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A Checklist of the Marchantiophyta and Anthocerotophyta of New Brunswick, Canada
Sean R. Haughian, Bruce A. Bagnell, Elizabeth Daley, Katherine A. Frego, Lucy Smith, and Stephen R. Clayden

Northeastern Naturalist, Volume 23, Monograph 13 (2016): 1–35

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1 2016 NORTHEASTERN NATURALIST 23(Monograph 13):1–35 A Checklist of the Marchantiophyta and Anthocerotophyta of New Brunswick, Canada Sean R. Haughian1,*, Bruce A. Bagnell2, Elizabeth Daley1, Katherine A. Frego1, Lucy Smith1, and Stephen R. Clayden2 Abstract - Specimens of liverworts from New Brunswick, Canada, have been collected and preserved in North American herbaria since the late 19th century. Although detailed records have been maintained, no species list has yet been published. Our goal was to compile and publish a comprehensive checklist, thereby providing a biodiversity baseline for the province and focusing future conservation work. Herein we provide the first annotated checklist of the liverworts and hornworts known to occur in this province. Beginning with an unpublished list generated largely from liverwort specimens at the Herbarium of the New Brunswick Museum (NBM), we added records by examining and/or compiling information from: (1) other unpublished and published sources within the province, especially research collections at the University of New Brunswick, Saint John; (2) liverwort specimens associated with focal species in multi-species collections at the NBM; and (3) specimens in out-of-province herbaria, located via the web portal of the Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria. This checklist confirms the presence of at least 120 liverwort and 2 hornwort species, and suggests another 13 species that are likely to occur. We elaborate on frequency, distribution, and habitat preferences of these species. Recent collections have expanded and refined the list of species known to inhabit the province, but targeted surveys of under-represented counties, habitats, and species groups are needed to more fully catalogue New Brunswick's liverwort and hornwort diversity. Introduction Information on the geographic distributions of species can be particularly difficult to obtain when the species in question are diminutive, poorly known, or rare; with few exceptions, all 3 of these characteristics describe bryophytes. The small size of many bryophytes means that accurate identification often requires microscopic examination, thereby limiting contributions to those of experts. Likewise, the technical challenges involved in bryophyte identification, combined with an emphasis on spermatophytes in botanical education, mean liverworts and hornworts are poorly known by the general public. These factors limit the potential for engagement of non-specialist assistance with reporting species occurrences. Lastly, many bryophytes appear to have genuinely restricted or habitat-specific distributions, such that the probability of finding them, even when they are present, is low. Improving our understanding of bryophyte biogeography is therefore heavily dependent upon focused efforts by experienced specialists, and the most useful first step is to compile and publish a comprehensive checklist. 1University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB, Canada. 2New Brunswick Museum, Saint John, NB, Canada. *Corresponding author - sean.haughian@unb.ca. Manuscript Editor: David Richardson Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 2 New Brunswick is dominated by variants of boreal, sub-boreal, and temperate forest (together called the Acadian forest), but it encompasses a much more diverse suite of ecosystems, including peatlands, sedge-meadows, salt and freshwater marshes, lakes and rivers, fluvial and oceanic cliffs, subalpine heathlands, and anthropogenic landscapes. This ecosystem diversity is the result of variable surficial geography (ranging from deep post-glacial till to exposed volcanic bedrock), topographic relief (ranging from sea level to over 800 m above sea level), and climate (ranging from 1200 to over 1800 growing degree days and 300 to 600 mm of summer precipitation) (Clayden 2000). New Brunswick is also remarkably variable within particular geologic zones, with some showing differences of 30 °C between July and January mean temperatures (Clayden 2000). Given the apparent sensitivity of bryophytes to atmospheric moisture (Dynesius et al. 2008) and substrate chemistry (Mills and Macdonald 2005), it should not be surprising to find that the geologic and climatic variability of New Brunswick supports a large number of moss species (Bagnell 1995, Bagnell et al. 1993). We believe this is also true for liverworts, and preliminary evidence appears to support this conclusion (B.A. Bagnell, unpubl. data). Floristic surveys, guides, and checklists are essential for conservation biologists because they provide a baseline for knowledge of species abundances and distributions, and highlight locations/habitats of conservation importance. New Brunswick’s regional flora is documented by a guide for vascular plants (Hinds 2000), and a checklist for the mosses (Bagnell 1995), but only scattered or unpublished data on liverworts and hornworts. Because some liverworts are known to be sensitive to human disturbance, and have very specific substrate requirements that are rarely met outside of mature, intact forests, they represent a group that is potentially at risk with increased levels of human disturbance (Fenton et al. 2003, Frego 2007). However, without a current and published checklist, differentiating species that are inherently rare from those that are simply under-collected, as well as identifying those that are at risk from human activities or those that are in danger of extirpation or extinction, is a largely subjective exercise for conservation biologists and forest managers. Our goal is to compile a current, comprehensive checklist of the liverworts and hornworts of New Brunswick, not only to provide a biodiversity baseline, but to inform and focus future conservation work. A brief history of liverwort collecting in New Brunswick The earliest collections of New Brunswick liverworts were made by James Fowler (1829–1923), a Presbyterian minister, teacher, and self-taught botanist who authored the first catalogue of the province’s plants, fungi, and lichens, which included 164 mosses and 26 liverworts (Fowler 1879). Fowler was appointed to a lectureship in natural sciences at Queen’s University in Kingston, ON, Canada, in 1880, and he became the university’s first professor of botany in 1891 (Clayden 2005). The emergence of his interest in bryophytes is revealed in correspondence with George W. Clinton of Buffalo, NY. On 6 January 1866, writing from the small rural community of Bass River, where he lived for many years, Fowler noted: “You advise me to commence the mosses and liverworts. I did so last summer but made Northeastern Naturalist 3 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 very little progress […] My microscope is very defective for delicate observations. I hope next summer (should a kind Providence spare me) to be as familiar with the more common species as I am with the phanerogamous plants around. The study of the specimens which you have kindly forwarded will be a valuable assistance” (unpublished letter; G.W. Clinton Papers, Research Library, Buffalo Museum of Science, Buffalo, NY). Prior to the late 20th century, many liverwort collections were from locations in nearby cities and towns (e.g., Saint John or Woodstock, NB, Canada). Details of many of these collections remain unpublished, but they can increasingly be accessed via on-line databases such as those of the Canadian Museum of Nature (http://collections.nature.ca/en/Search), the New York Botanical Garden (http:// sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/), and the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (http://lichenportal.org/portal/index.php). We have drawn extensively on such sources in reconstructing the history of liverwort collecting in the province. A number of collections from the Saint John area, made in 1870 and 1872, passed through the personal herbaria of Thomas P. James and Lucien M. Underwood. It is not certain whether James collected these specimens; Underwood was too young at the time to have been the collector. James Fowler collected bryophytes in these years, but all the material from 1870 and 1872 with labels bearing his name originated from near his home at Bass River. Provincial contemporaries of James Fowler who made contributions included John Moser (1826–1907) and George U. Hay (1843–1913). Their collections were cited by the “Dominion Botanist” John Macoun in his Catalogue of Canadian Plants (1907). Macoun himself visited New Brunswick in 1899, collecting near Woodstock, Aroostook Falls, and other localities in the upper Saint John River valley, where he was joined by Hay. The Harvard botanists Merritt L. Fernald, J. Franklin Collins, and Emile F. Williams likewise visited Aroostook Falls in 1902 and collected several liverworts. Other collections made in New Brunswick during the early 20th-century period originated from some popular holiday destinations, including Campobello and Grand Manan islands in the outer Bay of Fundy; these locations probably offered relief from the summer heat of southern New England for some well-known specialists on other taxonomic groups. The mycologist and all-round cryptogamist William G. Farlow of Harvard University visited Campobello in 1899 and 1902. He collected at least 32 species of liverworts on the island, though these records have remained largely unpublished. A 1910 visit to Grand Manan by Elizabeth M. Dunham also yielded a few collections; her pioneering field guide, How to Know the Mosses, was published in 1916. In July 1914, Charles A. Weatherby of Harvard University, who wrote a vascular flora of Grand Manan, collected several liverworts at Grand Falls in northwestern New Brunswick. During the ensuing First World War, the ecologist and bryologist George E. Nichols of Yale University visited the Spruce Lake bog west of Saint John and made some incidental collections of liverworts associated with peat mosses. His focus at the time was on the investigation of various Sphagnum species for use in surgical dressings, much in need in the war effort (Nichols 1918). In 1922, William R. Taylor, then based at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA, collected material from Grand Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 4 Manan; these collections represented 25 species, and were identified and reported by Annie Lorenz (1923). The only other collections known from the 1920s were made by Margaret S. Brown (in 1921 and 1923), well known for her studies of Nova Scotia mosses (Brown 1936), and by C.A. Weatherby (in 1926), in and around Grand Manan (Weatherby and Adams 1945). The 1930s were lean years for botanical field work in New Brunswick, probably due mainly to the economic hardship of the times (Fig. 1). A single liverwort specimen from the province is known for this decade —a collection of the common Bazzania trilobata made on Kent Island in 1936 by the well-known American plant ecologist Henry A. Gleason. From the mid-1940s to early 1950s, Herbert Habeeb (1917–1987) collected more than 130 liverwort specimens, largely near his family home at Grand Falls in Victoria County. Habeeb issued an exsiccata of New Brunswick mosses during this period and exchanged widely with other collectors, but his interests later shifted to the taxonomy of water mites (Bagnell et al. 1993). Other notable collectors of the 1950s included G.C. Cunningham of the Canadian Forest Service, the mycologist William I. Illman of Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada, and Flora M. Berbee of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, who carried out an unpublished ecological study of forest floor mosses in the Acadia Forest Experiment Station near Fredericton (Berbee 1957). The latter half of the 20th century saw a substantial increase in the number and range of botanical surveys in the province. Among the individuals notable for including liverworts in their studies were: Albion R. Hodgdon and Radcliffe B. Pike of the University of New Hampshire, on the Wolf Islands in the Bay of Fundy, Hinrich Harries of Mount Allison University, in southwestern New Brunswick, and several vascular plant specialists from the National Museum of Canada (now Figure 1. Liverwort collections in New Brunswick from 1870–2010, from collections represented on the Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria (CNABH) web-database, and from collections at the New Brunswick Museum (NBM). Northeastern Naturalist 5 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 the Canadian Museum of Nature) who made numerous collections in Mount Carleton Provincial Park and other areas. Bryologist Robert Ireland, then also with the National Museum, collected widely in the province while preparing his (1982) Moss Flora of the Maritime Provinces. His later, co-authored keys to common and conspicuous bryophytes of eastern Canada (Ireland et al. 1987) include many liverworts occurring in the province. Fundy National Park has been a focus of survey efforts by several bryologists, including Ireland, René J. Belland, and Wilfred B. Schofield (Belland and Schofield 1994, Clay and Richards 1996). Belland, Schofield, and David P. Weber also surveyed the bryoflora of Kouchibouguac National Park (Belland 1992). The most prolific collector of liverworts and other bryophytes in New Brunswick in recent years has been Bruce A. Bagnell. With his colleague Gart Bishop, a specialist on vascular plants, Bagnell has surveyed many natural areas of conservation interest throughout the province (Bagnell and Bishop 2003, Bishop and Bagnell 1999); he also developed conservation ranks for 34 rare liverworts (Bagnell 2001). Since the early 1990s, Bagnell has added hundreds of liverwort specimens and dozens of new provincial records to the herbarium of the New Brunswick Museum, where he is currently a Research Associate. Over the last 2 decades, ecological studies in managed forests have also contributed substantially to the knowledge of liverwort diversity, distributions, and habitats in the province. In particular, Katherine A. Frego of the University of New Brunswick, Saint John, and her students have collected, identified, and reported many species from their research in southeastern and northwestern areas of the province (Fenton and Frego 2005, Haughian and Frego 2014, Ross-Davis and Frego 2002). Materials and Methods Although no checklist of the liverworts and hornworts of New Brunswick has been published, an annotated list of species, largely based on collections housed at the New Brunswick Museum (NBM), has been assembled by B.A. Bagnell (BAB) over the last 20 years. This list was the primary source used in provincial and national assessments for liverwort species by the Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre. We augmented it by adding (1) records from (a) published works on specific locations within the province, and (b) published floras that included the province; (2) previously unidentified taxa from multi-species bryophyte collections at the NBM; and (3) New Brunswick collections held in other herbaria through the Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria (2010) database. In addition, rare, old, or extraordinary records were re-examined where possible (via specimen exchanges), to verify or refute the presence of those species in the province. For comparison with other jurisdictions, we compiled information from the Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria (2010) because it represented the most standardized source that covered both the US and Canada. Although the numbers we derived from the Consortium data may be either slightly inflated due to duplicate collections at different herbaria or low due to incomplete documentation, we Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 6 believe they are both generally unbiased (towards one jurisdiction or another) and mostly up-to-date, thereby ensuring that comparisons are fair. Nomenclature used herein for liverworts follows the genus-level treatment by Crandall-Stotler et al. (2009), and the species-level treatments by Faubert (2012), although for Chiloscyphus polyanthos var. rivularis, Frullania tamarisci spp. asagrayana, Lophocolea minor, L. heterophylla, and Mylia anomala, we follow the more traditional names used by Schuster (1966, 1969, 1974, 1980, 1992a, 1992b), because they are more prevalent in the NBM herbarium and in the Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria (2010) and are currently under revision (Missouri Botanical Garden 2015). Varieties are included where material and historical records permit such assessments. Nomenclature used herein for hornworts follows Stotler and Crandall-Stotler (2005). Within each Division, we present species in alphabetical order of Latin binomials. Information in species accounts includes relevant (i.e., used specifically for a New Brunswick record, either on a specimen label or in the published literature) synonyms, basic substrate, habitat, and biogeographic information (e.g., the county and locality in which it was found; Fig. 2), the total number of known records, the number of records held at the New Brunswick Museum (NBM), the locations of other records (Table 1), and any publications that support or cite the record. We focused our specimen examination and verification efforts on those species that were considered rare (e.g., fewer than 3 NBM records) or unusual (i.e., new or revised records, or those that had not been reported for several decades), or the more common species that we examined for comparison with infrequent congeners. For brevity, we provide in-text citations for literature-based Figure 2. Map of New Brunswick, showing counties by name. Northeastern Naturalist 7 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 records, and specimen citations (minus the species name, country, and province) only for those specimens that we examined directly, along with the initials of the project observer who verified the specimen’s identity (SRH = S.R. Haughian, BAB = B.A. Bagnell). Because some specimens did not have collection numbers, and because not all cited specimens could be verified by the authors within the time-frame of this project, citations include collector and determiner names as well as both collection and accession numbers, in that order. When the same person collected and identified the specimen, only one name is provided. Results We confirmed the presence of 2 hornwort and 120 liverwort species, 2 of which have at least 2 distinct varieties, for a total of 124 unique taxa in New Brunswick. A single hornwort and 12 additional liverwort species likely also occur here, but require additional collection and verification work to confirm or refute their presence. The majority of these records are held at the New Brunswick Museum, with over 1500 liverwort collections presently in the herbarium. Including collections at other large herbaria across the continent, with the largest secondary concentrations at CANM and UBC, that number swells to over 2500 specimens. Data from the Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria (2010) suggest that (1) New Brunswick may have fewer liverwort and hornwort species than adjacent jurisdictions (Maine and Nova Scotia), but (2) a large proportion of the differences in the number of recorded species is likely due to differences in historic collecting efforts (Fig. 3). Data from the Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre (2014) suggest that New Brunswick and Nova Scotia's liverwort flora are more comparable, with 124 and 127 liverwort species, respectively. Nevertheless, Table 1. Name and abbreviation of herbaria referred to in species accounts; codes are from Index Herbariorum (Thiers 2015), except for UNBSJ, which is not registered. Herbarium Code Margaret H. Fulford Herbarium, Unviersity of Cincinnati CINC National Herbarium of Canada, Canadian Museum of Nature CANM University of Colorado, Museum of Natural History COLO Duke University Herbarium DUKE Farlow Herbarium, Harvard University FH University of Illinois Herbarium ILL University of Michigan Herbarium MICH Missouri Botanical Garden MO Herbarium of the New Brunswick Museum NBM University of North Carolina Herbarium NCU New York Botanical Garden NY New York State Museum NYS Pringle Herbarium, University of Vermont VT University of British Columbia Herbarium, Beaty Biodiversity Museum UBC Frego Lab Herbarium, University of New Brunswick, Saint John UNBSJ University of Wisconsin, Madison WIS Yale University Herbarium, Peabody Museum of Natural History YU Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 8 Figure 4. Number of species and varieties (combined) in New Brunswick, by county. Abbreviations for counties are as follows: Gl = Gloucester, Su = Sunbury, Ca = Carleton, Ma = Madawaska, Ke = Kent, Qu = Queens, Yo = York, Vi = Victoria, No = Northumberland, We = Westmorland, Ki = Kings, SJ = Saint John, Ch = Charlotte, Re = Restigouche, and Al = Albert. Figure 3. Number of species and varieties (separate), and collecting effort (collections per km2) for New Brunswick and 2 similarly sized adjacent jurisdictions, Maine and Nova Scotia, expressed as the number of liverwort and hornwort taxa, and the number of number of collections per unit area. Data are from the Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria (2010). because New Brunswick has over 30% more geographic area than Nova Scotia, additional collecting efforts may yet be required to attain comparable levels of liverwort and hornwort documentation. By county, New Brunswick liverwort records are neither equally represented in survey efforts nor even necessarily surveyed to a great extent; less than one quarter of the total liverwort and hornwort flora found in New Brunswick have been documented in several counties (Fig. 4). The best-studied counties are Albert and Northeastern Naturalist 9 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 Restigouche, followed by Charlotte, Saint John, and Kings, while the least-studied are Gloucester, Sunbury, and Carleton. Hornworts and liverworts of New Brunswick: Checklist ANTHOCEROTOPHYTA Anthoceros agrestis Paton Syn. Aspiromitus punctatus (L.) Schljakov ssp. agrestis (Paton) Schust.; found on soil and humus in bogs of Albert, Carleton, Kings, Sunbury, Madawaska, Queens, and Westmorland counties; 16 total records at NBM. Phaeoceros carolinianus (Michx.) Prosk. Syn. Anthoceros laevis subsp. carolinianus (L.) Schust., Phaeoceros laevis (L.) Prosk. subsp. carolinianus (Michx.) Prosk.; widespread and common but undercollected, found on soil or humus of ephemerally flooded banks and shores in Albert, Charlotte, Kings, Madawaska, Northumberland, Restigouche, Victoria, Westmorland, and York counties; 28 total records, with 27 at NBM and 1 at UBC. MARCHANTIOPHYTA Anastrophyllum hellerianum (Nees) Schust. Syn. Anastrophyllum helleranum (Nees) Schust.; found on tree bases or rotting logs in moist forested areas of Charlotte, Gloucester, Madawaska, Restigouche, Saint John, Victoria, Westmorland, and York counties; never abundant, and rarely detected without microscopic examination—under-collected; 8 total records, with 7 at NBM and 1 at CANM, but many uncurated observations from Madawaska and Victoria counties by SRH; Fenton and Frego (2005). Anastrophyllum michauxii (Web.) Buch ex Evans Syn. Sphenolobus michauxii (F.Weber) Steph.; found on rotting wood, acidic cliffs, and outcrops in wooded or open habitat of Albert, Charlotte, Kings, Northumberland, Restigouche, Saint John, Victoria, and York counties; uncommon, but not rare, range may be somewhat restricted; 24 total records, with 15 at NBM and others at CANM, FH, MO, YU; Clay and Richards (1996). Anastrophyllum minutum (Schreb.) Schust. Syn. Sphenolobus minutus (Schreb.) Berggr.; found on rocks, or soil and humus over rocks in shaded, moist sites of Albert, Charlotte, Kent, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, and York counties; widespread and frequent; 50 total records, with 36 at NBM and others at CINC, CANM, DUKE, FH, NY, and UBC; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996). Anastrophyllum saxicola (Schrad.) Schust. Syn. Anastrophyllum saxicolus (Schrad.) Schust.; found on rocks or humus/soil over rocks in open habitats of Restigouche county; rare, locally restricted; 1 record at NBM. Restigouche Co.: found on angular acidic rock talus, on the lower slope of the northwest face of Sugarloaf Mountain, Sugarloaf Provincial Park; 26 August 1997; B.A. Bagnell, 1912a; (NBM) BH-01286. Verified - SRH. Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 10 Aneura maxima (Schiffn.) Steph. Found on wet soil and humus in Albert, Westmorland, York, and Saint John counties; probably under-collected; 9 total records, with 8 at NBM and 1 at NYS. Aneura pinguis (L.) Dum. Syn. Riccardia pinguis (L.) Gray; found on rotting logs, rocks, and peat and humus in wet depressions, fens, or swampy woods of Saint John, Restigouche, Northumberland, Albert, Westmorland, Victoria, and York counties; probably under-collected; 15 total records, with 14 at NBM and 1 at CMN. Barbilophozia attenuata (Nees) Loeske Syn. Lophozia attenuata (Mart.) Dum., Orthocaulis attenuatus (Mart.) Evans; found on rotting logs and rock outcrops, cliffs, or boulders of Albert, Carleton, Charlotte, Kent, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Victoria, and York counties; widespread and common, often abundant; 59 total records, with 36 at NBM and others at CANM, DUKE, NY, and UBC; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996). Barbilophozia barbata (Schmid. ex Schreb.) Loeske Syn. Lophozia barbata (Schmid.) Dumort.; found on boulders, outcrops, and cliffs in woods of Albert, Carleton, Charlotte, Gloucester, Kent, Kings, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Sunbury, Victoria, and York counties; widespread and common; 31 total records, with 18 at NBM and others at CANM, DUKE, FH, NY, and YU; Bagnell and Bishop (2003), Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Schuster (1969). Barbilophozia hatcheri (Evans) Loeske Found on rock outcrops, cliffs, and boulders of Restigouche, Northumberland, and Kent counties; probably under-collected; 10 total records, with 7 at NBM and 3 at CANM; Belland (1992). Barbilophozia lycopodioides (Wallr.) Loeske Syn. Jungermannia lycopodioides Wallr.; found on rocks and humus of Northumberland, Restigouche, Victoria, and Charlotte counties; rare, possibly restricted, but also under-collected; 5 total records, with 1 at NBM and others at CANM and YU. North umberland Co.: found on cedar tree roots at Freeze Lakes area, 903-5; 18 July 1995; G. Bishop, GB95-112; B.A. Bagnell; (NBM) BH-01143. Verified - SRH. Bazzania denudata (Torrey ex Gott. et al.) Trev. Found on rock, soil, humus, and tree bases of Albert, Charlotte, Kings, Saint John, and York counties; appears frequent in Fundy National Park, where surveys have been more frequent; 32 total records, with 23 at NBM and others at CANM, DUKE, and MO; Clay and Richards (1996). Bazzania tricrenata (Wahlenb.) Lindb. Found on rocky outcrops and ledges and in rock crevices in shaded habitats of Northeastern Naturalist 11 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 Carleton, Northumberland, and Westmorland counties; rare, and possibly restricted; 5 total records, all at NBM. Restigouche Co.: on rock outcrop ledges and in rock crevices at first waterfalls along Little Jewel Brook, in Mt. Carleton Provincial Park; 13 July 1998; B.A. Bagnell, 2035f; (NBM) BH-01439. Verified - SRH. North umberland Co.: on a moist rock outcrop along a small brook (Gem Brook) in a steep ravine, ~2.5 Km NW of Mt. Carleton, on west slope of mountains, Mt. Carleton Provincial Park; 6 August 1998; B.A. Bagnell, 2081a; (NBM) BH-01468. Verified - SRH. North umberland Co.: in a shaded recess of a rock outcrop alonga NE–SW flowing brook paralleling the west trail to Mt. Carleton Summit, Mt. Carleton Provincial Park; 28 August 1998; B.A. Bagnell, 2103a; (NBM) BH-01475. Verified - SRH Bazzania trilobata (L.) Gray Found on humus and rotting logs on forest floors of all counties; one of the most common and abundant liverworts, in forests of all counties; 121 total records, with 47 at NBM and others at CANM, CINC, COLO, DUKE, FH, MO, NHA, NY, NYS, WIS, VT, and YU; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Schuster (1969), Cole et al. (2008), Fenton and Frego (2005). Blasia pusilla L. Found commonly on soil of roadsides and stream banks of Albert, Carleton, Charlotte, Gloucester, Madawaska, Queens, Restigouche, Sunbury, Victoria, Westmorland, and York counties; common but under-collected; 37 total records, with 25 at NBM and others at CANM, FH, NY, NYS, and YU; Clay and Richards (1996), Schuster (1969). Blepharostoma trichophyllum (L.) Dum. Found on rotting wood and humus in shady forest sites of Albert, Charlotte, Gloucester, Kent, Kings, Madawaska, Northumberland, Restigouche, Saint John, Victoria, Westmorland, and York counties; widespread and frequent, but small and under-reported (only 9 primary taxon records at NBM, but 67 as associate taxa), often mixed with other species; 83 total records, with 76 at NBM and others at CINC, FH, NY, and NYS; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Cole et al. (2008), Fenton and Frego (2005). Calypogeia fissa (L.) Raddi ssp. neogaea Schust. Found on moist sandy soil on forest floors of Albert and Westmorland counties; uncommon, possibly with a restricted range; 8 total records, all held at NBM. Calypogeia integristipula Steph. Found on soil, humus, and rocks on stream banks, or in moist woods, swamps, and bogs of Albert, Northumberland, Restigouche, Sunbury, Victoria, Westmorland, and York counties; probably under-reported and under-collected; 19 total records, with 17 at NBM and 2 at UBC. Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 12 Calypogeia muelleriana (Schiffn.) K. Müll. Frib. Found on rotting logs, humus, soil, rocks in shady/moist forests of Albert, Charlotte, Kent, Kings, Madawaska, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Westmorland, Victoria, and York counties; widespread and frequent, often mixed with other species on rotting wood; 40 total records, with 37 at NBM, 1 from CMN, and others from UBC; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Fenton and Frego (2005). Calypogeia sphagnicola (Arnell et J. Perss.) Warnst. et Loeske Found amongst Sphagnum and over peat in bogs of Charlotte, Northumberland, Restigouche, Saint John, Westmorland, and York counties; probably under-reported and under-collected due to small size and bryocolous habit (growing on focal taxa like Sphagnum); 13 total records, with 12 at NBM and 1 from FH. Calypogeia suecica (Arnell & J. Perss.) Müll. Frib. Found on rotting logs in shady forests of Madawaska and Victoria counties; may have a restricted range, but likely under-reported and under-collected, due to habit of growing intermixed with C. muelleriana; 3 total records, with 1 at NBM and 2 at UNBSJ, but additional observations from Madawaska and Victoria counties by SRH; Haughian and Frego (2014). Madawaska Co.: on a decayed hardwood log; Black Brook Forest District; 23 June 2011; S.R. Haughian, BR-CO-P9.1.1; (UNBSJ) s.n. Verified – BAB. Madawaska Co.: on a decayed Betula log, Black Brook Forest District; 25 June 2011; S.R. Haughian, s.n.; (NBM) BH-2693. Verified - BAB. Madawaska Co.: on decayed log, Black Brook Forest District; 16 June 2011; S.R. Haughian, RO-ND-P11.1.1; (UNBSJ) s.n. Verified - BAB. Cephalozia bicuspidata (L.) Dum. Found on rotting wood, humus, moist soil, and rock of Albert, Charlotte, Kings, Madawaska, Northumberland, Restigouche, Saint John, Victoria, Westmorland, and York counties; probably under-reported, due to its similarity in appearance to immature shoots of other Cephalozia spp., and a tendency to grow intermixed with them; 43 total records, with 33 at NBM (19 records recorded at specific level, and 14 at the subspecific level) and others at DUKE, FH, NY, and YU; materials examined for this project were of subspecies bicuspidata, although subspecies ambigua is present in Quebec and may also be present in New Brunswick; Clay and Richards (1996), Cole et al. (2008), Faubert (2012), Fenton and Frego (2005), Schuster (1969). Charlotte Co.: on Sphagnum sp., Money Cove Trail, Grand Manan; 11 August 1926; C.A. Weatherby, s.n.; (FH) 00496535. Verified - SRH. Cephalozia connivens (Dicks.) Lindb. (associated taxon), Charlotte Co.: on Sphagnum sp., Money Cove Trail, Grand Manan; 11 August 1926; C.A. Weatherby, s.n.; (FH) 00496535. Verified - SRH. Cephalozia catenulata (Hueben.) Lindb. Found on rotting logs in forests of Charlotte and Victoria counties; may be rare, but Northeastern Naturalist 13 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 probably under-reported for the province; 13 total records from COLO, FH, ILL, NCU, NY, UNBSJ, WIS, and YU; Schuster (1969). Charlotte Co.: on wood, Campobello Island; September 1898; W.G. Farlow; (FH) 00496224. Verified - SRH. Charlotte Co.: on wood, Campobello Island; September 1898; W.G. Farlow; (FH) 00496225. Verified - SRH. Charlotte Co.: Campobello Island, on wood; July 1902; W.G. Farlow; (NY) 00253597. Verified – SRH. Victoria Co.: on a rotting log in a moist, 25-year-old spruce plantation (Black Brook – Canton); 27 June 2011; S.R. Haughian, CA-ND-P8.1.1; (UNBSJ) s.n. Verified - BAB. Cephalozia connivens (Dicks.) Lindb. Found on rotting logs, humus, soil, and rock in forests of Charlotte, Madawaska, Northumberland, and Restigouche counties; possibly rare but also under-reported; 7 total records, with 3 at NBM, others at FH; Cole et al. (2008). Restigouche Co.: on a rotting log in woods at the outer margin of semiforested Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenburg (Black Spruce) bog (Moose Crossing Bog), east of Stillwater Lake, ~1 km southeast of a bridge crossing Stillwater Brook, and 9.5 km N of Kedgwick; 20 June 1996; B.A. Bagnell, 1426; (NBM) BH-01178. Verified - SRH. Riccardia multifida var. multifida (L.) S. Gray (associated taxon), Restigouche Co.: on bark of cedar, in a cedar swamp, along an old logging road to Antinouri Lake Brook (~4.5 km S of Mitchell Settlement), Jacquet River Gorge Protected Natural Area; 17 June 2009; B.A. Bagnell, 3456c; (NBM) BH-02584. Verified - SRH. Sphagnum fuscum (Schimp.) Klinggr. (associated taxon), North umberland Co.: Bog #5, ~4.7 km north-northeast of Murray Settlement, 18.0 km west-southwest of St. Margarets; 3 August 2003; Three-D Geoconsultants, 5-5b; B.A. Bagnell; (NBM) BB-16145. Verified - SRH. Charlotte Co.: previously identified as Cephalozia macrostachya Kaal.; on Sphagnum sp., Money Cove Trail, Grand Manan; 11 August 1926; C.A. Weatherby, s.n.; (FH) 00496535. Revised - SRH. Cephalozia lunulifolia (Dum.) Dum. Syn. Cephalozia media Lindb.; found on rotting logs, humus, soil, and rock in moist forests of all counties; widespread and frequent; 88 total records, with 81 at NBM and others at FH, UBC, UNBSJ, and YU; Clay and Richards (1996), Cole et al. (2008), Fenton and Frego (2005), Schuster (1969). Cephalozia pleniceps (Aust.) Lindb. Found on rotting logs, humus, wet soils, and rocks in boggy areas of Albert, Charlotte, Northumberland, Restigouche, and Victoria counties; infrequent, but probably under-collected and under-reported, not as gregarious as other Cephalozia species; 13 total records, with 11 at NBM and 2 at UNBSJ; also seen in uncurated material from Victoria county (S.R. Haughian, pers. observ.). Cephaloziella divaricata (Sm.) Schiffn. Syn. Cephaloziella byssacea (Roth) Warnst.; found on humus, soil, and rock outcrops, often near edges of bryophyte mats, in wet areas of Albert, Charlotte, Kings, Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 14 Restigouche, and Saint John counties; infrequent, possibly restricted (most collections from Fundy NP and Saint John, records from north of province require confirmation); 9 total records, with 6 at NBM and several reliably identified (e.g., L. Ley) specimens at CINC, DUKE, FH, and NY; Clay and Richards (1996). Cephaloziella hampeana (Nees) Schiffn. Syn. Cephalozia hampeana (Nees) Douin et Schiffn. ex Arnell; found on cliffs and rock outcrops or occasionally rotting logs of Charlotte, Madawaska, Queens, and Restigouche counties; infrequent, isolated strands in mixed-species assemblages, probably under-reported and under-collected, easily mistaken for unpigmented C. rubella; 5 total records, with 4 at NBM and 1 from ILL. Cephaloziella rubella (Nees) Warnst. Found on sandy soil, rocks, and drier pieces of rotting wood of Albert, Carleton, Charlotte, Kings, Madawaska, Restigouche, Saint John, and Victoria counties; infrequent but probably under-collected, isolated strands in mixed-species assemblages, often with Cladonia spp., non-gemmiferous forms sometimes confused with immature Anastrophyllum hellerianum; 21 total records, with 16 at NBM and others at UBC, UNBSJ, and YU, with additional observations in Victoria county (S.R. Haughian, pers. observ.); all material examined for this project is of var. bifida, but var. elegans is known from Quebec, var. rubella is present in Nova Scotia, and var. sullivantii is present in Maine; Bagnell and Bishop (2003), Clay and Richards (1996), Cole et al. (2008), Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria (2010), Faubert (2012), Fenton and Frego (2005). Charlotte Co.: originally identified as Cephaloziella bifida (Schmidel ex Hoffm.) Schiffn.; Campobello Island; July 1902; W.G. Farlow, C; (YU) 204138. Revised - SRH. Kent Co.: originally identified as Cephalozia leucantha Spruce; found on a low-elevation, exposed, north-facing cliff along Kouchibouguac River near “La Source”, Kouchibouguac National Park; 46°49'N, 64°57'W; 18 June 1990; R.J. Belland, 13946; Revised - SRH. Cephaloziella spinigera (Lindb.) Jörg. Found primarily in a single ombrotrophic bog of Queens County; range appears to be highly restricted; 4 total records at NBM. Queens Co.: in a large raised ombrotrophic peatland (Bog # 44), ~25 km northeast of Chipman and 5 km northeast of Pangburn; 4 August 2000; D. Peck, LM9-3; B.A. Bagnell; (NBM) BH-01607. Verified - SRH. Chiloscyphus pallescens (Ehrh. ex Hoffm.) Dum. Found on rotting logs, rocks and soil at stream edges, or on banks in swamps and moist woods of Charlotte, Restigouche, Saint John, Victoria, and Westmorland counties; species probably under-reported, additional work required to distinguish var. fragilis (A. Roth) Müll. Frib from var. pallescens, but most specimens are likely from the latter variety; 7 total records, with 4 from NBM and others at NYS, UBC, and YU. var. pallescens, Restigouche Co.: found on a seepy rock along the bed of a brooklet in a ravine in Jacquet River Gorge Protected Natural Area, tributary Northeastern Naturalist 15 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 of McNair Gulch, ~18 km SSW of Archibald Settlement; 16 June 2009; B.A. Bagnell; (NBM) BH-02556. Verified - SRH. var. fragilis, Saint John Co.: previously identified as C. polyanthos (L.) Corda.; in pools of standing water in a Cedar swamp, ~610 m northeast of Black Beach, 1.9 km west of the Coleson Cove generating station; 23 May 2007; B.A. Bagnell, 3102; (NBM) BH-02421. Revised - SRH. Chiloscyphus polyanthos (L.) Corda Syn. Chiloscyphus polyanthos var. fragilis (Roth) Müll.Frib.; found on moist soil and humus of Albert, Charlotte, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Victoria, Westmorland, and York counties; mostly reported under var. polyanthos (most common), but all specimens examined for this project were of var. rivularis (Shrad.) Nees); 30 total records, with 24 at NBM and others at COLO, FH, MO, NY, and YU; Clay and Richards (1996). var. rivularis; Kings Co.: on a moist rocky outcrop along the edge of Gibson Brook, ~2.2 km southeast of Elgin, above falls; 3 August 2004; B.A. Bagnell, 2679d; (NBM) BH-02421. Verified - SRH. var. rivularis, Carleton Co.: originally identified as C. polyanthos var. fragilis; Woodstock; 04 July 1898; J. Macoun, 135; (NY) 00094135; Revised- SRH. var. rivularis; Queens Co.: 04 July 1898; John Macoun, 186; (NY) 00094134; Verified - SRH. Cladopodiella fluitans (Nees) Jörg. Syn. Cephalozia fluitans (Nees) Spruce.; found on the capitulae of Sphagnum in boggy areas of Albert, Charlotte, Gloucester, Kent, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Westmorland, and York counties; widespread and common in Sphagnum bogs; 72 total records, with 55 at NBM and others at CINC, COLO, DUKE, MO, NY, UBC, WTU, and YU. Cololejeunea biddlecomiae (Aust.) Evans Found on rocks, river banks, and tree bases, or bark of cedar trees in swamps and on trunks of some deciduous trees in wet areas of Albert, Carleton, Kings, Restigouche, Saint John, and York counties; may be infrequent and restricted by habitat, but not rare; 14 total records, with 12 at NBM and others at DUKE and YU; Clay and Richards (1996). Conocephalum salebrosum Szweyk., Buczkowska & Odrzykoski Syn. Conocephalum conicum (L.) Lindb.; found on wet soil, rock, or wood in wet sites of Albert, Charlotte, Gloucester, Kent, Kings, Northumberland, Restigouche, Saint John, Sunbury, Victoria, Westmorland, and York counties; widespread pioneer, probably occurs in all counties but is under-collected; 70 total records, with 49 at NBM and others at CANM, DUKE, FH, MO, NHA, NY, and UBC; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996). Diplophyllum albicans (L.) Dum. Found on rocks, humus, and woody debris in wet places of Albert, Charlotte, Queens, and Saint John counties; distribution uncommon and likely limited by Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 16 availability of undisturbed habitat, apparently requiring seepage or spray-sites near water; 9 total records, with 6 at NBM and others at MO and YU; Clay and Richards (1996). Diplophyllum taxifolium (Wahlenb.) Dum. Found on rock and soil, or wet cliff faces of Albert, Charlotte, Kent, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, and Saint John counties; common and widespread, but with a limited habitat range; records reported here are var. taxifolium; 49 total records, with 39 at NBM and others at DUKE, NY, NYS, UBC; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996). Albert Co.: originally reported as Diplophyllum apiculatum (Evans) Steph.; on a rock outcrop in spruce–fir woods, along trail to Coppermine, west of Point Wolfe, Fundy National Park; 45°32'N, 65°01'W; 03 July 1968; R. Ireland, 11284; L. Ley; (UBC) B25883. Revised - SRH, BAB. Eocalypogeia schusterana (S. Hatt. & Mizut.) R.M. Schust. Syn. Metacalypogeia schusterana (Hatt.) et Mizut.; rare and restricted, found in moist rock crevices in Restigouche county; 3 total records, all at NBM. Restigouche Co.: on rocky ledge along gorge of Stillwater Brook, just above Stillwater Falls, ~11.5 km N of Kedgwick; 15 July 1996; B.A. Bagnell, 1504a; (NBM) BH-01191. Verified - BAB. Restigouche Co.: in crevices of a shaded rock outcrop near top of cliff along Stillwater Brook, about 1/2 way from trail entrance to Stillwater falls, ~12 km N of Kedgwick; 15 July 1996; B.A. Bagnell, 1533b; (NBM) BH-01196. Verified - BAB. Restigouche Co.: on an exposed rock outcrop along shore of Upsalquitch River, near Long Lookum Island; 20 July 1999; B.A. Bagnell, 2140c; (NBM) BH-01487. Verified - BAB. Fossombronia foveolata Lindb. Found on ephemerally wet soils and stream banks of Albert, Charlotte, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Sunbury, and Westmorland counties; uncommon but widespread, likely more common than records indicate; 16 total records at NBM. Westmorland Co.: on sand on south shore of Big Jolicure Lake leading to Big Moss peatland; 12 September 2004; B.A. Bagnell, 2725a; (NBM) BH- 01794. Verified - SRH. Fossombronia wondraczekii (Corda) Dum. Syn. Fossombronia cristata Lindberg; found on wet, clayey disturbed soils, often in disturbed habitats, such as edges of trails and agricultural fields, of Albert, Restigouche, Victoria, and Westmorland counties; likely under-collected and more common than records suggest; 10 total records, with 9 at NBM and 1 record from FH; Schuster (1969). Westmorland Co.: in a small depression in coastal heath with Vaccinium macrocarpon and other various weeds, on Jourimain Island, Tormentine area; 23 October 1973; Harries, H.; (NBM) BH-01981. Verified - BAB. Northeastern Naturalist 17 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 Frullania bolanderi Aust. Found on bark of large coniferous or deciduous trees, or occasionally on rock, in Albert, Charlotte, Gloucester, Kent, Restigouche, and Westmorland counties; probably under-collected; 28 total records, with 18 at NBM and others at CANM, DUKE, and UBC; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Fenton and Frego (2005). Frullania eboracensis Gott. Found on coniferous or deciduous tree bark, or occasionally on rock, of all counties; common and widespread; 86 total records, with 55 at NBM and others at CANM, DUKE, FH, MO, NY, NYS, UBC, and YU; Bagnell and Bishop (2003), Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Fenton and Frego (2005), Schuster (1969). Frullania oakesiana Aust. Found on bark of living conifer and deciduous trees, or rotting logs, in shaded forests of Albert, Madawaska, Northumberland, Restigouche, Sunbury, and Westmorland counties; infrequent, but probably under-collected or occasionally misidentified as F. eboracensis; 7 total records, with 6 at NBM and 1 at UNBSJ; Schuster (1969). Madawaska Co.: on a twig over a rotting log, in a moist, 25-year-old spruce–fir plantation, near Airstrip in Black Brook Forest District; 2 June 2011; S.R. Haughian, AI-CO-P11.3.1; (UNBSJ) s.n. Verified - BAB. Frullania selwyniana Pears. Found on tree bark in wet forests of Kent and Restigouche counties; rare, and possibly restricted to cedar swamps; 2 total records, 1 at NBM and 1 at UBC. Restigouche Co.: on a trunk of a cedar tree, in cedar woods adjacent to the Little Tobique River (~1 km from west end of Nictau Lake near the bridge crossing the river, north side of road), Mt. Carleton Provincial Park; 23 June 1998; B.A. Bagnell, 1995b; (NBM) BH-01421. Verified - SRH. Frullania tamarisci (L.) Dum. ssp. asagrayana (Mont.) Hatt. Syn. Frullania asagrayana Mont.; found on exposed substrates such as dry granite cliffs, rotting logs, or bark of deciduous and coniferous trees in Albert, Carleton, Charlotte, Kent, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Sunbury, Westmorland, and York counties; widespread and common; 90 total records, with 50 at NBM and others at DUKE, FH, MO, NY NYS, UBC, and YU; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996). Geocalyx graveolens (Schrad.) Nees Found on rotting logs or tree bases in shady forests of all counties; widespread and common, often growing intermixed with other liverworts; 49 total records, with 40 at NBM and others at CANM, FH, NY, UBC, and YU; Cole et al. (2008), Fenton and Frego (2005), Schuster (1969). Gymnocolea inflata (Huds.) Dum. Found on exposed acidic rock near water or seepage, or on peat and rotting logs in bogs of Albert, Charlotte, Gloucester, Kent, Queens, Northumberland, Queens, Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 18 Restigouche, Sunbury, and Saint John counties; widespread and common; records reported are var. inflata when varietal designations are given; 38 total records, with 24 at NBM and others at DUKE, FH, NY, WTU, YU; Bagnell and Bishop (2003). Harpanthus drummondii (Tayl.) Grolle Found exclusively on decaying logs, in deciduous or mixed forests of Kings, Madawaska, Saint John, and Victoria counties; uncommon, possibly under-collected and under-reported; 4 total records, with 2 at NBM and 2 at UNBSJ; Cole et al. (2008). Kings Co.: on a rotting log along edge of a narrow brook (Wilcox Brook) in a shallow ravine, ~1.5 km W of Vinegar Hill, ~13 km SW of Sussex; 20 June 2002; B.A. Bagnell, 2443a; (NBM) BH-01677. Verified - SRH and L. Ley. Victoria Co.: on a rotting log in a moist 25-year-old conifer plantation, Black Brook Forest District; 13 June 2013; S.R. Haughian, PA-BU-P1.3; (UNBSJ) s.n. Verified - BAB. Harpanthus flotovianus (Nees) Nees Found on rocks, soil, or humus in spray-zones and stream-banks of Albert county; rare and may be restricted; 4 total records, with 1 at NBM and 3 at UBC; Clay and Richards (1996). Albert Co.: on a rock outcrop near a small waterfall of a tributary entering the main river, near the junction of The Forks trail and Broad River, Fundy National Park; 30 June 2000; B.A. Bagnell, 2234d; (NBM) BH-01545. Verified - SRH and L. Ley. Harpanthus scutatus (Web. & Mohr) Spruce Found on shaded rocks, rocky ledges, wet rock outcrops, or rotting logs of Albert, Carleton, Charlotte, Restigouche, and Saint John counties; probably under-collected and more common than records indicate, appears more saxicolous in southern counties, and more xylicolous in northern counties; 12 total records, with 7 at NBM and others at FH, UBC, and YU; Schuster (1969). Jamesoniella autumnalis (DC.) Steph. Found most commonly on rotting logs, but also on humus over soil or rock, or occasionally on tree bases, in forests of all counties; widespread, frequent, and abundant; 90 total records, with 65 at NBM and others at CANM, DUKE, FH, MO, NY, NYS, UBC, UNBSJ, YU; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Cole et al. (2008), Fenton and Frego (2005), Schuster (1969). Jungermannia atrovirens Dum. Found on moist rock in riparian habitat of Northumberland county; rare and possibly restricted; 1 record, held at the NBM. North umberland Co.: originally identified as Jungermannia pumila With.; found on a moist rock outcrop, along a narrow brooklet (Gem Brook) in a ravine, at the base of a small waterfall, ~2.5 km NW of Mt. Carleton, in Mt. Carleton Provincial Park; 6 August 1998; B.A. Bagnell, 2081h; (NBM) BH- 01470; Revised - L. Ley. Northeastern Naturalist 19 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 Jungermannia exsertifolia ssp. cordifolia (Dum.) Vana Syn. Jungermannia cordifolia Hook., J. eucordifolia Schljakov; found on rocks and soil over rocks in wet places (seepage sites, river-banks) in Albert, Kings, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, and Victoria counties; apparently widespread, but not common/abundant, probably under-collected; 17 total records, with 14 at NBM and others at FH and YU. Jungermannia gracillima Sm. Syn. Jungermannia crenulata Schmidel, Plectocolea crenulata (Mitt.) A. Evans, Solenostoma gracillimum (Sm.) Schust.; found on sandy, inorganic soils in all counties; widespread and common, probably under-collected; 35 total records, with 27 at NBM and others at CANM, DUKE, FH, and NY; Fenton and Frego (2005), Schuster (1969). Jungermannia leiantha Grolle Syn. Liochlaena lanceolata Nees., Jungermannia laneolata (K. Muell.) Buch; found on acidic, sandy soils, rock, humus, peat, and rotting logs in moist habitats such as shady forests, in Albert, Charlotte, Kent, Madawaska, Northumberland, Restigouche, Victoria, and Westmorland counties; widespread but sporadically present and probably under-reported, often growing intermixed with Jamesoniella autumnalis; 19 total occurrences, with 7 at NBM and others at DUKE, FH, NY, UNBSJ, and YU; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996). Jungermannia obovata Nees Found on rocky outcrops, rocks, and soil in wet areas in Kings county; uncommon, possibly with a restricted range; 2 occurrences, both held at NBM. Kings Co.: on a rock outcrop on the east side of Long Island (Kennebecasis Bay), at the north end of Ministers Face, along a small brook with a low waterfall; 30 May 2000; B.A. Bagnell, 2170e; (NBM) BH-01527. Verified - L. Ley. Kings Co.: on a moist rock outcropping, in a deep ravine along Gibson Brook, ~2 km southeast of Elgin, at first falls; 3 August 2004; B.A. Bagnell, 2674a; (NBM) BH-01921. Verified - L. Ley. Jungermannia pumila With. Found on rocky outcrops, rocks, and soil in wet areas in Kings county; uncommon, possibly with a restricted range; 2 occurrences, both held at NBM. Restigouche Co.: in crevices of a rocky outcrop on shore of the Northwest Upsalquitch River, near the mouth of Lower Twelve Mile Brook; 9 July 1999; B.A. Bagnell, 2133b; (NBM) BH-01483. Verified - L. Ley. Kurzia pauciflora (Dicks.) Grolle Syn. Microlepidozia setacea (Web.) Jörg., Kurzia setacea (Web.) Grolle; found growing over and around the capitulae of Sphagnum spp. in bogs of Albert, Charlotte, Gloucester, Kent, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Saint John, Westmorland, and York counties; probably under-collected; 44 total records, with 40 at NBM and others at DUKE and FH; Clay and Richards (1996). Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 20 Leiocolea gillmanii (Aust.) Evans Syn. Lophozia gillmanii var. gillmanii (Aust.) Schust.; found on rocks, gravel, or soil in wet habitats of Albert, Kings, Restigouche, Saint John, and Victoria counties; apparently widespread but uncommon, probably under-collected; 20 total records, 16 at NBM and others at NY, UBC, and YU. Victoria Co.: originally reported as L. badensis (Gott. ex Rabenh.) Jörg.; Grand Falls locality; 15 July 1914; C.A. Weatherby, s.n.; (YU) 206509. Revised - SRH. Leiocolea heterocolpos (Thed.) H. Buch Syn. Leiocolea heterocolpos (Thed.) M.A. Howe; found as a secondary colonist of rock outcrops or on humus and soil over rock, rarely on rotting logs in Albert, Madawaska, and Restigouche counties; rare, probably under-reported; all records reported as var. heterocolpos, when varietal designations included; 4 total records, with 3 at NBM and 1 location unknown; Cole et al. (2008), Fenton and Frego (2005). Leiocolea rutheana (Limpr.) Müll. Syn. Lophozia rutheana (Limpr.) M. Howe; found amongst mosses (e.g., Drepanocladus or Scorpidium) in wet calcareous habitats, such as fens and swamps, of Kings county; rare, with restricted range; 2 total records, both at NBM. Kings Co.: Nauwigewauk, on mosses in a wet, open, rich fen surrounded by cedar swamp, ~2.4 km east of the Hammond River Bridge on old Route 1, ~2.3 km southwest of Bonney Road; 1 June 2007; B.A. Bagnell, 3112; (NBM) BH- 02422. Verified - SRH. Kings Co.: Nauwigewauk, at edge of a rich fen, under a small Cedar tree on moist humus, ~2.4 km east of the Hammond River Bridge on old Route 1, ~2.3 km southwest of Bonney Road; 1 June 2007; B.A. Bagnell, 3119a; (NBM) BH-02441. Verified - SRH. Lejeunea cavifolia (Ehrh.) Lindb. emend. Buch Found on shaded rocks, soil, or bark (especially cedar or birch), in shady habitats of Albert, Charlotte, Kings, Restigouche, Saint John, and York counties; 36 total records, with 26 at NBM and others at FH, UBC, and YU; Clay and Richards (1996). Lejeunea lamacerina (Steph.) Schiffn. subsp. gemminata Schust. Syn. Lejeunea patens Lindb.; found on wet, rocky surfaces in Albert, Kings, and Saint John counties; 6 total records, with 4 at NBM and others at UBC and YU; Clay and Richards (1996). Lepidozia reptans (L.) Dum. On rotting wood, bark, rocks, and humus in shady forested habitats of all counties; widespread and common; 101 total records, with 61 at NBM and others at CANM, COLO, DUKE, FH, NHA, NY, and VT; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Cole et al. (2008), Fenton and Frego (2005), Schuster (1969). Lophocolea bidentata (L.) Dum. Found on damp humus and soil, in marshy areas of Albert, Kent, and Victoria counties; 3 total records, with 2 at NBM and 1 at DUKE; Belland (1992). Northeastern Naturalist 21 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 Albert Co.: on organics and soil in a Typha–Agrostis–Calamagrostis meadow at the edge of New Horton Marsh, Shepody National Wildlife Area; 23 September 2004; S. Dietz, s.n.; B.A. Bagnell; (NBM) BH-0178. Verified - BAB. Brachythecium starkei (Brid.) Schimp. in B.S.G. (associated taxon), Victoria Co.: at wooden post locations at the side of NB trail (abandoned railway), northeast of the bridge crossing the Aroostook River, ~1.2 km northeast of Aroostook; 21 July 2003; B.A. Bagnell; (NBM) BB-16266. Verified - SRH. Lophocolea heterophylla (Schrad.) Dum. Syn. Chiloscyphus profundus (Nees) Engel & Schust.; common, widespread, and abundant on organic substrates such as rotting wood, humus, hummocks in swamps, and moist soil banks or rocks in all counties; 82 total records, with 67 at NBM and others at CANM, DUKE, FH, YU, and NY; Bagnell and Bishop (2003), Clay and Richards (1996), Cole et al. (2008), Fenton and Frego (2005), Schuster (1969). Lophocolea minor Nees Syn. Chiloscyphus minor (Nees) Engel & Schust.; found on calcareous soil or rock, occasionally on rotting wood in Albert, Charlotte, Gloucester, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Victoria, and Westmorland counties; 23 total records, 18 at NBM and others at CANM, CINC, and NY; Schuster (1969). Lophozia ascendens (Warnst.) Schust. Found on rotting wood and tree bases in moist conifer forests; possibly rare, likely under-collected; 4 total records, with 1 at NBM and 3 at UBC; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996). Riccardia multifida var. multifida (L.) S. Gray. (associated taxon), Restigouche Co.: on bark of cedar, in mixed moist Cedar woods, along an old logging road to Antinouri Lake Brook, ~4.5 km S of Mitchell Settlement, in Jacquet River Gorge Protected Natural Area; 17 June 2009; B.A. Bagnell, 3456c; (NBM) BH-02584. Verified – SRH. Victoria Co.: originally identified as L. porphyroleuca (Nees) Schiffn.; on logs, in Woodstock; 20 August 1899; J. Macoun, 28; (YU) 206254. Revised - SRH. Lophozia bicrenata (Schmid. ex Hoffm.) Dum. Found in anthropogenic habitats, such as sandy soils of banks, ditches, gravel pits, paths, and slopes, and occasionally on outcrops in woods of Albert, Kent, Kings, Madawaska, Northumberland, Restigouche, Saint John, and Westmorland counties; appears widespread and common; 24 total records, with 19 at NBM and others at CANM, NY, and UBC; Bagnell and Bishop (2003), Belland (1992), Cole et al. (2008). Lophozia longidens (Lindb.) Macoun Found on rotting logs, tree-bases, humus, and soil in shaded forests of Albert, Madawaska, Northumberland, and Restigouche counties; all reported records are subsp. longidens; 8 total records, with 7 at NBM and 1 at UBC; Clay and Richards (1996). Lophozia obtusa (Lindb.) Evans Found on disturbed, sandy soil, often close to trails or streams in Restigouche county; 3 total records, all at NBM. Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 22 Restigouche Co.: on a soil bank alongside of a trail near Hydro Gate, just south of a canal, Campbellton, Sugarloaf Provincial Park; 15 August 1997; B.A. Bagnell, 1892a; (NBM) BH-01269. Verified - SRH. Lophozia sudetica (Nees ex Hueb.) Grolle Syn. Lophozia alpestris auct. pl., non (Shcleich. ex F. Weber) Evans; found on acidic rock faces, outcrops, and ledges in exposed habitats of Albert, Northumberland, Queens, and Restigouche counties; 11 total records, with 9 at NBM and others at CINC and UBC. Lophozia silvicola Buch Syn. Lophozia ventricosa var. silvicola (Buch) Jones; found on rocky outcrops, ledges and boulders, rotting logs and stumps, and peat in bogs or over ledges in Albert, Charlotte, Northumberland, and Restigouche counties; possibly under-reported due to previously being considered a variety of L. ventricosa (Dicks.) Dum.; 6 total records, all held at NBM. Lophozia ventricosa (Dicks.) Dum. Found on rotting logs and stumps in Albert, Carleton, Charlotte, Kent, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, and Victoria counties; 47 total records, with 28 at the NBM and others at CANM, UBC, DUKE, FH, CINC, NY, and YU; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Schuster (1969). Marchantia polymorpha L. Widespread and common in wet, anthropogenically modified habitats, such as agricultural lands, gardens, and greenhouses of all counties; 31 total records, with 26 at NBM and others at FH, MICH, NHA, and NYS. Marsupella emarginata (Ehrh.) Dum. Found on rocky outcrops and soil over boulders, in wet habitats of Albert, Charlotte, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, and York counties; all reported records are var. emarginata; 52 total records, with 33 at NBM and others at DUKE, FH, MICH, MO, NY and UBC; Clay and Richards (1996), Schuster (1969). Metzgeria conjugata Lindb. Found in on wet rocks or soil in open forests of Kent and Kings counties; rare and restricted; 2 records in total, held by DUKE and YU; Belland (1992). Kings Co.: on rocks, on Kennebecasis Island, Pickwokit; 25 August 1921; M.S. Brown, 50; (YU) 217449. Verified - SRH. Metzgeria furcata (L.) Corda Found as a pioneer on vertical granitic rock surfaces in rich deciduous woods, also on tree bases or bark, in Albert, Kings, Saint John, Westmorland, and York counties; widespread in southern half of province; all reported records are var. furcata; 28 total records, with 25 at NBM and others at DUKE, UBC, and YU; Clay and Richards (1996). Kings Co.: on base of Acer rubrum L. (Red Maple) in maple–beech–ash woods in Nawigewauk, ~2.6 km northeast of the Hammond River bridge, on Northeastern Naturalist 23 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 limestone ridge; 26 April, 2008; B.A. Bagnell, 3212b; (NBM) BH-02477. Verified - SRH. Moerckia hibernica (Hook.) Gott. Found in moist habitats, such as cedar swamps, rich fens, ditches, pond margins, and stream banks of Albert, Charlotte, Madawaska, Restigouche, and Saint John counties; probably under-collected; 6 total records, all at NBM. Mylia anomala (Hook.) S. Gray Usually associated with Sphagnum spp. in bogs, coniferous forests, and on moist ledges and banks in Albert, Charlotte, Gloucester, Kent, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Westmorland, Victoria, and York counties; widespread and common; 76 total records, with 68 at NBM and others at DUKE, NY, NYS, UBC, and YU; Belland (1992). Mylia taylori (Hook.) S. Gray Uncommon, restricted to granitic cliffs, found in Albert, Charlotte, Kings, Northumberland, Restigouche, and Saint John counties; 16 total records, with 7 at NBM and others at CANM, DUKE, FH, MO, NY, and YU. Nardia scalaris S. Gray Found on wet, rocky outcrops of Albert, Charlotte, and Saint John counties; may be restricted to fog belt of coastal habitats; all reported records are var. scalaris; 15 total records, with 4 at NBM and others at COLO, FH, ILL, NY, WIS, and YU; Schuster (1969). Nowellia curvifolia (Dicks.) Mitt. Syn. Cephalozia curvifolia (Dicks.) Dumort.; found on rotting logs and stumps, often pioneering, in all counties; 65 total records, with 41 at NBM and others at CANM, COLO, DUKE, FH, ILL, MO, NY, UBC, VT, WIS, and YU; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Cole et al. (2008), Fenton and Frego (2005). Odontoschisma denudatum (Nees ex Mart.) Dum. Found on rocks, humus, peat, tree bases, and rotting wood in boggy areas of Albert, Charlotte, Saint John, and Westmorland counties; infrequent, but probably undercollected; all reported records are var. denudatum; 13 total records, with 8 at NBM and others at DUKE, FH, and UBC; Schuster (1969). Pallavicinia lyellii (Hook.) Gray Found in wet, acidic habitats, such as bogs, lakeshores, or stream banks, of Saint John and Queens counties; rare, with restricted range; 4 total records, with 3 at NBM and 1 location unkown; Schuster (1969). Pellia epiphylla (L.) Corda Found on moist, acidic, often disturbed habitats, such as rocks in or beside water, on soil or humus beside creeks, or around pools in swamps of Albert, Charlotte, Gloucester, Kent, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Sunbury, Victoria, Westmorland, and York counties; widespread and common; 68 total Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 24 records, with 48 at NBM and others at CANM, CINC, FH, MICH, NY, NYS, UBC, and YU; Bagnell and Bishop (2003), Clay and Richards (1996), Schuster (1969). Pellia megaspora Schust. Found on wet calcareous rock surfaces or soil over rock in Restigouche county; collected only from the Kedgwick and the Upsalquitch river systems; 9 total records, all at NBM. Pellia neesiana (Gott.) Limpr. Found on moist soil, humus, or peat over river and creek banks in Albert, Carleton, Charlotte, Gloucester, Kings, Restigouche, Saint John, Victoria, and Westmorland counties; apparently widespread, but infrequent; 19 total records with 17 at NBM and others at DUKE and NY; Clay and Richards (1996). Plagiochila porelloides (Torrey ex Nees) Lindenb. Syn. Plagiochila asplenioides subsp. porelloides (Torrey ex Nees) Schust.; found on rock outcrops and boulders, tree bases, rotting wood, humus in swamps, and over soil banks in shady habitats of all counties; 139 records in total, with 100 at NBM and others at CINC, CANM, DUKE, FH, NY, NYS, UBC, and YU; Bagnell and Bishop (2003), Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Schuster (1969). Albert Co.: originally identified as Plagiochila asplenioides (L.) Dum.; on soil in woods along Kinnie Brook Trail, Fundy National Park; 45°37'N, 64°57'W; 31 August 1967; R. Ireland / L. Ley; (UBC) B96564. Revised - SRH. Queens Co.: originally identified as Plagiochila asplenioides (L.) Dum.; on stones in a brook; July 1889; J. Moser; (NY) 00094786. Revised - SRH. Victoria Co.: originally identified as Plagiochila asplenioides (L.) Dum.; on a clay bank in fir woods, 12.8 km N of Nictau; 47°20'N, 67°10'W; 10 July 1970; R. Ireland; (UBC) B96565. Revised - SRH. York Co.: originally identified as Plagiochila asplenioides (L.) Dum.; in swampy Thuja woods, 5 km N of Magundy; 45°50'N, 67°07'W; R. Ireland; (UBC) B96566. Revised - SRH. Porella pinnata L. Generally restricted to rocks or boulders submerged in flowing water, but occasionally on logs or tree bases subject to flooding, in Charlotte, Kings, and Madawaska counties; 4 total records, all at NBM. Charlotte Co.: on rock submerged in flowing water of a cold stream near the Upper Canoose Flowage; 11 June 1990; D.F. McAlpine, s.n.; L.M. Ley; (NBM) BH-00658. Verified - SRH. Porella platyphylla (L.) Pfeiff. Syn. Porella platyphylloidea (Schwein.) Lindb.; Common and widespread on hardwood trees and rotting logs in rich forests, or shaded calcareous rock outcrops and boulders in Albert, Carleton, Charlotte, Gloucester, Kent, Kings, Northumberland, Restigouche, Sunbury, Victoria, Westmorland, and York counties; 84 total records, with 68 at NBM and others at DUKE, NY, UBC, UNBSJ, and YU; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996). Northeastern Naturalist 25 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 Preissia quadrata (Scop.) Nees Found on vertical rock faces, occasionally on soil over rock with constant seepage or near water, on sandy, basic, moist soil around lake edges, in ditches or on moist banks, occasionally in calcareous swamps in Albert, Carleton, Charlotte, Kings, Northumberland, Restigouche, Saint John, and Victoria counties; 42 total records, with 34 at NBM and others at FH, NY, UBC, and YU; Clay and Richards (1996), Schuster (1969). Ptilidium ciliare (L.) Hampe Found on soil over rock outcrops, around rocks, or on rotting wood or humus in bogs of all counties; widespread and common; 76 total occurrences, with 40 at NBM and others at CANM and UBC; Bagnell and Bishop (2003), Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Cole et al. (2008), Fenton and Frego (2005), Schuster (1969). Ptilidium pulcherrimum (G. Web.) Hampe Found on decaying logs and stumps, tree bases, tree trunks and branches (often a pioneer), rocks, and cliffs in all counties; widespread and common; 78 total records, with 44 at NBM and others at CANM and UBC; Bagnell and Bishop (2003), Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Cole et al. (2008), Fenton and Frego (2005), Schuster (1969). Radula complanata (L.) Dum. Found on bark of trees and vertical faces of boulders and cliffs, occasionally on rotting logs with bark still intact, in all counties; widespread and common; 108 total records, with 90 at NBM and others at NY, FH, CANM, and UBC; Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Cole et al. (2008), Fenton and Frego (2005). Radula tenax Lindb. Rare and restricted, found on bark or rocks in damp habitats, such as ravines or gullies, in Albert and Saint John counties; 2 total records, at UBC and FH; could not obtain specimens, but UBC specimen is confirmed, as it was the only known Canadian record at the time, leading to additional verification work (B.A. Bagnell, pers. observ.); Clay and Richards (1996). Reboulia hemisphaerica (L.) Raddi Found on rock in spray zones or seepy areas of Charlotte and Sunbury counties; rare, and probably restricted; 3 total records, all at NBM. Charlotte Co.: on a rocky outcrop at base of a bluff in maple–beech woods, ~1.8 km west of Bocabec Cove, 2.6 km north of Birch Cove, at the base of the west slope of Chickahominy Mountain; 25 June 2009; B.A. Bagnell, 3535; (NBM) BH-02565. Verified - SRH. Riccardia chamedryfolia (With.) Grolle Found on soil or organics in wet depressions and marshy areas of Albert, Restigouche, and Westmorland counties; probably under-collected; 7 total records, all at NBM. Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 26 Riccardia latifrons Lindb. Found on decaying logs or peaty humus in swampy woods of Albert, Charlotte, Kings, Madawaska, Northumberland, Restigouche, Saint John, Sunbury, Victoria, and Westmorland counties; common and widespread; 28 total records, with 25 at NBM and others at CANM, UBC, and UNBSJ; Schuster (1969). Madawaska co.: on decayed softwood log in spruce plantation; Black Brook Forest District; 27 May 2011; S.R. Haughian, AI-BU-P11.3; (UNBSJ) s.n. Verified - BAB. Riccardia multifida (L.) S. Gray Found on organic substrates in shaded moist sites, also a pioneer on wet calcareous rocks in Albert, Restigouche, and Saint John counties; 7 total records, all at NBM. Riccardia palmata (Hedw.) Carruth. Found on rotting logs in moist sites of Albert and Charlotte counties; rare, may be restricted to the Fundy coast; 4 total records, at DUKE, MICH, UBC, and YU; Clay and Richards (1996). Albert Co.: falls near mouth of Ash Brook, in a low-elevation stream gully (Moosehorn Trail), Fundy National Park; 45°39'N, 64°59'W; 27 June 1992; R.J. Belland, 17920; (UBC) B149081. Verified - SRH. Riccia bifurca Hoffm. Syn. Riccia arvensis Aust.; found on moist, sandy soils in open habitats of Sunbury county; 1 record at NBM; Brown (1936), Faubert (2012), Schuster (1969). Sunbury Co.: found along a sandy bank of Oromocto River, in Oromocto; 11 September 2012; G. Bishop, s.n.; B.A. Bagnell,; (NBM) BH-2692. Verified - SRH. Riccia fluitans L. Found in shallow, slow-moving water in swamps, ponds, or ditches, or on mud or muck of ephemeral streams, of Kings, Sunbury, and Westmorland counties; not rare, but possibly restricted; 20 total records, with 19 at NBM and 1 at NYS. Kings Co.: in a shallow slough on Hammond River; 45°30'N, 65°54'W; 21 July 1971; D.S. Christie, 2574; L.M. Ley; (NBM) BH-00611. Verified - SRH. Riccia huebeneriana subsp. sullivantii (Aust.) Schust., Syn. Riccia sullivantii Aust.; found on moist peaty soil and humus of receded streams and ponds in Gloucester, Kings, Madawaska, Northumberland, Restigouche, Sunbury, and Saint John counties; widespread, but probably under-collected; 16 total records, all at NBM. Ricciocarpos natans (L.) Corda Syn. Ricciocarpus natans (L.) Corda; Found floating on the surface of still water in shallow freshwater marshes of Albert or Queens counties; rare, possibly restricted; 2 records at NBM; Faubert (2012), Schuster (1969). Albert Co.: floating on the water surface amongst Sparganium leaves under Spiraea alba Du Roi (Meadowsweet), Betula papyrifera Marshall (White Birch), Northeastern Naturalist 27 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 and Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (White Spruce) in a marsh impoundment (New Horton Marsh), ~3 km northeast of New Horton, Shepody Bay National Wildlife Area; 21 September 2004; G. Bishop, s.n.; B.A. Bagnell; BH-01774. Verified – SRH. Queens Co.: ~2.8 km northwest of Evandale, 3.1 km southeast of Hampstead, in a small floodplain wetland, not directly connected to the main river except during freshet conditions, with little emergent vegetation (just a few floating Lemna spp. around the edge), and black-stained water; 5 October 2008; Makepeace, S.; BH-02470. Verified - BAB, SRH. Scapania curta (Mart.) Dum. Found on rocks and soil, often in moist coniferous forests, in Westmorland county; rare, likely restricted; 3 total records at NBM; Schuster (1969). Westmorland Co.: on a roadside through a forest on the western outskirts of the town of Sackville; October 1973; S. Burke / H. Harries; (NBM) BH-02057. Verified - BAB, SRH. Scapania cuspiduligera (Nees) Müll. Frib. Found on calcareous rocks, soil, or humus on riverbanks, spray zones, seepy crevices, or other continuously moist sites of Restigouche, and Victoria counties; 7 total records, with 5 at NBM and others at NY and YU; Schuster (1969). Scapania gymnostomophila Kaal. Found on moist rock on riverbanks or lakeshores of Albert, Kent, and Kings counties; 5 total records, with 4 at NBM and 1 at UBC; Clay and Richards (1996). Scapania irrigua Nees Found on rocks and rotting wood in standing water of Albert, Charlotte, Kent, Kings, Madawaska, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Sunbury, and Westmorland counties; relatively common; all reported records are of subsp. irrigua; 22 total records, with 17 at NBM and others at CANM, FH, and UBC; Belland (1992). Scapania mucronata Buch. Found on rock ledges, cliff faces, and rotting wood of Albert, Charlotte, Kent, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Victoria, and Westmorland counties; probably under-collected; 18 total records, with 15 at NBM and others at CINC and CANM; Belland (1992), Fenton and Frego (2005). Scapania nemorea (L.) Grolle Syn. Scapania nemorosa (L.) Dum.; found on moist rock ledges, rocks, and rotting logs in streams and banks of Albert, Charlotte, Kent, Kings, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Sunbury, Victoria, Westmorland, and York counties; 156 total records, with 103 at NBM and others at CANM, FH, MICH, NY, and UBC; Bagnell and Bishop (2003), Belland (1992), Clay and Richards (1996), Fenton and Frego (2005), Schuster (1969). Scapania paludicola Loeske et Müll. Frib. Found on humus in sphagnum bogs, fens, or swamps of Albert, Charlotte, Kings, Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 28 Madawaska, Northumberland, Restigouche, and Westmorland counties; apparently widespread but uncommon, several collections from Shepody National Wildlife Area and Mt. Carleton PP; probably under-collected due to restricted habitat; all reported records are var. paludicola; 12 total records, with 9 at NBM and others at FH and YU; Schuster (1969). Scapania umbrosa (Schrad.) Dum. Found on wet rocky or woody surfaces in Albert, Charlotte, and Northumberland counties; ordinarily a subarctic–alpine species, and may be restricted to cooler coastal regions in the province; 11 total records, with 2 at NBM and others at COLO, CANM, DUKE, FH, ILL, NY, WIS, and YU; Faubert (2012), Schuster (1969). Scapania undulata (L.) Dum. Found on rock in or near running water of Albert, Charlotte, Gloucester, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Victoria, Westmorland, and York counties; 40 total records, with 29 at NBM and others at CANM, DUKE, FH, NY, and YU; Clay and Richards (1996), Schuster (1969). Schistochilopsis incisa (Schrad.) Konstant. Syn. Lophozia incisa (Schrad.) Dum.; common pioneer on acidic organic substrates such as rotten wood, peat, humus-covered rocks, or on wet non-calcareous rocks of Albert, Carleton, Charlotte, Kent, Kings, Restigouche, Saint John, Sunbury, Victoria, and York counties; all reported records are var. incisa; 34 total records, 14 at NBM and others at CANM, COLO, DUKE, FH, ILL, NY, UBC, WIS, and YU; Belland (1992). Schistochilopsis laxa (Lindb.) Konstant. Syn. Lophozia laxa (Lindb.) Grolle; found among Sphagnum spp. or along trails and around holes in peat bogs of Charlotte, Northumberland, Sunbury, Westmorland, and York counties; uncommon, possibly restricted; 8 total records, all at NBM. Trichocolea tomentella (Ehrh.) Dum. Found on humus and rotting wood in cedar swamps, damp stream banks, and wet woods of Albert, Carleton, Kent, Kings, Restigouche, Saint John, Victoria, Westmorland, and York counties; 34 total records, with 22 at NBM and others at CANM, COLO, DUKE, FH, NY, and UBC; Clay and Richards (1996). Tritomaria exsecta Schmidel. ex Loeske Found on rotting logs, tree bases, soil, or peat in Albert, Carleton, Charlotte, Kent, Kings, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Victoria, and Westmorland counties; probably under-collected, with 17 total records, 14 at NBM and others at FH, MICH, and YU; Belland (1992), Schuster (1969). Tritomaria exsectiformis (Breidl.) Loeske Found on rotting wood, humus, or soil over rock outcrops in Albert, Charlotte, Kings, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, Saint John, Victoria, Westmorland, Northeastern Naturalist 29 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 and York counties; probably under-collected; 27 total records, with 21 at NBM and others at CANM, UBC, and UNBSJ; Clay and Richards (1996). Tritomaria quinquedentata (Huds.) Buch Found on rocks in moist forested areas of Albert, Carleton, Kings, Restigouche, and Saint John counties; less widespread than other Tritomaria species (due to habitat requirements), but grows in more continuous patches and is therefore better-collected; all NBM collections are of subsp. quinquedentata; 28 total records, with 22 at NBM and others at CANM and YU; Clay and Richards (1996), Schuster (1969). Tritomaria scitula (Tayl.) Jörg. Found on rocky outcrops, or soil or humus over rocks in moist habitats of Albert, or Restigouche counties; 3 total records, 1 at NBM and others at MICH and UBC; Schuster (1969). Restigouche Co.: on a vertical rock outcrop exposure, in crevices on the eastern shore of Kedgwick River, ~1.3 Km downstream from Longs Gulch; 4 August 1999; B.A. Bagnell, 2147b; BH-01495. Verified - SRH. Species that Require Additional Collections or Verification Anthoceros macounii M. Howe Syn. Aspiromatus macounii (M. Howe) Schust.; found on soil and humus on ephemerally flooded shorelines; 2 possible records at NBM (1 as associated taxon), material insufficient to be conclusive; present in Nova Scotia and Quebec; Brown (1936), Faubert (2012). Sunbury Co.: along a sandy bank of Oromocto River, Oromocto; 11 September 2012; G. Bishop, s.n.; B.A. Bagnell; (NBM) BH-2691. Calypogeia neesiana (Mass. et Carest.) Müll. Found on rotting logs, peat, humus, and soil; 1 record reported at UBC, but material insufficient for determination ; present in Quebec and Maine; Faubert (2012), Schuster (1969). Kings Co.: on a soil bank along road in Thuja woods, 3.2 km S of Nauwigewauk; 45°27'N, 65°53'W; 21 July 1970; R. Ireland, 13463; L. Ley; (UBC) B25890. Specimen mostly a mix of C. muelleriana and C. fissa - SRH. Cephaloziella grimsulana (J.B. Jack) Müll. Found on moist calcareous rock, usually in exposed (e.g., subalpine) habitats; 1 possible record at NY, originally determined by A.W. Evans as Cephaloziella hampeana (Nees) Schiffn. ex Loeske, but considered C. grimsulana by R.M. Schuster; present in Quebec; Faubert (2012), Schuster (1974). Charlotte Co.: found on rocks in Schooner Cove, Campobello Island; 01 July 1902; W.G. Farlow, s.n.; A.W. Evans; Reliquiae Farlowianae 501a, (NY) 00163801. Cladopodiella francisci (Hook.) Jörg. Syn. Cephalozia francisci (Hook.) Dum.; found on moist rocks and soil; 3 possible Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 30 records at UBC, none were available for examination; present in Quebec, Nova Scotia, and Maine; Brown (1936), Faubert (2012), Schuster (1974). Diplophyllum apiculatum (Evans) Steph. Found on moist rocks in shady forest habitats; 1 possible record at CINC, with duplicate at UBC, but UBC material not consistent with D. apiculatum (see citation for D. taxifolium above); present in Quebec and Maine; Faubert (2012), Schuster (1974). Frullania brittoniae Evans Primarily an Appalachian species, found on tree bark in dry, oak–pine forests, occasionally on rock or bark in mesic forests; 1 likely record at CANM; present in Maine; Schuster (1974). Hygrobiella laxifolia (Hook.) Spruce Found on acidic rocks or gravel of stream margins in alpine/subalpine or maritime habitats; 1 possible record at UBC; present in Quebec and Nova Scotia; Brown (1936), Faubert (2012), Schuster (1974). Kurzia sylvatica (Evans) Grolle Found on rocks, wood, humus, or Sphagnum spp. in bogs; 1 possible record from Kouchibouguac National Park, location unknown; possibly present in Quebec, although reports for that province also require verification; Belland (1992), Faubert (2012). Leiocolea badensis (Gott. ex Rabenh.) Jörg. Syn. Lophozia badensis (Gott. ex Rabenh.) Schiffn.; found on moist, calcareous, rocky outcrops, primarily in exposed habitats, from Madawaska, Victoria, and Restigouche counties; 2 possible records reported, with 3 replicates of 1 at CINC, MICH, UB, and also reported at YU, but specimen not consistent with L. badensis (see L. gillmannii record above); present in Quebec and Nova Scotia; Brown (1936), Cole et al. (2008), Faubert (2012), Schuster (1969). Lophozia guttulata (Lindb. & H. Arnell) Evans Syn. Lophozia porphyroleuca (Nees) Schiffn. Evans; found on rotting logs in forested habitat, particularly in bogs; 4 possible records, 3 at UNBSJ and 1 reported at YU, but specimen not consistent with L. guttulata (see L. ascendens above); present in Maine, Nova Scotia, and Quebec; Brown (1936), Faubert (2012), Schuster (1969). Madawaska Co.: originally identified as L. longidens; on a rotting log in a 25-year-old White Spruce/Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. (Balsam Fir) plantation; 25 June 2011; S.R. Haughian, RO-ND-P5.2.1; (UNBSJ) s.n. Revised by BAB to L. ventricosa; Revised by SRH to L. guttulata. Madawaska Co.: originally identified as L. longidens; on a rotting log in a 25-year-old White Spruce/ Balsam Fir plantation; 11 May 2011; S.R. Haughian, RO-CO-2.3.3; (UNBSJ) s.n. Revised by BAB to L. ventricosa; Revised by SRH to L. guttulata. Northeastern Naturalist 31 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 Madawaska Co.: originally identified as Leiocolea badensis; on a rotting log in a 25-year-old Black Spruce/Balsam Fir plantation; May 2011; S.R. Haughian, AI-ND-11.2.1; (UNBSJ) s.n. Revised by SRH to L. guttulata. Odontoschisma sphagni (Dicks.) Dum. Found on acidic humus or among Sphagnum capitulate in open or partly wooded bogs; 3 possible records, held at FH, NY, and UBC; present in Nova Scotia; Belland (1992), Brown (1936), Schuster (1974). Scapania apiculata Spruce Found on rotting logs in shaded forest habitats, occasionally in open bogs; Northumberland curated collections known, but reported for Westmorland county by Fenton and Frego (2005); present in Maine, Nova Scotia, and Quebec; Brown (1936), Faubert (2012), Schuster (1974). Schistochilopsis capitata (Hook.) Konstant. Syn. Lophozia capitata (Hook.) Macoun; found in wet depressions and on wet soil in forests; 1 literature report for Madawaska county by Cole et al. (2008); present in Maine, Nova Scotia, and Quebec; Faubert (2012), Schuster (1969). Discussion and Conclusions We confirmed the presence of 2 hornwort and 120 liverwort species, 2 of which have at least 2 distinct varieties, for a total of 124 unique taxa in New Brunswick. This compilation represents a significant step forward for documentation of New Brunswick bryophytes. Based on data from the Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre (2014) and the Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria (2010), both the number of species and the collecting efforts for New Brunswick bryophytes lag behind nearby, similarly sized jurisdictions. However, while additional efforts are certainly required for New Brunswick, we believe this apparent difference is largely because (1) collection and documentation efforts were more widespread at an earlier time in Maine and Nova Scotia (e.g., Brown 1936), and (2) most collections from the NBM, and many from CANM and UBC, are not yet included in the Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria (2010) database, compared to larger, New England-based herbaria, which house many of the early Maine and Nova Scotia collections. In addition, our research highlights another 13 species for which additional collection and verification efforts may quickly yield further improvements in bryophyte documentation; this finding reinforces the importance of both ecological study and targeted biodiversity-monitoring commitments from institutions such as the New Brunswick Museum. Based primarily on the habitat preferences of species that require additional collection or verification work, we suggest that botanists should target surveys towards (1) old, moist and shady forests, (2) open or partially treed bogs, and (3) exposed subalpine habitats. In all 3 habitat types, the most beneficial substrata to survey will be rotting logs and calcareous rocks, particularly in locations near flowing water. In addition, efforts should be made to survey habitats that are uncommon in Northeastern Naturalist S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 32 the province, but common in adjacent regions. For example, surveying the small number of dry oak and pine forests in the province may yield confirmations or new records of such species as Frullania brittoniae. Knowledge of the biogeography of New Brunswick bryophytes would also benefit greatly from targeting undersurveyed counties, particularly Gloucester, Carleton, and Sunbury. Several species require additional study to determine varietal designations, both within collections of the NBM and more broadly. In particular, we recommend making additional collections and conducting a general re-examination of specimens of Cephaloziella rubella, Chiloschyphus pallescens, Chiloschyphus polyanthus, Diplophyllum taxifolium, Jungermannia exsertifolia, Lophozia ventricosa, and Schistochilopsis incisa. The genus Chiloschyphus in general requires clarification and re-examination due to frequently shifting concepts of varieties and species in the last several decades, while the other species have all shown additional varieties to be present in adjacent jurisdictions and may therefore also have more than one variety in New Brunswick. Although the study of liverworts and hornworts has been largely limited to a few specialized experts in the past, we believe it is important to engage with the public on liverwort documentation and conservation. Laypeople may not have the skillset to reliably determine the identity of many species, but public engagement is an important component of any biodiversity monitoring and conservation program. To this end, as well as to facilitate improved efforts of professionals, we have developed an interactive companion website for this checklist (Haughian et al. 2015). For laypeople, the website provides a brief introduction to liverworts and hornworts, and basic instructions on collecting, identifying, and preserving them. For professionals, we have included a downloadable, tabular summary of the distribution of New Brunswick species, which is hyperlinked to individual species accounts that include all of the information presented in the above checklist, as well as diagrams, photographs, and a distribution map. Knowledge of the liverwort and hornwort flora of New Brunswick has expanded considerably in recent years, and continues to do so, due largely to the collection and compilation efforts of a small number of individuals and organizations, such as the New Brunswick Museum. Although this publication represents a small effort, compared to the combined collecting and publishing efforts of many previous individuals and institutions, it is a useful step towards summarizing current knowledge, and focusing future efforts for bryophyte research in the province. Acknowledgments This project would not have been possible without financial assistance from the New Brunswick Wildlife Trust Fund, the University of New Brunswick , the Grand Lake Meadows Endowment Fund, and the New Brunswick Museum. In addition, we thank several individuals who shared their time and expertise with us: Linda Ley (Ottawa) examined several difficult specimens, Patricia M. Eckel of the Missouri Botanical Garden drew our attention to the 19th-century correspondence between J. Fowler and G.W. Clinton preserved at the Buffalo Museum of Science, and Ian MacMillan (UNBSJ) assisted with website deNortheastern Naturalist 33 S.R. Haughian, B.A. Bagnell, E. Daley, K.A. Frego, L. Smith, and S.R. Clayden 2016 Vol. 23, Monograph 13 velopment. Lastly, we thank the Herbarium of the Beaty Biodiversity Museum (University of British Columbia), the Farlow Herbarium of Harvard University, the Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden, and Yale University’s Peabody Museum for access to their New Brunswick liverwort specimens. Literature Cited Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre. 2014. Conservation ranks: New Brunswick non-vascular plants. Available online at http://www.accdc.com/index.html. Accessed 1 June 2015. Bagnell, B.A. 1995. A county checklist of the mosses of New Brunswick. New Brunswick Museum, Saint John, NB, Canada. 19 pp. . Bagnell, B.A., and G. Bishop. 2003. Inventory of bryophytes and vascular plants, Carleton Martello Tower National Historic Site, Saint John, NB, Canada. B & B Botanical, Sussex, NB. Bagnell, B.A., S.R. Clayden, and R.R. Ireland. 1993. Notes on New Brunswick and Nova Scotia mosses. Bryologist 96:439–442. 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