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Inventory of Macrolepidoptera and Other Insects in the Boston Harbor Islands National Park Area
Mark J. Mello

Northeastern Naturalist, Volume 12, Special Issue 3 (2005): 99–144

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Inventory of Macrolepidoptera and Other Insects in the Boston Harbor Islands National Park Area MARK J. MELLO 1 Abstract - Fourteen islands within the Boston Harbor Islands national park area were surveyed for Lepidoptera, Odonata, and tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae) on 67 nights during 2001 and 2002 as part of a five-year inventory of the natural resources of the park. A total of 394 macrolepidopteran species and 166 microlepidopteran species were documented nocturnally, and 51 species of butterflies, 10 of odonates, and 1 tiger beetle were observed during the daytime. Two moths listed in the Massachusetts Endangered Species Act were documented: Spartiniphaga inops (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae) and Abagrotis nefascia (J.B. Smith) (Noctuidae: Noctuinae). S. inops is resident on Worlds End, and A. nefascia on Lovells Island. Although two grassland-affiliated genera, Apamea Ochsenheimer (Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae) and Leucania Ochsenheimer (Noctuidae: Hadeninae), were well represented (13 and 8 species, respectively), the total number of macrolepidopteran species was low given the sampling effort and variety of habitats surveyed. Ambient light from Boston and surrounding cites as well as the high percentage of non-native vegetation on many of the islands are two possible factors, in addition to island biogeographic effects, resulting in reduced diversity. Introduction The Boston Harbor Islands national park area is an archipelago of 34 current or former (example: Worlds End) islands located in Boston Harbor, MA (National Park Service 2002). The Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program database (as of 1 February 2000) contained no recent records of invertebrates listed as rare in the Massachusetts Endangered Species Act (MNHESP 2000) from the municipalities of Boston, Weymouth, Hingham, or Hull in which the Boston Harbor Islands national park area is located. Although surface fresh water is scant, the range of upland habitats including grassland (both native and non-native), shrubland, early successional woodland, oak-hickory forest, white pine woodland, and non-native woodland, suggests that insect diversity might be high despite the abundance of non-native plants on many of the islands (see Elliman 2005 for list of plants by island). The early successional habitats, particularly those dominated by native grasses or shrubs, have the greatest chance of 1Lloyd Center for Environmental Studies, 430 Potomska Road, Dartmouth, MA 02748; research@thelloydcenter.org. Boston Harbor Islands National Park Area: Natural Resources Overview 2005 Northeastern Naturalist 12(Special Issue 3):99–144 100 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 harboring state-listed and other uncommon species of moths (Goldstein 1997, Wagner et al. 2003). The purpose of this study was to conduct a two-year inventory on the Boston Harbor Islands in order to produce an initial catalog of the invertebrate fauna focusing on Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies), and Cicindela Linnaeus species (tiger beetles), and to identify critical habitat for state-listed species documented within the park. Table 1. Islands, stations, and habitats sampled by portable light trap during 2001 and 2002. Number of Island Station(s) Habitat trap nights Bumpkin BI1 Sumac-dominated upland shrub 5 BI2 Sumac-dominated upland shrub Calf C1 Non-native grassland/forb 4 C2 Non-native grassland/salt marsh edge Grape GR1 Aspen/birch-dominated successional woodland 8 GR2 Wet meadow GR3 Aspen/birch-dominated successional woodland Great Brewster GB1 Non-native grassland 7 GB2 Wet meadow GB3 Aspen/birch-dominated successional woodland Long LI1 Late successional upland shrub 3 LI2 Non-native grassland/wet meadow LI3 Non-native pine Lovells LV1 Early successional mixed (non-oak) woodland 6 LV2 Sumac-dominated upland shrub/dune edge Middle Brewster MB Non-native grassland/forb 1 Outer Brewster OB Non-native grassland/forb 2 Peddocks PI1 Mixed deciduous woodland 6 PI2 Mixed non-native grassland/shrub/wet meadow PI3 Non-native grassland/forb PI4 Old field Rainsford RI1 Non-native grassland/forb 3 RI2 Mixed non-native grassland/shrub Spectacle SI Non-native grassland/forb 2 Thompson TI1 Non-native grassland/salt marsh edge 4 TI2 Freshwater marsh TI3 Oak forest Webb State Park WE Non-native grassland/forb 3 Worlds End WO1 Old field 13 WO1A Old field WO2 Oak/hickory forest WO3 Mixed forest/shrub swamp edge WO4 Native grassland/wet meadow/marsh WO5 Wet meadow/old field WO6 Old field WO7 Wet meadow/old field WO8 Wet meadow WO9 Rocky outcrop heathland WO10 Annually mowed grassland 2005 M.J. Mello 101 Study Area A complete Lepidoptera inventory of all the islands was not logistically possible within the scope of time and resources available, thus stations were established on 14 islands that were representative of habitats throughout the islands, and which might produce records of state-listed species. Based upon an initial visit to Worlds End and a tour of the islands provided by the National Park Service through the University of Massachusetts–Boston Marine Program, 10 islands were chosen for light trap inventories, and 26 stations were established therein during 2001. Additionally, 4 islands and 13 stations were incorporated into the study during 2002, for a total of 39 light trap stations across 14 islands. The sampling scheme is presented in Table 1. Methods Fieldwork for the 2001 season commenced on 3 May and ended on 30 November. Fieldwork for the 2002 season commenced on 16 May and ended on 21 November. Sixty-seven field visits covering 39 stations on 14 islands were conducted during the two-year survey (Table 2). Portable light traps were used to sample nocturnal Lepidoptera except for the October visit to Webb State Park and November visits to Worlds End. Additional sampling during these trips was conducted at a sheet illuminated by UV-emitting lamps (blacklights) and by using sugared baits during the early evening hours. Daylight surveys for insects other than moths were usually conducted after retrieving the light traps, but occasionally occurred in the evening prior to setting light traps. Light trap protocol Three portable 22-watt UV light traps charged with ethyl acetate were set in three stations one to four hours before dusk and retrieved Table 2. Number of field visits per month (one visit equals evening the trap is set to the following morning, including daytime field inventory). BI C GB GR LI LV MB OB PI RI S TI WE WO May 1 2 1 2 2 June 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 July 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 Aug. 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 Sept. 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Oct. 1 2 Nov. 2 Total 5 4 7 8 3 6 1 2 6 3 2 4 3 13 Trips BI = Bumpkin; C = Calf; GB = Great Brewster; GR = Grape; LI = Long; LV = Lovells; MB = Middle Brewster; OB = Outer Brewster; PI = Peddocks; RI = Rainsford; S = Spectacle; TI = Thompson; WE = Webb; WO = Worlds End. 102 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 three to six hours after dawn. Insects captured in traps were placed in containers labeled by station and returned to the laboratory for identification. All macrolepidopteran moths—species comprising the superfamilies Drepanoidea (hook-tip moths), Geometroidea (inchworms), Mimallonoidea (sack-bearers), Bombycoidea (silkworms), Sphingoidea (sphinxes), and Noctuoidea (prominents, tussocks, tiger moths, and owlet/cutworm moths)—were identified in each sample, and at least one voucher specimen of each species was deposited in the Lloyd Center insect collection. Counts of state-listed or otherwise uncommon species were made, the remaining species being recorded only as present. Microlepidoptera (the remaining families of generally small to tiny moths) were selectively saved when found in reasonably good condition. No attempt was made to list all microlepidopteran species from each sample as was done for nocturnal Macrolepidoptera. The numbering system and nomenclature basically follow the Moths of North America (MONA) Checklist (Hodges et al. 1983), updated with changes noted in Poole (1989) and Lafontaine (1998). Nomenclature within the noctuid subfamily Herminiinae follows the older nomenclature in MONA with the exception of the genus Macrochilo Hübner (= Hormisa Walker) (Ferguson 1982). This decision was based on comments in Poole (1989) that the subfamily is in need of revision, and subsequently several generic names used in his list may again change. The Apantesis Walker/ Grammia Rambur genera follow Ferguson (1985). Nomenclature for the Geometridae follows Scoble (1999). Vouchers of other insect species (particularly Coleoptera) were preserved, even though identifications will have to await examination by specialists for each appropriate group. These specimens were deposited into the Lloyd Center collection. Bait A mixture of beer, sugar, molasses, bananas, and grape jelly was concocted, and then painted on tree trunks prior to dusk on the two October and two November field trips to Worlds End. The trails connecting Stations WO2 and WO4 were inventoried in this manner. All Macrolepidoptera encountered were identified and vouchers preserved as necessary. Daytime surveys Butterflies, odonates, and tiger beetles were specifically sought prior to setting the light traps and/or after retrieving traps the following morning. Records are listed by island. Easily identified butterfly species were not collected; other butterflies and insects were collected and deposited into the Lloyd Center’s reference collection in the same manner as the moths. Butterfly nomenclature follows that accepted by the North American Butterfly Association (used by Glassberg 1999) and 2005 M.J. Mello 103 odonates follow that accepted by the Dragonfly Society of the Americas (Dragonfly Society of the Americas 1996). Results and Discussion Nocturnal Macrolepidoptera A total of 394 species of Macrolepidoptera were identified from the 100 light trap, blacklight, and bait samples collected during this two-year inventory: 351 species in 2001 and 267 species in 2002 (Appendix I). Only 43 species were added to the inventory list in 2002 despite the addition of four new islands and 42 additional trap-nights. Over half of the recorded species were Noctuidae (246 species, 62% of total Macrolepidoptera), followed in decreasing number by Geometridae (93 species; 24%), Notodontidae (18 species, 5%), Arctiidae (16 species, 4%), Sphingidae (9 species, 2%), and Lasiocampidae (5 species, 1%). The remaining 2% of the species were comprised of Lymantriidae (3), Saturniidae (2), Thyatiridae (2), and Drepanidae (1). Because the number of trap-nights varied significantly among the islands, the total number of species is not directly comparable island to island. The mean number of species per sample (Appendix I) on each island was biased toward islands where only a few samples were taken during the peak of the flight season. Lovells Island (33 species per trapnight) was the most diverse, followed by Grape (30), Long (23); and Worlds End, Peddocks, and Bumpkin (22 each). However, the mean number at Worlds End was significantly lowered by several late fall trap-nights with very few species during which time none of the offshore islands were sampled. However, the low mean numbers at Spectacle (7), Webb, Outer Brewster, and Rainsford (12 each), and Middle Brewster (14) mirror the lack of habitat diversity and the abundance of non-native vegetation (Elliman 2005) on those islands. State-listed species Two state-listed species were encountered: coastal heathland cutworm, Abagrotis nefascia (J.B. Smith) (Noctuidae: Noctuinae) on Lovells Island and spartina borer, Spartiniphaga inops (Grote) (Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae) at Worlds End. Both of these moths are listed as “special concern” in Massachusetts. Two A. nefascia were trapped during 2001 on Lovells Island, one at LV1 on 28 June and the other at LV2 on 6 September. As the common name implies, A. nefascia is a coastal dune/heathland species; however, it is also common on the moraine pasturelands on Block Island (Mello, unpubl. data). Lafontaine (1998) reports Amelanchier Medicus (shadbush) and Ribes aureum Pursh (an introduced wild currant) as larval hostplants, only the former known to be present in the park. It is possible that other hosts are also utilized, as most species of Abagrotis 104 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 are generalists (Lafontaine 1998). LV2 is within the shrub-dominated portion of dune habitat on Lovells Island and LV1 is nearby. Multiple records of A. nefascia suggest that sufficient habitat exists to support a colony on Lovells Island. Eight S. inops were trapped at Worlds End: five at WO7 and two at WO8 on 30 August 2001, and one at WO4 on 3 September 2002. All sites were within small patches of the larval hostplant, Spartina pectinata Bosc ex Link (freshwater cordgrass). The multiple records suggest a breeding colony that may freely intermix among the four patches of hostplant found at Worlds End, all adjacent to or north of the eastern end of Damde Meadows. Uncommon special-interest species Several uncommon or habitat-restricted species were encountered. The following nine species are either possible candidates for listing as rare in Massachusetts, or are of special interest for other reasons. Macaria coortaria (Hulst) (Geometridae: Ennominae)—four-spotted itame. Single individuals of this species were found on Peddocks Island and Lovells Island. Larval hostplants include cherry, hawthorn, and apple (Wagner et al. 2001), the latter being common on Peddocks Island. This moth is common on Block Island, but has rarely been seen by the author elsewhere in Rhode Island or Massachusetts (M.J. Mello, unpubl. data). Hyles lineata (Fabricius) (Sphingidae: Macroglossinae)—whitelined sphinx. Possibly the most widespread sphingid in North America, this species nevertheless appears to be on the decline in the northeast. The larvae feed on a diverse array of plants, so the apparent scarcity of this species is puzzling. Tietz (1972) lists 35 hostplants ranging from vines and trees to forbs, including cultivated vegetables. One individual was found on Lovells Island. Schizura apicalis (Grote & Robinson) (Notodontidae)—plain schizura. This species is generally uncommon in New England but remains relatively common on Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket, and at Montague, MA. Willow, poplar, and blueberry are listed by Tietz (1972) as larval hostplants, thus this is a mid-successional species that currently appears to be doing well only in shrub/sapling dominated habitats. Two individuals were found on Lovells Island and one at Worlds End. Based upon the abundance of poplar on Lovells, a breeding colony is present. Macrochilo louisiana (Forbes) (Noctuidae: Herminiinae). Forbes (1954) reports this species as rare except along the Gulf of Mexico. It appears to be infrequently encountered in Massachusetts; however, its small size, nondescript appearance, and habitat preference (wetlands) may be partially responsible for the paucity of records. Although unrecorded, its larval hostplant is likely a wetland grass or sedge. A 2005 M.J. Mello 105 single individual was encountered at Worlds End near the Ice Pond; however, little can be said about distribution or breeding status based on this record. Syngrapha viridisigma (Grote) (Noctuidae: Plusiinae). Two individuals were documented at Worlds End. Massachusetts is at the southern extreme for this essentially boreal species (Lafontaine and Poole 1991), but both specimens appeared to be freshly emerged, suggesting that they were not strays. The larvae feed on Pinaceae, particularly balsam fir and white spruce (Lafontaine and Poole 1991), the latter occurring at Worlds End. Ommatostola lintneri Grote (Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae). This is essentially a dune and/or salt marsh fringe species whose larvae have been recorded on Arenaria sp. (Tietz 1972), but likely feed on other dune forbs. Twenty individuals were captured at Lovells Island, suggesting a robust breeding colony on this island. Although not found elsewhere during this survey, at least Long, Calf, and Rainsford Islands appear to have suitable habitat. Dypterygia rozmani Berio (Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae)—American bird’s-wing moth. One individual was found at Worlds End, Station 7. Although widely distributed, this species is considered uncommon (Covell 1984) and appears to have declined in Massachusetts. The closely related European D. scabriuscula (Linnaeus) uses docks and smartweeds as the larval hostplant, and such may be the case for D. rozmani. Although found across Massachusetts (Hampden and Norfolk Counties), most recent records are from Cape Cod, Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket. This is an early successional species. Euxoa scandens (Riley) (Noctuidae: Noctuinae). Two individuals were documented at Lovells Island. Although larvae of this dry soil species feed on a variety of plants, including vegetables, fruit trees, grapes, and oaks (Lafontaine 1987), it appears to be restricted to sandy areas in Massachusetts, and is found primarily on Cape Cod, Martha’s Vineyard, and Nantucket. This species is a good sand barrens indicator species, and its appearance at Lovells Island in appropriate habitat on two different dates suggests the presence of a breeding colony. Eurois astricta Morrison (Noctuidae: Noctuinae). This is a northern species at the southern terminus of its range in Massachusetts (Lafontaine 1998). One individual was encountered at Peddocks Island. Larvae feed on a variety of trees and shrubs, and although uncommon in Massachusetts, the species is not particularly habitat-restricted in most of its range. The presence of a single specimen provides little insight to its breeding status within the Boston Harbor Islands. In addition to the species above, 13 grass-feeding Apamea Ochsenheimer (Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae) and eight Leucania Ochsenheimer (Noctuidae: Hadeninae) species (Appendix I) were 106 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 documented during this survey and reflect the presence of extensive grassland habitat—a habitat that is declining in Massachusetts. Non-native species Eight Macrolepidoptera that are not native to North America were documented within the Boston Harbor Islands during this study. Idaea dimidiata (Hufnagel) (Geometridae: Sterrhinae). Introduced from Europe, I. dimidiata was first recorded in Canada and the United States (New York) in 1967 (Handfield 1999) from whence it spread southward. This species is now found throughout our area. It was recorded on Great Brewster, Lovells, Peddocks, and Rainsford Islands, as well as at Worlds End. Chloroclystis rectangulata (Linnaeus) (Geometridae: Larentiinae)— green pug. This European species was recorded from North America in 1970 (Nova Scotia; Ferguson 1972), with the first United States record from Massachusetts in 1983 (Ferguson and Mello 1996). It is now well distributed throughout southern New England. Within the park area, it was recorded on Bumpkin, Great Brewster, Lovells, and Peddocks Islands as well as on Worlds End. Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) (Lymantriidae: Lymantriinae)— gypsy moth. Introduced from Europe in the early 1900s, gypsy moths are now a pest throughout the eastern states. This species was found on Great Brewster, Grape, Lovells, Peddocks, and Rainsford Islands as well as on Worlds End. Apamea ophiogramma (Esper) (Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae)—double lobed. An introduction from Europe to North America (Troubridge and Fitzpatrick 1992), this species reached the east coast by the mid-1990s. It was encountered only at Rainsford Island. Oligia strigilis (Linnaeus) (Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae)—marbled minor. This European species, originally introduced from Europe to Canada in the 1980s, was recorded in Quebec by 1990 (Handfield 1999). It was recorded in Massachusetts for the first time in 2001 simultaneously during this survey and in Wellfleet on Cape Cod (M.W. Nelson, pers. comm.). The park area records are probably the first United States records as well. The species appeared at Bumpkin, Great Brewster, and Lovells Islands, and was particularly abundant at Worlds End. Rhizedra lutosa (Hübner) (Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae). First documented in the United States in New Jersey during 1988 (McCabe and Schweitzer 1991), this Phragmites-feeding European import is now well distributed along coastal portions of Massachusetts. It occurred at Great Brewster Island and Worlds End. Calophasia lunula (Hufnagel )(Noctuidae: Cuculliinae). Introduced to Canada from Europe in 1968 to control “butter and eggs” (Linaria vulgaris Hill, Scrophulariaceae), this species has spread southward 2005 M.J. Mello 107 through Massachusetts and New York (Rings et al. 1992) to Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia. It occurred only at Great Brewster Island during this survey. Noctua pronuba Linnaeus (Noctuidae: Noctuinae). Introduced from Europe to Nova Scotia about 1979 (Neron and Lequalt 1992), the author recorded the first Massachusetts specimen on Cape Cod in 1989. Subsequently, the species has exploded in distribution and abundance, now being one of our more common cutworms. It was recorded everywhere during this survey except on Great Brewster and Long Islands, where its apparent absence is likely due to limited sampling effort. Microlepidoptera A selective sampling of 166 microlepidopteran species was documented in the park (Appendix II). An additional 40–50 specimens await identification to species level. The majority of specimens belong to the Pyralidae and the Olethreutinae (Tortricidae). This is due both to the large number of species in these two families as well as the generally larger size of species therein that allowed them to remain in identifiable condition in the light traps. The smallest of the microlepidopteran species were generally destroyed beyond recognition by the trapping method used in this study. Because distribution and abundance data are inadequate for most microlepidopteran species, none are listed as rare in Massachusetts. Butterflies A combined total of 51 species of butterflies were documented within the park by Brian Cassie at Worlds End (pers. comm.) and by this survey (Appendix III). No state-listed species were encountered, and all but Atrytonopsis hianna (Scudder) (dusted skipper) are common and widespread or emigrant visitors. Atrytonopsis hianna was documented at Worlds End near the summit of Rocky Neck on 15 June 2001 where the larval hostplant, Schizachyrium scoparium (Michaux) Nash (little bluestem grass), occurs in scattered clumps among the rocky outcrops. Twelve species recorded by Cassie were not recorded within the park area during this survey; and two species, the aforementioned A. hianna and Poanes viator (W.H. Edwards) (broad-winged skipper), were recorded during this survey but were not reported by Cassie. Appropriate breeding habitat exists for both species, thus they are likely residents despite being recorded at Worlds End for the first time in 2001. This suggests the possibility that additional butterfly species are yet to be recorded within the park. All the species observed on the other islands throughout Boston Harbor were documented at Worlds End, either by Cassie or during this survey. Four of the 12 species recorded by Cassie, Battus philenor (Linnaeus) (pipevine swallowtail), Euptoieta claudia (Cramer) (variegated fritillary), Nymphalis vau-album (Denis 108 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 & Schiffermüller) (Compton tortoise shell), and Atalopedes campestris (Boisduval) (sachem), are strays or seasonal residents only. Possibly the most habitat-restricted resident species added by Cassie is Boloria selene (Denis & Schiffermüller) (silver-bordered fritillary), a denizen of bogs and wet meadows of which there are few within the park area. Other insects The only tiger beetle encountered during this study was Cicindela sexguttata Fabricius (six-spotted tiger beetle), which was observed at Worlds End on trails near Ice Pond on Rocky Neck. Relatively few (11) species of Odonata were documented by the author; however, an e-mail was forwarded to me concerning observations of a multi-species swarm at Worlds End on the evening of 13 August that added an additional four species (Appendix IV). The author had not observed any evening swarms at Worlds End while setting up the light traps either before or after this date; however, there was a large daytime swarm of Pantala Hagen at Lovells Island on 7 September. Although sampling was limited, the paucity of odonates may be related to the lack of fresh water within the park; however, feeding swarms of the larger, migratory odonates were expected over the fields of Worlds End. Status of Boston Harbor national park area Macrolepidoptera Eighteen years of mercury vapor light-trap data (over 1000 trapnights) from a single location at the Lloyd Center, Dartmouth, MA, initiated in 1983 have documented 708 species of nocturnal Macrolepidoptera (Mello, unpubl. data). Assuming this number represents a nearly complete record (1 to 3 additional species per year were added during the last half-dozen years) for a single site in southeastern Massachusetts, the 351 species recorded during the first year (2001) of this survey might represent at least 50% of the total nocturnal macrolepidopteran fauna potentially present within the Boston Harbor Islands national park area. Based on multi-year surveys with a season-long sampling effort similar to that on the Boston Harbor Islands national park area conducted at other sites such as Massachusetts Military Reservation (Mello 1998a,b), Fort Devens (Mello and Peters 1992), and others, a second year of sampling added 50 to 100 additional species. Thus, the 43 species added to the Harbor Islands inventory in 2002 is low, suggesting that the 351 species documented in 2001 represent more than a 50% estimate for the total nocturnal macrolepidopteran fauna. A confounding factor is the overall brightness of the sky from the lights of Boston and adjacent suburbs that affected all locations. Brighter ambient illumination may negatively affect the effectiveness of traps, reducing total species captured as well as number of individual moths. Worlds End, although the most diverse of all the islands, was substantially less diverse than a mixed woodland/ 2005 M.J. Mello 109 forested wetland site far from competing lights surveyed in Exeter, RI, during 2001 (Mello and Weed 2001). Table 3 lists the mean number of species in 2001 for all Boston Harbor Islands, Worlds End only, and the Rhode Island site. Except in October, Worlds End was half to a third less diverse than the Rhode Island site. Habitat diversity alone cannot explain this discrepancy. Reduced diversity due to island biogeographic effects may also result in lower diversity than sites of similar area on the adjacent mainland; however, a quantitative analysis of these effects is beyond the scope of this paper. Although this study has documented a substantial portion of the macrolepidopteran fauna, additional sampling is required to produce a complete species list for Boston Harbor Islands national park area. All the islands surveyed are within five miles of the Hingham/Cohasset mainland, the closest towns where sizable undeveloped areas occur, and generally within a half-mile of the nearest neighboring island (except for the Brewsters, which are about a mile from Lovells). It is therefore likely that breeding species found on any one of the islands could colonize any of the other islands where appropriate habitat and larval hostplants exist. A potential species list for each island would not require an intensive survey effort on each. Local extirpations and subsequent recolonizations undoubtedly occur over time on the smaller islands. As an ecological unit, the source population for most species would be the aforementioned Hingham/Cohasset area, which includes the peninsula of Worlds End, the largest undeveloped “island” within the harbor islands complex. Using plant data from Elliman (2005), a comparison of potential number of Macrolepidoptera based upon presence of probable larval hostplants, percent exotic plants, and island size (acres) is presented in Figure 1. Although number of plant species generally declines with island size, the number of potential Macrolepidoptera present declines less sharply. Peaks in percent of exotic plants, however, are almost invariably associated with decreased potential species richness of nocturnal Macrolepidoptera. The data are not sufficient for statistical analysis; however, it is suggestive that presence of exotic plants reduces the number of Macrolepidoptera potentially present. In order to test this, the relative abundance (percent cover) of exotics would be needed. Table 3. Comparison of the number species of nocturnal Macrolepidoptera captured per month in 2001 for Boston Harbor Islands national park area (BOHA), Worlds End only, and a site in Rhode Island. May June July August September October BOHA 16 44 21 29 17 9 Worlds End 23 54 25 31 - 9 Rhode Island 48 82 55 45 27 8 110 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 Abagrotis nefascia, although documented only at Lovells Island, may occur on other islands with suitable habitat. Marginal coastal dune/ shrubland habitat exists on Long, Calf, and Bumpkin Islands, as well as at Webb State Park. The mowed fields at Worlds End do not appear to support A. nefascia, but the grass/heathland at the summit of Rocky Neck is potential habitat. Total acreage of habitat throughout the Boston Harbor Islands, however, will be very limited, thus potential extirpations and recolonizations among islands would be expected. The distribution of Spartiniphaga inops is determined by the distribution of its sole hostplant Spartina pectinata. Because S. pectinata is apparently restricted to four colonies (Elliman, pers. comm.) at Worlds End, this limits the entire distribution of S. inops within the park. Although total habitat thus defined is less than an acre, the number of S. inops trapped (8) suggests that a breeding population exists. What is not known is the distribution of S. pectinata within freshwater marshes near Worlds End. The field containing the northernmost patch of S. pectinata is regularly mowed. If the site was to remain unmowed, it would rapidly succeed to woody vegetation, thus displacing the hostplant altogether. Thus, the mowing helps maintain S. pectinata in this northern patch, which is marginal habitat for this wetland grass. The southern patch at WO4 appears to be mowed less frequently and is dominated by a higher percentage of native grasses. S. pectinata occurs near the wetland boundary of a large marsh (Damde Meadows) dominated by Phragmites. Figure 1. Potential number of nocturnal Macrolepidoptera species (based on presence of documented hostplants), number of plant species, percent of exotic plant species, and acreage in comparison with decreasing rank of islands based on size. Islands by decreasing size Number 2005 M.J. Mello 111 In summary, Worlds End and Lovells Island seem to contribute the most to overall insect biodiversity and are providing significant habitat for state-listed and other uncommon species within the Boston Harbor Islands. It should be understood, however, that this assumption is based on only two years of data collection, and that species unique to other islands may still be found. Future needs and conservation recommendations This inventory provides significant information on the insect fauna, particularly Lepidoptera, Odonata, and tiger beetles, but it is merely the beginning of an understanding of the invertebrate ecology of the Boston Harbor Islands. Additional surveys are required. Maintaining a species-rich macrolepidopteran fauna throughout the Boston Harbor Islands is tightly coupled with maintaining diverse habitats and hostplant associations. Future vegetation management programs for the islands should strongly consider control of invasive non-native plants and maintenance of specific plant communities. For example, periodic mowing can be used to maintain Spartina pectinata habitat at Worlds End—habitat required for Spartiniphaga inops. However, under no circumstances should these areas be mowed from late spring through late summer, the period from when S. inops larvae are feeding in the stems through when adults are laying eggs. To maximize macrolepidopteran species richness and minimize negative impacts on these and other invertebrates, a strategy should be adopted to mow fields at multiple year intervals (not annually) and to alternate the time of mowing. Maintenance of early successional shrub habitats should be part of a vegetation management plan for the Boston Harbor Islands. Abagrotis nefascia may be using Amelanchier (shadbush) and other members of the Rosaceae as hostplants, thus maintenance of this shrub habitat in conjunction with a reduction of sumac would be particularly beneficial at Lovells and possibly Gallops, Calf, Grape, Long, and Bumpkin Islands. Acknowledgments I would like to thank Lloyd Center interns, Darrah Healey and Aaron Weed, who assisted with fieldwork and specimen preparation, and Amber Texeira for data management. We also thank the University of Massachusetts– Boston ferry captains for their patience and helpfulness with the logistics of island hopping. Finally, I thank Michael Nelson for providing citations for some of the introduced Macrolepidoptera. Support for this study was provided by the National Park Service in cooperation with the Island Alliance and the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, and by Wingwalker Initiatives. 112 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 Literature Cited Covell, Jr., C.V. 1984. A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., New York, NY. 496 pp. Dragonfly Society of the Americas. 1996. Common names of North American dragonflies and damselflies. Argia 8(2):Appendix. August 1996. Elliman, T. 2005. Vascular flora and plant communities of the Boston Harbor Islands. Northeastern Naturalist 12(Special Issue 3):49–74. Ferguson, D.C. 1972. The occurrence of Chloroclystis rectangulata (L.) in North America (Geometridae). Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 26(4):220–221. Ferguson, D.C. 1982. A revision of the genus Macrochilo Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Entomography 1:303–332. Ferguson, D.C. 1985. Contributions toward the reclassification of the world genera of the tribe, Arctiini, Part 1—Introduction and revision of the Neoarctia–Grammia group (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae; Arctiinae). Entomology 3:181–275 Ferguson, D.C., and M.J. Mello. 1996. The introduction and spread of Chloroclystis rectangulata (L.) (Geometridae), and the first reported occurrences in the United States. Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 50(2):145–148. Forbes, W.T.M. 1954. The Lepidoptera of New York and Neighboring States. Noctuidae. Part III. Cornell University Experiment Station Memoir 329. July 1954. 433 pp. Glassberg, J. 1999. Butterflies through Binoculars. The East. Oxford University Press, New York, NY. 242 pp., 71 plates Goldstein, P.Z. 1997. Lepidopteran assemblages and the management of sandplain communities on Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts. Pp. 217–236, In P.D. Vickery and P.W. Dunwiddie (Eds.). Grasslands of Northeastern North America. Massachusetts Audubon Society. Lincoln, MA. Handfield, L. 1999. Le Guide des Papillons du Quebec (version scientifique). Broquet, Inc., Quebec, PQ, Canada. 984 pp., 121 plates. Hodges, R.W.T., Dominick, D.R. Davis, D.C. Ferguson, J.G. Franclemont, E.G. Monroe, and J.A Powell. 1983. Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E.W. Classey and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, London, UK. xxiv + 284 pp. Lafontaine, J.D. 1987. Noctuoidea. Noctuidae (part). Noctuinae (Part - Euxoa). In The Moths of America North of Mexico Including Greenland, Fascicle 27.2. Wedge Entomological Research Foundation,Washington, DC. 237 pp., 32 monochrome pl., 8 color pl. Lafontaine, J.D. 1998. Noctuoidea. Noctuidae (part). Noctuinae (Part - Noctuini). In The Moths of America North of Mexico Including Greenland, Fascicle 27.3. The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington, DC. 348 pp., 36 monochrome pl., 8 color pl. Lafontaine, J.D., and R.W. Poole, 1991. Noctuoidea, Noctuidae (part). Plusiinae. In The Moths of America North of Mexico Including Greenland, Fascicle 25.1. The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation,Washington, DC. 182 pp., 18 monochrome pl., 4 color pl. MNHESP (Massachusetts Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program). 2000. Massachusetts List of Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Species. 321 CMR 10.03. Database as of 1 February 2000. 2005 M.J. Mello 113 McCabe, T.L., and D.F. Schweitzer 1991. Rhizedra lutosa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) newly introduced to North America. Entomological News 102:130–132. Mello, M.J. 1998a. Survey of National Guard property at Concord Airport, Concord, NH for state-listed and other rare Lepidoptera at proposed construction and mitigation sites. Lloyd Center Report No. 98-3 (unpublished) to the New Hampshire Army National Guard. Mello, M.J. 1998b. Inventory of state-listed Lepidoptera and other insects at Massachusetts Military Reservation 1996–1998. Final report to The Massachusetts Army National Guard. Lloyd Center Report No. 99-2 (unpublished). Mello, M.J., and E. Peters. 1992. Survey of Lepidoptera at Fort Devens with notes on Sudbury Annex. Report to the MA Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program. Lloyd Center Report No. 92-3 (unpublished). Mello, M.J., and A. Weed. 2001. Survey of Macrolepidoptera and other insects at Queen River and Pojac Barrens Preserves in Rhode Island, with notes on state property adjacent to Queen River. Report to Rhode Island Field Office of The Nature Conservancy. Lloyd Center Report No. 2001-6 (unpublished). National Park Service. 2002. Boston Harbor Islands: A national park area. General management plan. Northeast Region. Boston, MA. 192 pp. Neron, D., and P. Lequalt. 1992. Extension d’aire de Noctua pronuba Linne (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) des Maritimes jusqu’a Montreal. Fabreries 17(2):150–154. Poole, R.W. 1989. Lepidopterorum Catalogus. Noctuidae. Parts 1–3. Fascicle 118. E.J. Brill, New York, NY. 1314 pp. Rings, R.W, E.H. Metzler, F.J. Arnold, and D.H. Harris. 1992. The Owlet Moths of Ohio. Order Lepidoptera, Family Noctuidae. Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin New Series 9(2):vi + 219 pp. Scoble, M.J. (Ed.). 1999. Geometrid moths of the world: A catalogue. Canberra, Australia: Apollo Books, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. 1016 p. + 129 pp.. index. Tietz, H.M. 1972. An Index to the Described Life Histories, Early Stages, and Hosts of the Macrolepidoptera of the Continental United States and Canada. Volumes 1 and 2. The Allyn Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, fl. 1041 pp. Troubridge, J.T., and S.M. Fitzpatrick. 1992. Apamea ophiogramma Esper, a Palearctic cutworm new to North America (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Canadian Entomologist 124(1):109–112. Wagner, D.L., D.C. Ferguson, T. McCabe, and R.C. Reardon. 2001. Geometroid Caterpillars of Northeastern and Appalachian Forests. USFS. Technological Transfer Bulletin. FHTET2001-10. USDA, Washington, DC. 239 pp. Wagner, D.L., M.W. Nelson, and D.F. Schweitzer. 2003. Shrubland Lepidoptera of southern New England and southeastern New York: Ecology, conservation, and management. Forest Ecology and Management 185(2003):95– 112. 114 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 Appendix I. Summary of Macrolepidoptera by island documented at Boston Harbor Islands national park area during 2001 and 2002. # = occurrences, not number of individuals. BU = Bumpkin, CA = Calf, GB = Great Brewster, GR = Grape, LG = Long, LV = Lovells, MB = Middle Brewster, OB = Outer Brewster, PE = Peddocks, RA = Rainsford, SP = Spectable, TH = Thompson, WB = Webb, WE = Worlds End. MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total THYATIRIDAE 6235 Habrosyne scripta 1 1 2 2 6237 Pseudothyatira 1 1 1 2 1 3 cymatophoroides DREPANIDAE 6255 Oreta rosea 1 1 4 4 2 6 GEOMETRIDAE 6258 Alsophila pometaria 1 1 1 6261 Heliomata cycladata 1 1 2 2 6270 Protitame virginalis 1 4 2 2 1 6 4 10 6273 Macaria pustularia 1 2 2 1 3 4 5 9 6299 Macaria coortaria 2 1 2 1 3 6326 Macaria aemulataria 1 2 1 3 7 7 6340 Macaria minorata 1 4 4 1 5 6342 Macaria bisignata 1 1 1 4 3 4 7 6343 Macaria sexmaculata 2 1 1 2 6347 Macaria pinistrobata 1 1 1 6348 Macaria fissinotata 1 1 1 6352 Macaria granitata 1 1 1 6362 Digrammia continuata 5 2 3 5 2005 M.J. Mello 115 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 6386 Digrammia ocellinata 4 4 4 6570 Aethalura intertexta 2 1 1 2 6583 Iridopsis ephyraria 1 1 1 6588 Iridopsis larvaria 2 2 2 6590 Anavitrinella pampinaria 2 4 1 8 9 6 15 6597 Ectropis crepuscularia 1 2 1 2 2 5 12 1 13 6598 Protoboarmia porcelaria 1 2 6 8 1 9 6599 Epimecis hortaria 1 1 1 6620 Melanolophia canadaria 2 2 1 3 3 8 3 11 6621 Melanolophia signataria 1 2 1 3 4 3 7 6640 Biston betularia cognataria 1 1 1 6654 Hypagyrtis unipunctata 1 1 3 4 1 5 6667 Lomographa vestaliata 1 3 1 1 1 4 3 8 11 6668 Lomographa glomeraria 1 1 2 3 1 4 6677 Cabera erythemaria 1 1 1 6720 Lytrosis unitaria 1 1 2 2 6724 Euchlaena serrata 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 6 6725 Euchlaena muzaria 1 1 1 3 3 6739 Euchlaena irraria 1 1 1 3 3 6740 Xanthotype urticaria 1 1 2 2 6743 Xanthotype sospeta 1 1 2 2 6753 Pero honestaria 1 4 1 1 2 3 6 9 6754 Pero hubneraria 1 6 1 1 3 5 9 8 17 6763 Nacophora quernaria 2 2 2 6796 Campaea perlata 1 2 1 1 1 7 8 5 13 6798 Ennomos subsignaria 1 1 1 2 1 3 6804 Petrophora subaequaria 1 1 1 116 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 6807 Tacparia detersata 1 1 1 6815 Gueneria similaria 1 1 1 1 2 6819 Metanema inatomaria 1 4 3 1 5 4 9 6822 Metarranthis duaria 1 2 1 3 1 4 6823 Metarranthis angularia 1 1 1 2 1 3 6825 Metarranthis indeclinata 1 1 1 6826 Metarranthis hypochraria 1 1 1 1 3 6 1 7 6832 Metarranthis obfirmaria 2 2 2 6836 Plagodis pulveraria occiduaria 1 1 1 3 3 6842 Plagodis phlogosaria 1 1 1 6843 Plagodis fervidaria 2 1 1 2 6844 Plagodis alcoolaria 1 1 1 6864 Caripeta piniata 1 1 1 6885 Besma quercivoraria 4 3 1 4 6941 Eusarca confusaria 2 1 2 9 10 4 14 6963 Tetracis crocallata 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 1 2 8 6 14 6964 Tetracis cachexiata 1 1 1 4 3 1 2 5 8 13 6966 Eutrapela clemataria 1 4 1 4 5 5 10 6974 Patalene olyzonaria puber 1 1 6 6 2 8 6982 Prochoerodes lineola 1 2 9 8 4 12 6987 Antepione thisoaria 2 5 2 2 1 9 3 12 7009.1 Nematocampa resistaria 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 2 7 7046 Nemoria bistriaria 2 1 6 7 2 9 7047 Nemoria rubrifrontaria 1 1 2 2 7048 Nemoria mimosaria 2 1 1 3 1 4 7053 Dichorda iridaria 1 1 1 3 3 7058 Synchlora aerata 1 1 1 1 2 2005 M.J. Mello 117 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 7071 Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria 1 1 4 5 1 6 7126 Idaea dimidiata 1 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 7 6 13 7132 Pleuroprucha insulsaria 2 2 1 1 1 10 9 8 17 7136 Cyclophora packardi 2 2 2 7139 Cyclophora pendulinaria 4 6 4 6 10 7146 Haematopsis grataria 1 1 1 7159 Scopula limboundata 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 4 10 4 14 7169 Scopula inductata 1 1 1 3 3 7196 Eulithis diversilineata 1 1 2 3 1 4 7197 Eulithis gracilineata 2 1 1 2 Hydriomena sp. 1 1 4 4 2 6 7290 Coryphista meadii 1 1 1 1 2 7292 Rheumaptera prunivorata 1 2 1 4 6 2 8 7388 Xanthorhoe ferrugata 1 1 2 2 7390 Xanthorhoe lacustrata 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 5 73-- Xanthorhoe sp. (not above) 1 1 1 7399 Euphyia unangulata 1 3 1 1 3 3 6 7414 Orthonama obstipata 1 2 3 3 2 2 9 12 10 22 7416 Costaconvexa 2 2 4 3 1 5 7 10 17 centrostrigaria 7437 Operophtera bruceata/brumata 3 2 1 3 7531 Eupithecia indistincta 1 1 5 4 3 7 Eupithecia spp. (not above) 2 1 1 5 2 4 4 1 14 24 10 34 7625 Chloroclystis rectangulata 1 1 2 3 2 3 2 2 1 4 9 12 21 7635 Acasis viridata 1 1 1 7640 Lobophora nivigerata 3 1 2 3 118 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total URANIIDAE 7653 Calledapteryx dryopterata 1 1 1 LASIOCAMPIDAE 7670 Tolype velleda 1 1 1 7673 Tolype laricis 2 1 1 2 7687 Phyllodesma americana 1 1 1 7698 Malacosoma disstria 1 2 1 1 3 2 5 7701 Malacosoma americanum 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 7 4 11 SATURNIIDAE 7746 Automeris io 1 1 1 3 3 7758 Actias luna 1 1 1 SPHINGIDAE 7775 Manduca sexta 1 1 1 7810 Sphinx gordius/poecila 3 2 1 3 7821 Smerinthus jamaicensis 4 2 2 4 7824 Paonias excaecatus 2 3 1 1 1 5 3 8 7825 Paonias myops 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 7870 Sphecodina abbottii 1 1 1 7871 Deidamia inscripta 2 1 1 2 7886 Darapsa pholus 1 2 3 3 7894 Hyles lineata 1 1 1 NOTODONTIDAE 7895 Clostera albosigma 2 1 1 2 7901 Clostera apicalis 1 1 1 7915 Nadata gibbosa 1 3 7 9 2 11 7917 Hyperaeschra georgica 1 4 3 2 5 2005 M.J. Mello 119 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 7920 Peridea angulosa 1 4 5 5 7921 Peridea ferruginea 1 1 2 2 7922 Pheosia rimosa 1 7 1 6 3 9 7931 Gluphisia septentrionis 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 3 8 11 7936 Furcula borealis 1 1 1 1 2 7937 Furcula cinerea 1 1 1 7951 Symmerista albifrons 1 1 1 7990 Heterocampa umbrata 2 2 2 7994 Heterocampa guttivitta 2 1 3 2 4 6 7995 Heterocampa biundata 2 1 2 1 3 7998 Lochmaeus manteo 1 1 1 8007 Schizura unicornis 4 3 1 4 8009 Schizura apicalis 1 1 2 2 8011 Schizura leptinoides 1 2 3 3 ARCTIIDAE 8045.1 Crambidia pallida 6 4 2 6 8118 Holomelina opella 2 6 6 2 8 8129 Pyrrharctia isabella 2 2 1 1 1 4 3 7 8133 Spilosoma latipennis 1 1 2 2 8134 Spilosoma congrua 4 1 3 4 4 8 8137 Spilosoma virginica 1 2 1 1 3 2 5 8140 Hyphantria cunea 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 5 3 8 8169 Apantesis phalerata 1 2 1 1 1 1 11 10 8 18 8171 Apantesis nais 1 1 7 5 4 9 8171.1 Apantesis carlotta 7 3 4 7 8196 Grammia parthenice 3 2 1 3 8197 Grammia virgo 1 1 1 120 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 8203 Halysidota tessellaris 1 2 1 2 2 1 7 2 9 8230 Cycnia tenera 1 1 1 8238 Euchaetes egle 3 1 2 3 8267 Cisseps fulvicollis 1 1 1 2 4 1 5 LYMANTRIDAE 8302 Dasychira obliquata 1 1 1 8316 Orgyia leucostigma 2 1 1 1 1 4 2 6 8318 Lymantria dispar 2 1 1 2 1 4 10 1 11 NOCTUIDAE 8322 Idia americalis 2 3 4 4 2 1 10 18 8 26 8323 Idia aemula 1 1 1 2 7 6 6 12 8326 Idia rotundalis 1 1 2 3 1 4 8328 Idia julia 1 1 1 1 2 8334 Idia lubricalis 1 2 2 1 3 8338 Phalaenophana pyramusalis 1 1 1 8345 Zanclognatha laevigata 2 2 2 8347 Zanclognatha obscuripennis 1 1 2 2 8349 Zanclognatha protumnusalis 1 1 2 2 Zanclognatha sp. nr. protumnusalis 1 1 1 8351 Zanclognatha cruralis 1 1 1 1 2 8353 Zanclognatha ochreipennis 2 1 4 4 3 7 8355 Chytolita morbidalis 1 3 4 4 8356 Chytolita petrealis 2 2 2 8357 Macrochilo absorptalis 2 1 4 1 1 1 9 1 10 8360 Macrochilo orciferalis 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 8 8 8361 Macrochilo louisiana 1 1 1 2005 M.J. Mello 121 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 8362 Phalaenostola metonalis 1 1 1 8364 Phalaenostola larentioides 1 1 3 2 2 1 5 9 6 15 8368 Tetanolita floridana 1 1 1 8370 Bleptina caradrinalis 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 1 1 3 11 10 21 8378 Renia salusalis 1 1 1 2 1 3 8379 Renia factiosalis 1 1 1 8381 Renia discoloralis 4 3 1 4 8384.1 Renia flavipunctalis 1 1 1 1 2 6 9 3 12 8387 Renia sobrialis 1 1 2 4 7 1 8 8393 Lascoria ambigualis 1 1 2 2 2 4 8397 Palthis angulalis 3 1 1 4 3 8 9 11 20 8398 Palthis asopialis 1 1 2 1 3 4 8401 Redectis vitrea 1 1 2 2 8404 Rivula propinqualis 1 1 1 8442 Bomolocha baltimoralis 1 1 2 2 2 4 8465 Plathypena scabra 1 1 1 1 1 4 5 4 9 8479 Spargaloma sexpunctata 1 1 1 8490 Pangrapta decoralis 6 4 2 6 8491 Ledaea perditalis 6 4 2 6 8499 Metalectra discalis 2 1 1 2 8500 Metalectra quadrisignata 1 1 1 8522 Gabara subnivosella 2 2 2 8555 Scoliopteryx libatrix 1 1 1 8587 Panopoda rufimargo 3 1 2 2 4 8591 Phoberia atomaris 1 1 1 8689 Zale lunata 1 2 2 1 3 8694 Zale aeruginosa 1 1 1 122 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 8695 Zale undularis 1 1 1 8697 Zale minerea 3 2 2 3 5 8703 Zale duplicata 1 1 2 2 8713 Zale lunifera 1 1 1 8717 Zale horrida 3 2 1 3 8721 Allotria elonympha 1 1 1 8738 Caenurgina crassiuscula 2 4 2 5 5 1 2 4 2 2 2 9 22 18 40 8739 Caenurgina erechtea 1 1 2 3 1 2 1 1 1 3 7 9 16 8778 Catocala habilis 1 1 1 8784 Catocala obscura 1 1 1 8795 Catocala palaeogama 1 1 1 8801 Catocala ilia 1 1 1 1 4 4 8802 Catocala cerogama 1 1 1 8805 Catocala unijuga 1 2 3 3 8847 Catocala gracilis 1 1 1 8849 Catocala andromedae 1 1 1 8857 Catocala ultronia 1 2 5 5 3 8 8864 Catocala grynea 1 2 1 4 4 8889 Agrapha oxygramma 1 1 1 8890 Pseudoplusia includens 1 1 1 2 2 3 5 8898 Allagrapha aerea 1 1 2 2 8907 Megalographa biloba 1 1 1 2 1 3 8908 Autographa precationis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 5 9 8924 Anagrapha falcifera 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 7 11 10 21 8926 Syngrapha octoscripta 2 1 1 2 8927 Syngrapha epigaea 2 1 1 2 8929 Syngrapha viridisigma 1 1 1 2005 M.J. Mello 123 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 8955 Marathyssa inficita 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 6 5 11 8957 Paectes oculatrix 1 1 1 8970 Baileya ophthalmica 2 2 2 8972 Baileya levitans 2 1 1 2 8983 Meganola minuscula 2 2 2 8983.1 Meganola phylla 1 1 1 8992 Nola triquetrana 1 1 1 8996 Nola clethrae 2 2 2 9038 Hyperstrotia villificans 3 3 3 9047 Lithacodia muscosula 3 2 2 3 6 4 10 9048 Lithacodia albidula 1 1 1 2 1 3 9049 Lithacodia synochitis 1 2 3 2 2 3 1 3 6 11 17 9053 Lithacodia carneola 3 1 3 1 2 6 4 10 9062 Cerma cerintha 1 1 1 1 4 4 9065 Leuconycta diptheroides 2 1 3 3 9090 Tarachidia candefacta 1 1 1 9193 Raphia frater 1 5 3 1 6 4 10 9205 Acronicta lepusculina 1 1 1 9207 Acronicta innotata 1 1 1 9228/9 Acronicta furcifera/hasta 1 1 2 4 4 9238 Acronicta lobeliae 1 1 2 2 9243 Acronicta ovata 1 1 1 9259 Acronicta noctivaga 1 1 1 9264 Acronicta longa 1 1 2 2 9272 Acronicta oblinita 1 1 1 9285 Polygrammate hebraeicum 1 1 1 124 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 9299 Eudryas unio 2 1 1 2 9326 Apamea verbascoides 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 5 9328 Apamea nigrior 1 1 1 9329 Apamea cariosa 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 6 9332 Apamea vulgaris 1 2 1 2 3 9333 Apamea lignicolora 1 1 1 9348 Apamea amputatrix 1 1 1 3 3 9351 Apamea alia 1 1 1 9353 Apamea inordinata 1 1 2 2 9364 Apamea finitima 1 2 1 2 2 4 6 9367 Apamea dubitans 2 1 2 2 3 5 Apamea ophiogramma 1 1 1 9378 Apamea burgessi 1 1 1 9382 Apamea devastator 1 1 1 9391 Luperina passer 1 2 2 1 3 9393 Luperina stipata 5 3 2 5 9395 Ommatostola lintneri 1 1 1 1 2 9404 Oligia modica 1 1 1 1 2 9406 Oligia fractilinea 1 3 2 2 4 940- Oligia strigilis 1 2 3 3 1 1 3 6 8 14 9419 “Oligia” mactata 1 1 1 9433 Xylomoia chagnoni 1 1 1 9435 Spartiniphaga inops 3 2 1 3 9441 Hypocoena enervata 1 3 3 1 4 9453 Helotropha reniformis 1 2 1 4 4 9454 Amphipoea velata 3 1 2 1 1 1 2 8 3 11 2005 M.J. Mello 125 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 9457 Amphipoea americana 2 2 1 5 7 3 10 9483 Papaipema inquaesita 1 1 2 2 9520 Achatodes zeae 1 1 1 1 2 Rhizedra lutosa 1 4 3 2 5 9545 Euplexia benesimilis 2 1 1 2 2 4 9546 Phlogophora iris 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 5 9547 Phlogophora periculosa 1 1 1 9549 Enargia decolor 1 1 1 9550 Enargia infumata 1 1 1 3 3 9556 Chytonix palliatricula 1 1 1 1 2 9560 Dypterygia rozmani 1 1 1 9578 Hyppa xylinoides 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 5 9582 Nedra ramosula 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 9619 Phosphila miseloides 2 2 2 9631 Callopistria mollissima 1 1 2 2 9637 Magusa orbifera 2 2 2 2 7 15 15 9638 Amphipyra pyramidoides 1 2 1 1 1 1 15 14 8 22 9639 Amphipyra tragopoginis 1 1 1 1 2 9647 Athetis miranda 1 2 2 4 1 5 9650 Anorthodes tarda 1 1 1 1 3 1 4 9663 Balsa tristrigella 1 1 1 3 5 1 6 9664 Balsa labecula 2 1 2 4 1 5 9665 Spodoptera exigua 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 9666 Spodoptera frugiperda 2 1 1 1 5 5 9669 Spodoptera ornithogalli 1 1 2 2 2 4 9678 Elaphria versicolor 3 1 2 2 4 126 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 9681 Elaphria festivoides 1 2 1 1 3 4 9688 Galgula partita 3 2 1 4 1 3 1 13 26 2 28 9690 Platysenta videns 1 1 1 9696 Platysenta vecors 1 1 1 9699 Platysenta sutor 1 1 1 9815 Cosmia calami 1 1 2 2 9818 Amolita fessa 1 1 1 9821 Amolita roseola 1 1 1 9904 Lithophane querquera 1 1 1 9929 Pyreferra hesperidago 1 1 1 Pyreferra sp. (not above) 1 1 1 1 9933 Pyreferra pettiti 1 1 1 9936 Eupsilia morrisoni 2 1 1 2 9939 Eupsilia devia 1 1 1 9945 Metaxaglaea semitaria 2 2 2 9946 Epiglaea decliva 3 2 1 3 9950 Chaetaglaea sericea 1 1 1 9952 Eucirroedia pampina 1 1 1 9957 Sunira bicolorago 8 7 1 8 9965 Xanthia togata 1 1 1 10177 Calophasia lunula 1 1 1 10223 Discestra trifolii 1 1 2 2 10288 Polia detracta 1 1 1 1 4 4 10291 Polia latex 1 1 1 1 3 1 4 10300 Spiramater grandis 1 1 1 2 1 3 10301 Spiramater lutra 1 1 1 3 3 2005 M.J. Mello 127 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 10304 Lacanobia legitima 1 1 1 10307 Lacanobia lilacina 1 1 1 3 3 10368 Lacinipolia meditata 1 2 1 1 3 4 10393 Lacinipolia teligera 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 5 7 12 10397 Lacinipolia renigera 1 2 2 3 2 1 2 1 1 11 13 13 26 10405 Lacinipolia lorea 1 2 1 1 4 1 5 10431 Faronta diffusa 2 1 1 3 1 4 10436 Aletia oxygala 2 3 2 2 1 2 4 8 12 10438 Pseudaletia unipuncta 4 3 3 5 4 6 1 1 8 2 2 22 40 21 61 10440 Leucania linita 1 2 1 1 1 2 4 5 7 12 10444 Leucania phragmitidicola 1 2 4 2 1 1 2 4 9 13 10446 Leucania lapidaria 2 2 1 2 1 1 5 4 9 10447 Leucania commoides 1 2 2 6 10 1 11 10449 Leucania insueta 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 5 3 8 10459 Leucania inermis 1 5 5 1 6 10461 Leucania ursula 1 2 1 1 4 4 5 9 10462 Leucania pseudargyria 1 1 2 2 10487 Orthosia rubescens 1 1 1 10490 Orthosia revicta 1 1 1 10495 Orthosia hibisci 1 1 1 10501 Crocigrapha normani 1 4 1 2 3 6 5 11 10502 Himella intractata 1 1 3 3 2 5 10517 Egira alternans 1 1 1 2 4 1 5 10518 Achatia distincta 1 1 1 10520 Morrisonia evicta 1 1 2 2 2 4 10521 Morrisonia confusa 1 2 1 3 6 1 7 10524 Nephelodes minians 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 6 8 10 18 128 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 10532 Homochlodes furfurata 1 1 1 10563 Protorthodes oviduca 2 1 1 2 2 4 10567 Ulolonche culea 1 2 1 6 6 4 10 10569 Ulolonche modesta 1 1 2 2 10578 Pseudorthodes vecors 1 1 1 1 2 10585 Orthodes majuscula 1 3 5 2 1 1 2 7 8 15 10587 Orthodes cynica 1 2 2 5 1 3 2 1 1 5 12 11 23 10627 Tricholita signata 1 1 1 1 8 5 7 12 10641 Agrotis vetusta 1 2 1 2 3 10648 Agrotis gladiaria 2 1 1 1 3 2 5 10651 Agrotis venerabilis 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 10658 Agrotis stigmosa 1 1 1 10663 Agrotis ipsilon 3 2 3 3 1 5 1 4 1 2 12 22 15 37 10670 Feltia jaculifera 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 7 7 14 10674 Feltia subgothica 1 3 2 2 4 10676 Feltia herilis 1 3 2 2 2 1 8 7 12 19 10680 Feltia geniculata 2 1 1 2 10705 Euxoa messoria 1 1 1 10715 Euxoa scandens 1 1 1 2 1 1 5 6 10803 Euxoa velleripennis 1 1 1 10805 Euxoa tessellata 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 4 6 10 10838 Euxoa detersa 2 1 1 2 10891 Ochropleura implecta 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 6 10903 Euagrotis illapsa 1 1 1 3 3 3 6 10915 Peridroma saucia 1 3 1 3 4 4 8 10928 Graphiphora augur 1 1 1 10929 Eurois occulta 1 4 2 3 5 2005 M.J. Mello 129 MONA# and Species BU CA GB GR LG LV MB OB PE RA SP TH WB WE 2001 2002 Total 10930 Eurois astricta 1 1 1 10942 Xestia c-nigrum 1 1 3 3 2 1 6 5 11 10942 Xestia dolosa 1 3 1 4 1 3 1 2 2 5 9 14 23 10944 Xestia smithii 2 1 1 1 1 8 9 5 14 10950 Pseudohermonassa bicarnea 1 2 1 6 4 6 10 10955 Agnorisma badinodis 1 1 1 1 3 4 3 7 10994 Cerastis tenebrifera 1 1 2 2 11006 Protolampra brunneicollis 1 2 1 2 3 11010 Lycophotia phyllophora 1 1 1 Noctua pronuba 3 4 4 4 3 8 1 2 5 2 1 3 1 16 32 25 57 11029 Abagrotis alternata 1 1 1 2 2 3 5 11031 Abagrotis nefascia 2 2 2 11043 Abagrotis cupida 1 1 1 11063 Pyrrhia umbra 1 1 1 11068 Helicoverpa zea 1 2 2 1 2 4 2 10 12 11072 Heliothis phloxiphagus 1 1 1 11128 Schinia arcigera 5 3 2 5 Total # records 109 79 129 295 115 265 14 24 178 36 13 88 24 822 1320 871 2191 Total # species 87 59 83 155 81 152 14 18 119 30 13 66 23 280 351 267 395 Total # sample nights 5 4 7 10 5 8 1 2 8 3 2 5 2 38 58 42 100 Mean # species per sample 22 20 18 30 23 33 14 12 22 12 7 18 12 22 23 21 22 130 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 Appendix II. List of Microlepidoptera documented at Boston Harbor Islands national park area during 2001 and 2002 combined. BI = Bumpkin Island, GI = Grape Island, MB = Middle Brewster Island, RI = Rainsford Island, WE = Webb State Park, C = Calf Island, LI = Long Island, OB = Outer Brewster Island, S = Spectacle Island, WO = Worlds End (stations 1/1a through 10), GB = Great Brewster Island , LV = Lovells Island, PI = Peddocks Island, TI = Thompson Island. WO MONA # Species 1/1a 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BI C GB GR LI LV MB OB PI S TI WE TINEIDAE Amydria sp. x OECOPHORIDAE 911 Bibarrambla allenella x 951 Machimia tentoriferella x 1011 Antaeotricha schlaegeri x x 1014 Antaeotricha leucillana x x 1015 Antaeotricha osseella x 1046 Callima argenticinctella x x COLEOPHORIDAE 1387 Coleophora spissicornis x Coleophora sp. x COSMOPTERIGIDAE 1619 Walshia (near) similis x GELECHIIDAE 1858 Telephusa longifasciella x 1985 Gnorimoschema gallaeasterella x x 2075 Chionodes fluvialella x x PLUTELLIDAE 2366 Ypsolopha dentella x x 2005 M.J. Mello 131 WO MONA # Species 1/1a 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BI C GB GR LI LV MB OB PI S TI WE YPONOMEUTIDAE 2401 Atteva punctella x x x 2420 Yponomeuta multipunctella x SESIIDAE 2549 Synanthedon scitula x COSSIDAE 2700 Zeuzera pyrina x x TORTRICIDAE: OLETHREUTINAE 2701 Episimus argutanus x 2738 Endothenia hebesana x x 2763 Apotomis albeolana x 2783 Olethreutes zelleriana x 2785 Olethruetes atrodentata x 2788 Olethreutes inornata x x x 2800 Olethreutes nigrana x x 2810 Olethreutes sericorana x 2817 Olethreutes permundana x x x 2821 Olethreutes appendicea x x 2821.1 Olethreutes (near) “appendicea” x x 2823 Olethreutes fasciatana x x x 2860 Hedya separatana x 2862 Hedya nubiferana x 2867.1 Rhyacionia (near) buoliana x 2898 Petrova gemistrigulana x 2927 Phaneta ochrocephala x 2928 Phaneta raracana x x x 2929 Phaneta ochroterminata x x x x 132 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 WO MONA # Species 1/1a 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BI C GB GR LI LV MB OB PI S TI WE 2933 Phaneta marmontana x 2937 Phaneta parmatana x x x 3000 Phaneta infimbriana x 3116 Eucosma dorsisignatana x x x 3120 Eucosma derelecta x x 3142 Eucosma cataclystiana x x Eucosma strobana x Eucosma n. sp. (in manuscript) x 3172 Epiblema strenuana x 3186 Epiblema scudderiana x x 3208 Notocelia trimaculata x 3211 Notocelia culminana x x x 3310 Epinotia transmissana x 3230 Proteoteras aesculana x 3333 Epinotia timidella x 3354 Ancylis nubeculana x 3359 Ancylis metamelana x x 3374.1 Ancylis n.sp. (near) “comptaria” x 3495 Ecdytolopha punctidiscana x x 3497 Ecdytolopha insiticiana x TORTRICIDAE: TORTRICINAE 3503 Croesia semipurpurana x x 3504 Croesia curvalana Acleris sp. 3594 Pandemis limitata x x 3597 Argyrotaenia velutinana x x x 3602 Argyrotaenia pinatubana x 3623 Argyrotaenia quercifoliana x 3625 Argyrotaenia mariana x x 2005 M.J. Mello 133 WO MONA # Species 1/1a 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BI C GB GR LI LV MB OB PI S TI WE 3632 Choristoneura fractivittana x 3635 Choristoneura rosaceana x x x x x x x 3637 Choristoneura conflictana x 3658 Archips purpurana x x 3660 Archips grisea x 3672 Syndemis afflictana x x 3688 Ptycholoma peritana x 3688.1 Ptycholoma (near) “peritana” x x 3693.1 Xenotemna (near) pallorana x x 3697 Sparganothis lycopodiana x x x 3704 Sparganothis distincta x x x 3711 Sparganothis unifasciana x 3720 Sparganothis reticulatana x x x x 3722 Sparganothis directana x 3732 Platynota flavedana x x x x 3739.1 Platynota calidana x x 3740 Platynota idaeusalis x TORTRICIDAE: TORTRICINAE: COCHYLINI 3769 Thyraylia bunteana x x 3774 Henricus contrastanus x ZYGAENIDAE 4624 Harrisina americana x LIMACODIDAE 4652 Tortricidia testacea x 4654 Tortricidia flexuosa x 4659 Packardia geminata x 4665 Lithacodes fasciola x x x x x 134 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 WO MONA # Species 1/1a 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BI C GB GR LI LV MB OB PI S TI WE 4669 Apoda biguttata x 4671 Prolimacodes badia x 4681 Isa textula x 4697 Euclea delphinii x PYRALIDAE 4748 Munroessa icciusalis x 4794 Eustixia pupula x 4846 Hellula rogatalis x x 4895 Chalcoela iphitalis x 4897 Evergestis pallidata x x Sclerocona acutellus x x 4935 Saucrobotys fumoferalis x 4936 Saucrobotys futilalis x x 4937.1 Sclerocoma acutellus x x x 4949 Ostrinia nubilalis x x x x x 4950 Fumibotys fumalis x x x 4951 Perispasta caeculalis x 4953 Phlyctaenia coronata tertialis x x x x 4975 Achyra rantalis x x x 5017 Loxostege cerealis x x 5079 Udea rubigalis x x x 5117 Loxostegopsis merrickalis x x x x x x x 5143 Diacme adipaloides x x 5156 Nomophila nearctica x x x x x 5159 Desmia funeralis x 5160 Desmia maculalis x x x 5169 Hymenia perspectalis x 5170 Spoladia recurvalis x x 5176 Anageshnia primordialis x 2005 M.J. Mello 135 WO MONA # Species 1/1a 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BI C GB GR LI LV MB OB PI S TI WE 5177 Apogeshna stenialis x 5182 Blepharomastix ranalis x x x 5226 Palpita magniferalis x 5241 Pantographa limata x x x x 5275 Herpetogramma pertextalis x 5277 Herpetogramma theseusalis x 5279.1 Herpetogramma n. sp. (Wagner) x 5357 Crambus leachellus x x 5361 Crambus albellus x 5362 Crambus agitatellus x 5378 Crambus laqueatellus x x x 5379 Crambus luteolellus x x 5381 Crambus caliginosellus x x 5391 Chrysoteuchia topiaria x x 5399 Agriphila ruricolella x x x 5403 Agriphila vulgivagella x x x 5413 Pediasia trisecta x x x x x x 5420 Microcrambus elegans x 5439 Thaumatopsis pexella x x 5451 Parapediasia teterrella x x x 5464 Urola nivalis x x x x x x 5465 Vaxi auratella x x 5524 Hypsopygia costalis x x 5526 Herculia intermedialis x 5530 Herculia binodulalis x x x 5533 Herculia olinalis x x x x x 5552 Galasa nigrinodis x x x 5566 Arta statalis x 5571 Condylolomia participalis x x 136 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 WO MONA # Species 1/1a 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BI C GB GR LI LV MB OB PI S TI WE 5577 Epipaschia superatalis x x x 5606 Tetralopha asperatella x 5629 Aphomia sociella x x 5630 Aphomia terrenella x 5654 Acrobasis amplexella x 5659 Acrobasis palliolella x 5663 Acrobasis kearfottella x 5664 Acrobasis caryae x 5665 Acrobasis elyi x 5673 Acrobasis angusella x 5674 Acrobasis demotella x 5677 Acrobasis normella x 5746 Pima boisduvaliella x 5747 Pima albiplagiatella x 5783 Ortholepis pasadamia x x 5787 Meroptera pravella x x x 5797 Nephopterix virgatella x PTEROPHORIDAE 6091 Geina periscelidactylus x 6092 Geina tenduidactyla x 6102 Trichoptilus lobidactylus x 6213 Oidaematophorus laterodactylus x x 6216.1 Oidaematophorus (near) sulphureodactylus x x x 6234 Emmelina monodactyla x 2005 M.J. Mello 137 Appendix III. Summary of butterflies documented at Boston Harbor Islands national park area (2001 and 2002). Data from Worlds End provided by Brian Cassie (BC) up to 2001. BI = Bumpkin Island, GR = Grape Island, MB = Middle Brewster, RI = Rainsford Island , WE = Webb State Park, C = Calf Island, LI = Long Island, OB = Outer Brewster , SI = Spectacle Island, WO = Worlds End, GB = Great Brewster, LV = Lovells Island , PI = Peddocks Island, TI = Thompson Island, WO/BC = Brian Cassie Records. All BOHA Species BI C GB GR LI LV MB OB PI RI SI TI WE WO Total WO/BC Records PAPILIONIDAE Battus philenor x x Pipevine swallowtail Papilio polyxenes 1 1 3 5 x x Black swallowtail Papilio glaucus 1 1 1 2 5 x x Tiger swallowtail Papilio troilus 1 1 x x Spicebush swallowtail PIERIDAE Pieris rapae 1 1 4 6 2 3 2 6 1 1 2 1 6 36 x x Cabbage white Colias philodice 1 1 2 5 1 3 13 x x Clouded sulphur Colias eurytheme 2 1 2 4 4 1 2 2 1 6 25 x x Orange sulphur 138 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 All BOHA Species BI C GB GR LI LV MB OB PI RI SI TI WE WO Total WO/BC Records LYCAENIDAE Lycaena phlaeas 1 1 2 x x American copper Satyrium calanus x x Banded hairstreak Satyrium caryaevorum x x Hickory hairstreak Satyrium liparops 1 1 x x Striped hairstreak Strymon melinus 2 2 x x Gray hairstreak Everes comyntas 1 1 2 2 6 x x Eastern tailed-blue Celastrina ladon 1 2 1 4 x x Spring azure Celastrina “neglecta” 3 3 x x Summer azure NYMPHALIDAE Euptoieta claudia x x Variegated fritillary Speyeria cybele 1 1 2 x x Great spangled fritillary Boloria selene x x Silver-bordered fritillary 2005 M.J. Mello 139 All BOHA Species BI C GB GR LI LV MB OB PI RI SI TI WE WO Total WO/BC Records Phyciodes tharos 1 3 4 x x Pearl crescent Euphydryas phaeton 1 1 x x Baltimore checkerspot Polygonia interrogationis 4 1 2 7 x x Question mark Nymphalis vau-album x x Compton tortoiseshell Nymphalis antiopa 2 1 1 4 x x Mourning cloak Vanessa atalanta 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 2 14 x x Red admiral Vanessa virginiensis 2 4 1 3 10 x x American lady Vanessa cardui 1 2 5 8 x x Painted lady Junonia coenia x x Common buckeye Limenitis arthemis astyanax 1 1 x x Red-spotted purple Limenitis archippus 1 1 x x Viceroy Megisto cymela 1 2 3 x x Little wood satyr Coenonympha tullia inornata 2 2 x x Inornate ringlet 140 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 All BOHA Species BI C GB GR LI LV MB OB PI RI SI TI WE WO Total WO/BC Records Cercyonis pegala 3 1 3 7 x x Common wood nymph Danaus plexippus 1 5 1 1 2 5 15 x x Monarch HESPERIIDAE Epargyreus clarus 2 2 x x Silver-spotted skipper Thorybes pylades x x Northern cloudywing Erynnis juvenalis 1 1 2 x x Juvenal’s duskywing Erynnis baptisiae x x Wild indigo duskywing Ancyloxypha numitor 1 1 x x Least skipper Thymelicus lineola 1 1 2 2 1 7 x x European skipper Hesperia sassacus x x Indian skipper Hesperia leonardus x x Leonard’s skipper Polites peckius 2 2 x x Peck’s skipper Polites themistocles 1 1 x x Tawny-edged skipper 2005 M.J. Mello 141 All BOHA Species BI C GB GR LI LV MB OB PI RI SI TI WE WO Total WO/BC Records Polites mystic 1 1 2 x x Long dash Wallengrenia egeremet 1 1 x x Northern broken dash Atalopedes campestris x x Sachem Atrytone delaware 1 1 x x Delaware skipper Poanes hobomok 1 1 2 x x Hobomok skipper Poanes viator 1 1 x Broad-winged skipper Euphyes vestris 2 2 x x Dun skipper Atrytonopsis hianna 1 1 x Dusted skipper Total # species 2 2 8 11 5 8 2 1 18 5 4 5 3 36 39 49 51 Number of observation dates* 2 1 5 6 3 6 2 1 6 1 2 4 1 8 48 *Not including dates when no butterflies were seen. 142 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 Appendix IV. List of odonates documented at Worlds End and Lovells Island during Boston Harbor Islands survey, 2001. FG/DP = sight records from Dennis Peacock via Fred Goodwin; mjm = Mark Mello. Worlds End Lovells Month May June August September Total Day 4 15 15 2 13 13 16 16 30 31 7 records Locality Ice Pd. 2nd Drum Rocky N. Ice Pd. upl. fields wet mead. Ice Pd. Rocky N. Ice Pd. Ice Pd. Lovells all Species Observer mjm mjm mjm mjm FG/DP FG/DP mjm mjm mjm mjm Island sites ZYGOPTERA LESTIDAE Lestes congener X 1 Lestes disjunctus X 1 Lestes rectangularis X 1 COENAGRIONIDAE Ischnura posita X X X 3 ANISOPTERA AESHNIDAE Aeshna clepsydra 1 1 Aeshna constricta 4+ 1 Aeshna umbrosa 2+ 1 Aeshna verticalis 2+ 1 Aeshna spp. 200+ - Anax junius 30+ X X X 4 Anax spp. (likely junius) 8+ 25+ - 2005 M.J. Mello 143 Worlds End Lovells Month May June August September Total Day 4 15 15 2 13 13 16 16 30 31 7 records Locality Ice Pd. 2nd Drum Rocky N. Ice Pd. upl. fields wet mead. Ice Pd. Rocky N. Ice Pd. Ice Pd. Lovells all Species Observer mjm mjm mjm mjm FG/DP FG/DP mjm mjm mjm mjm Island sites Basiaeschna janata X 1 Gomphaeschna furcilla X 1 LIBELLULIDAE Erythemis simplicicollis X X 2 Pantala flavescens 20+ X 1 Pantala hymenaea X 1 Sympetrum rubicundulum X X X X 4 Total # identified species 1 1 1 1 6 1 4 2 1 4 4 15 144 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 12, Special Issue 3 Photo: Two non-native invasive species, cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) and purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), Spectacle Island. (Morss photo) Photo: Cormorant and gull rookery, Middle Brewster Island. (Morss photo)