to be killed (Riffell 1999, Soluk et al. 2011). Sato et al. (2008) found greater genetic differentiation in populations of several damselfly species occurring in highly fragmented urban habitats than in those found in rural areas. Also, non-native plants, which are relatively common in urban areas, are the most important threat to rare endemic Odonata in South Africa (Samways and Taylor 2004). Further, because they recognize water via polarized light, Odonata are attracted to crude oil, automobiles, and other inappropriate surfaces with similar reflective patterns (Horvath and Zeil 1996, Horvath et al. 1998, Watson 1992, Wildermuth 1998). Their attempts to oviposit on these surfaces, which are common in urban areas, are fruitless or fatal (Horvath and Zeil 1996, Horvath et al. 1998, Watson 1992, Wildermuth 1998). A greater understanding of these factors will help us put urban odonate richness and abundance in better context. How urbanization affects biodiversity is a basic conservation challenge (McKinney 2008). As urban areas continue to expand and natural habitat dwindles, thorough surveys of various invertebrate taxa, including Odonata, can help provide baseline data to monitor changes, aid in restoration efforts, and potentially contribute to conservation planning and habitat management. 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A checklist of North American Odonata, including English name, etymology, type locality and distribution. 2012 Edition. 86 pp. Available online at http://loving.corral.tacc.utexas.edu/odonata/OdonataCentral/ docs/NA_Odonata_Checklist_2012.pdf. Riffell, S.K. 1999. Road mortality of dragonflies (Odonata) in a great lakes coastal wetland. Great Lakes Entomologist 32:63–73. Samways, M.J., and S. Taylor. 2004. Impacts of invasive alien plants on red-listed South African dragonflies (Odonata). South African Journal of Science 100:78–80. Sato, M., Y. Kohmatsu, M. Yuma, and Y. Tsubaki. 2008. Population genetic differentiation in three sympatric damselfly species in a highly fragmented urban landscape (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 37:131–144. Scher, O., and A. Thièry. 2005. Odonata, Amphibia and environmental characteristics in motorway stormwater retention ponds (Southern France). Hydrobiologia 551:237–251. Schwarz, E.A., L.O. Howard, and O.F. Cook. 1901. Henry Guernsey Hubbard. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 4(4):350–360. Selzer, M.D. 2008. The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality biennial Remedial Action Plan update for the Rouge River Area of Concern. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Water Bureau. Lansing, MI. 28 pp. Sherzer, W.H. 1913. Geological report on Wayne County. Michigan Geological and Biological Survey, Pub. 12, Geological Series 9. Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co. State Printers, Lansing, MI. 388 pp. Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA). 2011. Record Unit 7104, Schwarz, Eugene Amandus,1844–1928, Eugene Amandus Schwarz Papers. Version 7-11-2011. Available online at http://siarchives.si.edu/collections/siris_arc_217262. Accessed 23 January 2012. Smith, R.F., L.C. Alexander, and W.O. Lamp. 2009. Dispersal by terrestrial stages of stream insects in urban watersheds: A synthesis of current knowledge. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28:1022–1037. Soluk, D.A., D.S. Zercher, and A.M. Worthington. 2011. Influence of roadways on patterns of mortality and flight behavior of adult dragonflies near wetland areas. Biological Conservation 144:1638–1643. Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (SEMCOG). 2008. SEMCOG community profiles. Wayne County. 2008 land use. Available online at http://www.semcog.org/ Data/Apps/comprof/landuse.cfm?cpid=1999. Accessed 30 December 2011. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ). 2011. Division of Insects web site. Available online at http://www.ummz.lsa.umich.edu/insects/. Accessed 5 January 2012. US Census Bureau. 1922. Fourteenth census of the United States taken in the year 1920. US Goverment Printing Office, Washington, DC. 443 pp. Vermonden, K., R.S.E.W. Leuven, G. van der Velde, M.M. van Katwijk, J.G.M. Roelofs, and A. Jan Hendriks. 2009. Urban drainage systems: An undervalued habitat for aquatic macroinvertebrates. Biological Conservation 142:1105–1115. Walker, E.M. 1912. The North American dragonflies of the genus Aeshna. University of Toronto Studies, Biological Series. No. 11. Toronto, ON, Canada. 213 pp. 354 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 20, No. 2 Walker, E.M. 1925. The North American species of the genus Somatochlora. University of Toronto Studies, Biological Series No. 26. Toronto, ON, Canada. 202 pp. Watson J.A.L. 1992. Oviposition by exophytic dragonflies on vehicles. Notulae Odonatologicae. 3:137. Wildermuth, H. 1998. Dragonflies recognize the water of rendezvous and oviposition sites by horizontally polarized light: A behavioural field test. Naturwissenschaften 85:297–302. 2013 J.A. Craves and D.S. O’Brien 355 Appendix 1. Odonata of Wayne County, Michigan. All vouchers are deposited in the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Insect Division (UMMZ) unless otherwise noted. An asterisk (*) following the collector(s) name, if not that of the authors, indicates the authors re-vouchered the species after 2000. Literature records refer to published reports based on non-extant or problematic specimens. Specimens collected by Hubbard and Schwarz have not been used as first records (see text); they are listed in the Notes. Names follow Paulson and Dunkle (2012). Species Abundance, distribution Voucher year, collector Notes Calopteryx maculata (Beauvois), Ebony Jewelwing Common, widespread 1905, Newcomb* Hetaerina americana (Fabricius), American Rubyspot Uncommon, widespread 2002, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Byers (1927). Hetaerina titia (Drury), Smoky Rubyspot Rare/infrequent, limited 2008, Craves/O’Brien Byers (1927) recorded this species for Wayne and adjacent Oakland counties. Kormondy (1958) included the Byers Oakland County record, but not the Wayne County one. He indicated that there were no specimens in the UMMZ. We consider our record to be the first valid one for the county. Archilestes grandis (Rambur), Great Spreadwing Uncommon, restricted/local 2005, Craves/O’Brien First state record (Craves 2006b). Lestes australis Walker, Southern Spreadwing Rare/infrequent, limited Undated, Lawler* Lawler’s other specimens in the UMMZ are dated 1928 to 1930. The identification of this male specimen was confirmed by T.W. Donnelly in 2000. We collected a female in 2008, the only other county record. Lestes congener Hagen, Spotted Spreadwing Common, ubiquitous 2001, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Nishida (1999). Lestes disjunctus Selys, Northern Spreadwing Uncommon, widespread 2005, Craves/O’Brien Lestes dryas Kirby, Emerald Spreadwing Common, widespread 1904, Newcomb* Lestes eurinus Say, Amber-winged Spreadwing Uncommon, limited 2001, Craves/O’Brien Lestes forcipatus Rambur, Sweetflag Spreadwing Uncommon, limited 1983, Hudson* Lestes rectangularis Say, Slender Spreadwing Abundant, ubiquitous 1905, Newcomb* 356 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 20, No. 2 Species Abundance, distribution Voucher year, collector Notes Lestes unguiculatus Hagen, Lyre-tipped Spreadwing Common, widespread 1904, Newcomb* Lestes vigilax Hagen in Selys, Swamp Spreadwing Uncommon, limited 2003, Craves/O’Brien Amphiagrion saucium (Burmeister), Eastern Red Damsel Rare/infrequent, restricted/local 2004, Craves/O’Brien Argia apicalis (Say), Blue-fronted Dancer Abundant, widespread 2001, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Nishida (1999). Argia fumipennis (Burmeister), Variable Dancer Common, limited 2002, Craves/O’Brien The subspecies here is Arigia fumipennis violacea (Hagen). Argia moesta (Hagen), Powdered Dancer Common, widespread 2001, Craves/O’Brien Argia sedula (Hagen), Blue-ringed Dancer Uncommon, limited 2005, Craves/O’Brien Argia tibialis (Rambur), Blue-tipped Dancer Common, widespread 2000, Chartier* Previous literature record: Nishida (1999). Chromagrion conditum (Hagen in Selys), Aurora Damsel Rare/infrequent, restricted/local 2003, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Nishida (1999). Enallagma antennatum (Say), Rainbow Bluet Rare/infrequent, limited 1947, Steyskal* Enallagma aspersum (Hagen), Azure Bluet Uncommon, widespread 2003, Craves/O’Brien Enallagma basidens Calvert, Double-striped Bluet Common, widespread 2001, Craves/O’Brien Enallagma carunculatum Morse, Tule Bluet Common, widespread 1917, Combs* Enallagma civile (Hagen), Familiar Bluet Abundant, ubiquitous 1983, Hudson* Enallagma ebrium (Hagen), Marsh Bluet Uncommon, limited 1904, Newcomb* Enallagma exsulans (Hagen), Stream Bluet Abundant, widespread 1917, Combs* Enallagma geminatum Kellicott, Skimming Bluet Common, limited 2002, Craves/O’Brien Enallagma signatum (Hagen), Orange Bluet Common, widespread 1949, Steyskal* Enallagma traviatum Selys, Slender Bluet Rare/infrequent, limited 2004, Craves/O’Brien The subspecies here is Enallagma traviatum westfalli Donnelly. Enallagma vesperum Calvert, Vesper Bluet Rare/infrequent, limited 1983, Hudson* Ischnura hastata (Say), Citrine Forktail Uncommon, limited 2002, Craves/O’Brien The week before we obtained the Wayne County record, we collected the first state record of this species in nearby Lenawee County (Craves and O’Brien 2002a). Ischnura posita (Hagen), Fragile Forktail Common, ubiquitous 1949, Steyskal* Previous literature record: Byers (1927). 2013 J.A. Craves and D.S. O’Brien 357 Species Abundance, distribution Voucher year, collector Notes Ischnura verticalis (Say), Eastern Forktail Abundant, ubiquitous 1937, Steyskal* Nehalennia irene (Hagen), Sedge Sprite Rare/infrequent, limited 1904, Newcomb* Aeshna constricta Say, Lance-tipped Darner Common, widespread 1926, Rawson* Aeshna tuberculifera Walker, Black-tipped Darner Uncommon, limited 2004, Craves/O’Brien Aeshna umbrosa Walker, Shadow Darner Common, widespread 2001, Craves/O’Brien Aeshna verticalis Hagen, Green-striped Darner Uncommon, limited 2003, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature records: Kormondy (1958) listed this species for Wayne County, citing Walker (1912). Walker used five undated specimens in the MCZ1 from “Detroit” collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. Also Nishida (1999). Anax junius (Drury), Common Green Darner Abundant, ubiquitous 1913, Combs* Previous literature record: Hagen (1877). Anax longipes Hagen, Comet Darner Rare/infrequent, widespread 2007, Craves/O’Brien Our earliest sight record is from 2004. Boyeria vinosa (Say), Fawn Darner Uncommon, limited 2002, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Kormondy (1958). Epiaeschna heros (Fabricius), Swamp Darner Uncommon, widespread 1938, Moore* Nasiaeschna pentacantha (Rambur), Cyrano Darner Rare/infrequent, restricted/local 2005, Craves/O’Brien Rhionaeshna mutata (Hagen), Spatterdock Darner Rare/infrequent, restricted/local 2007, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Nishida (1999). Arigomphus villosipes (Selys), Unicorn Clubtail Uncommon, limited 2002, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature records: Hagen (1877), as Gomphus villosipes; Kormondy (1958) based on Hagen’s record; Nishida (1999). Dromogomphus spoliatus (Hagen in Selys), Uncommon, restricted/local 2002, Freeman* We first observed this species the Flag-tailed Spinyleg prior month but were unable to obtain a voucher. This was a first state record (Craves and O’Brien 2002b). Gomphus exilis Selys, Lancet Clubtail Uncommon, restricted/local 2005, Craves/O’Brien 358 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 20, No. 2 Species Abundance, distribution Voucher year, collector Notes Gomphus fraternus (Say), Midland Clubtail Uncommon, limited 1904, Newcomb* There are eight exuviae from Detroit in the NMNH2, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz, dated July 1903. Hubbard died in 1899, Schwarz was in Cuba in 1903 (SIA 2011). Another specimen is undated. Gomphus graslinellus Walsh, Pronghorn Clubtail Rare/infrequent, restricted/local 2003, Craves/O’Brien Gomphus lividus Selys, Ashy Clubtail Rare/infrequent, restricted/local 2003, Craves/O’Brien Gomphus spicatus Hagen in Selys, Dusky Clubtail Uncommon, restricted/local 1917, Combs* Byers (1927) listed Gomphus quadricolor, from Wayne County, presumably based on Combs’ specimen. All Byers’ specimens were determined to be G. spicatus by E.B. Williamson, according to Kormondy (1958). Stylurus notatus (Rambur), Elusive Clubtail Rare/infrequent, restricted/local 1984, Hudson* Previous literature records: Hagen (1877) as Gomphus fluvialis. Both Byers (1927) and Kormondy (1958) include this species based on Hagen’s record, which seem to be based on larvae. Hudson’s specimens are larvae. Ours are the first adult specimens for the county. This species is listed as special concern in Michigan (MNFI 2007a). Stylurus plagiatus (Selys), Russet-tipped Clubtail Rare/infrequent, restricted/local 2001, Craves/O’Brien First state record. A record previously listed in MOS database from Alpena County was in error (M.F. O’Brien, UMMZ, Ann Arbor, MI, pers. comm.). This species is listed as special concern in Michigan (MNFI 2007b). 2013 J.A. Craves and D.S. O’Brien 359 Species Abundance, distribution Voucher year, collector Notes Stylurus spiniceps (Walsh), Arrow Clubtail Uncommon, limited 2001, Craves/O’Brien Cordulegaster obliqua (Say), Arrowhead Spiketail Uncommon, restricted/local 1931, Stinson* Macromia taeniolata Rambur, Royal River Cruiser Uncommon, limited 2001, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Nishida (1999). Dorocordulia libera (Selys), Racket-tailed Emerald Uncommon, restricted/local 2011, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature records: Hagen (1877) as Cordula libera. Dorocordulia libera was listed by both Byers (1927) and Kormondy (1958), but not from Wayne County. Epitheca costalis (Selys), Slender Baskettail Uncommon, widespread (?) 2006, Craves/O’Brien A cryptic species in Michigan, as intergrades with E. cynosura occur (O’Brien 2004). Female specimen verified by T. W. Donnelly. Epitheca cynosura (Say), Common Baskettail Common, widespread 1904, Newcomb* Previous literature records: Hagen (1877) as Cordulia cynosura. Two specimens in the NMNH from Detroit collected by Hubbard and Schwarz are undated, another is dated several months after Hubbard died. Epitheca princeps Hagen, Prince Baskettail Common,widespread 2004, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Hagen (1877) as Cordulia princeps. There is one undated exuviae in the NMNH from Detroit, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. Somatochlora linearis (Hagen), Mocha Emerald Uncommon, limited 2001, Craves/O’Brien Celithemis elisa (Hagen), Calico Pennant Common, widespread 2002, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Hagen (1877). Celithemis eponina (Drury), Halloween Pennant Common, widespread 2002, Craves/O’Brien Celithemis fasciata Kirby, Banded Pennant Rare/infrequent, restricted/local 2009, Craves/O’Brien 360 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 20, No. 2 Species Abundance, distribution Voucher year, collector Notes Erythemis simplicicollis (Say), Eastern Pondhawk Abundant, ubiquitous 1996, M. F. O’Brien* Previous literature record: Hagen (1877) as Mesothemis simplicollis. There is an undated specimen in the NMNH from Detroit, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. Erythrodiplax umbrata (L.), Band-winged Dragonlet Vagrant 2007, Craves/O’Brien First state record, and the northernmost record in North America (Craves and O’Brien 2007). Leucorrhinia intacta (Hagen), Dot-tailed Whiteface Common, widespread 1916, Combs* There are nine undated specimens in the NMNH from Detroit, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. Libellula incesta Hagen, Slaty Skimmer Common, widespread 2002, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Byers (1927). Libellula luctuosa Burmeister, Widow Skimmer Abundant, ubiquitous 1926, Rawson* There are two undated specimens in the NMNH from Detroit, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. Libellula pulchella Drury, Twelve-spotted Skimmer Abundant, ubiquitous 1904, Newcomb* Previous literature record: Hagen (1877). There is one undated specimen in the NMNH from Detroit, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. Libellula quadrimaculata L., Four-spotted Skimmer Rare/infrequent, limited 1904, Newcomb* Previous literature record: Hagen (1877). There are two undated specimens in the NMNH from Detroit, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. Libellula semifasciata Burmeister, Painted Skimmer Rare/infrequent, limited, sporadic 2005, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Hagen (1877). Neither Byers (1927) nor Kormondy (1958) repeated Hagen’s record, and there is no supporting specimen in the UMMZ. There is one undated specimen in the NMNH from Detroit, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. 2013 J.A. Craves and D.S. O’Brien 361 Species Abundance, distribution Voucher year, collector Notes Libellula vibrans Fabricius, Great Blue Skimmer Rare/infrequent, limited 2005, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Nishida (1999). Our specimens, collected ten years to the day of photos appearing in Nishida’s paper and at the same location, were the first vouchers for the state (Craves 2006a). Nannothemis bella (Uhler), Elfin Skimmer Rare/infrequent, restricted/local 2003, Craves/O’Brien Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister), Blue Dasher, Abundant, ubiquitous 1935, Hubbs/Rodeheffer* Pantala flavescens (Fabricius), Wandering Glider Abundant, ubiquitous 2002, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Kielb (1996). Pantala hymenaea (Say), Spot-winged Glider Common, widespread 2001, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Kielb (1996). Perithemis tenera (Say), Eastern Amberwing Common, widespread 2002, Craves/O’Brien Previous literature record: Nishida (1999). Plathemis lydia (Drury), Common Whitetail Abundant, ubiquitous 1916, Combs* There are three undated specimen in the NMNH from Detroit, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. Sympetrum corruptum (Hagen), Variegated Meadowhawk Rare/infrequent, widespread, 1926, Rawson* sporadic Sympetrum internum Montgomery, Rare/infrequent, widespread (?) 2007, Craves/O’Brien Intergrades among several Sympe- Cherry-faced Meadowhawk trum species in the region make assessment difficult. Sympetrum obtrusum (Hagen), White-faced Meadowhawk Common, widespread 1997, M.F. O’Brien* Previous literature record: Kormondy (1958). There are two undated specimen in the NMNH from Detroit, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. Sympetrum rubicundulum (Say), Ruby Meadowhawk Abundant, ubiquitous 1904, Newcomb* There is one undated larval specimen in the NMNH from Detroit, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. Sympetrum semicinctum (Say), Band-winged Meadowhawk Uncommon, widespread 1947, Steyskal* 362 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 20, No. 2 Species Abundance, distribution Voucher year, collector Notes Sympetrum vicinum (Hagen), Autumn Meadowhawk Abundant, ubiquitous 1917, Combs* There is one undated specimen in the NMNH from Detroit, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. Tramea calverti Muttkowski, Striped Saddlebags Vagrant 2010, Craves/O’Brien First state record (Craves and O’Brien 2011). Tramea carolina (L.), Carolina Saddlebags Uncommon, widespread, sporadic 2004, Craves/O’Brien Tramea lacerata Hagen, Black Saddlebags Abundant, ubiquitous 1983, Hudson* Previous literature record: Hagen (1877). There is one undated specimen in the NMNH from Detroit, collected by Hubbard and Schwarz. Tramea onusta Hagen, Red Saddlebags Rare/infrequent, limited 2006, Craves/O’Brien 1Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. 2 National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.