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The Vascular Flora of the Old Cahawba Forever Wild Tract, Dallas County, Alabama
T. Wayne Barger, Brian D. Holt, Linda Derry, and Jonathan Matthews

Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 13, Issue 2 (2014): 288–316

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Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 288 2014 SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST 13(2):288–316 The Vascular Flora of the Old Cahawba Forever Wild Tract, Dallas County, Alabama T. Wayne Barger1,*, Brian D. Holt1, Linda Derry2, and Jonathan Matthews2 Abstract - The Old Cahawba Forever Wild Tract (OCFWT) is a 1216-ha property that was acquired by the State of Alabama Forever Wild Program in August 2009. The OCFWT is characterized by Black Belt prairie pockets, upland dry/calcareous forest, Pinus taeda (Loblolly Pine) plantations, and bottomland/floodplain forest. The property lies 14 km southwest of Selma, AL, and is bordered to the northeast by the Cahaba River. The site is managed by the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources with an emphasis on recreational use and habitat management. An intensive floristic study of this area was conducted from January 2010 through July 2013. A total of 691 taxa (690 species) from 411 genera and 139 families were collected, with 280 taxa being county records. Asteraceae was the most-collected family with 74 species. Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Cyperaceae were the next most-represented families with 63, 57, and 29 species, respectively. Quercus was the most-collected genus, represented by 13 species and two named hybrids. One hundred and thirty-three non-native species were collected during the surveys. One introduced species, Oxalis brasiliensis G. Lodd, was determined to be a North American record. Plant collections were deposited at the Alabama Natural Heritage Section Herbarium (ALNHS), with duplicates deposited at the Anniston Museum of Natural History Herbarium (AMAL), Jacksonville State University Herbarium (JSU), and Auburn University Herbarium (AUA). Introduction The Forever Wild Program was originally established in 1992 by an Alabama constitutional amendment (Satterfield and Waddell 1993); the program was overwhelmingly reauthorized (75% of the popular vote) by a statewide referendum vote in 2012. The program provides public lands for recreational use along with conservation of vital habitat. Since its inception, the Forever Wild Program, managed by the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (AL-DCNR), has purchased approximately 93,600 ha (231,300 acres) of land for general recreation, nature preserves, additions to wildlife management areas, and state parks. For each Forever Wild tract purchased, a management plan providing guidelines and recommendations for the tract must be in place within a year of acquisition. The 1217-ha (3007-acre) Old Cahawba Forever Wild Tract (OCFWT) was acquired on 29 August 2009. The parcel includes a portion of the Big Swamp Creek drainage near its western boundary and is bounded to the northeast by the longest free-flowing river in Alabama, the Cahaba River. 1State Lands Division, Natural Heritage Section, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 64 North Union Street, Montgomery, AL 36130. 2Old Cahawba Archaeological Park, 9518 Cahaba Road, Orrville, AL 36767. *Corresponding author - wayne_barger@ Manuscript Editor: Jovonn Hill Southeastern Naturalist 289 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 The OCFWT abuts the historic grounds of Old Cahawba Archaeological Park, the site of Alabama’s first state capital (1819–1825). This 286-ha (707-acre) property, located at the confluence of the Cahaba and Alabama Rivers, is also owned by the State of Alabama and was included in this study. The combined study area of the two properties is 1503 ha (3714 acres) and will be referred to hereafter as the OCFWT. This study represents the first systematic inventory of the vascular flora for these areas and provides many county records for Dallas County, which has a poorly surveyed flora. With a few notable exceptions (Barone and Hill 2007, Campbell and Seymour 2011, Gunn 1985), the flora of the Black Belt in both Alabama and Mississippi remain poorly surveyed. Much of the prairie land located in the Black Belt has been lost (Barone 2005), with land-use changes driving this loss. The remaining fragments are dwindling and face threats from agricultural use, residential and commercial development, exotic and invasive species, woody encroachment, and erosion. Description of Study Area The 1503-ha study site is located in central, rural Dallas County, AL (32.293– 32.337°N, 87.096–87.169°W; Fig. 1). Elevations on the tract range from 30 m to approximately 80 m above sea level. In 2010, Dallas County had an estimated population of 43,820 and total area of 2535 km2, resulting in a relatively low population density of 17 people per km2 (US Census Bureau 2013). Located approximately 14 km southwest of Selma (Dallas County, AL) and 74 km west of Montgomery (Montgomery County, AL), the OCFWT was acquired in order to secure and restore dwindling Blackland Prairie habitat and also to offer a myriad of recreational opportunities to the public. The OCFWT lies within the upper Coastal Plain physiographic province and is located at the nexus of three Level IV Ecoregions: 1) Blackland Prairie, 2) Flatwood Blackland Prairie Margin, and the riverway-influenced 3) Floodplains and Low Terraces (Griffith et al. 2001, NatureServe 2013). The vegetation and undulating terrain of the OCFWT consists of remnant prairie pockets that are surrounded by mixed hardwood forests, Pinus taeda L. (Loblolly Pine) plantations, pastureland, and steep cliffs near the Alabama and Cahaba Rivers. The calcareous soils of the tract are Cretaceous/Tertiary-aged soils characterized by pockets of poorly drained, heavy clay soils that are sticky when wet and highly contractible upon drying (T.W. Barger, pers. observ.). The parcel consists of sandy, flat floodplains; steep chalky riverbanks; riverswamp forests of Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. (Bald-Cypress)/oak/tupelo; and steep uplands, mostly supporting Loblolly Pine monocultures (USDA NRCS 2013). The termperature for the area averages a July and August high of 33 °C and a January low of 2 °C, with an average of 235 frost-free days per year ( 2013). Rainfall averages approximately 135 cm (53 inches) per year; typically, March is the wettest month and October is the driest ( 2013). Estimations of area occupied by the different plant communities present on the OCFWT are approximately as follows: 10% Prairie Land (generally Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 290 composed of Andropogon spp., Desmanthus illinoensis [Illinois Bundleflower], Juniperus virginiana [Eastern Red-cedar], Rosa bracteata [Macartney Rose], Schizachyrium scoparium [Little Bluestem], Silphium perplexum [Old Cahawba Rosinweed]); 5% Upland Dry Hardwood/Calcareous Forest (generally composed of Carya spp. [hickories], Quercus spp. [oaks]); 65% Ruderal/Impacted/Loblolly Monoculture (generally comprised of Ligustrum sinense [Chinese Privet], Liquidambar styraciflua [American Sweetgum], Liriope spicata [Creeping Liriope], Melia azedarach [Chinaberry], Loblolly Pine, Populus deltoides [Eastern Cottonwood], Rubus spp. (blackberries), and Smilax spp. [greenbriers]); and 20% Bottomland/Mixed Floodplain Forest (generally composed of Acer spp. [maples], Celtis laevigata [Sugarberry], Fraxinus caroliniana [Carolina Ash], Magnolia virginiana var. australis [Sweetbay], Nyssa sylvatica [Blackgum], oaks, and Sabal minor [Dwarf Palmetto]). Figure 1. Location and surrounding land use of the Old Cahawba Forever Wild Tract and Archaeological Park in Dallas County, AL. Southeastern Naturalist 291 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 Historical Land Use Once a bustling center of American commerce, the town of Cahawba (sometimes mistakenly spelled Cahaba) and the adjacent land of the Forever Wild Tract were the epicenter of the fourth wealthiest US county (Dallas County, AL) per capita in 1860. Now a ghost-town, Cahawba served as Alabama’s state capital from 1819–1825. However, Cahawba’s impact on the surrounding land is still evident with railroad embankments, roadways, homesteads, antebellum plantations, and early settler/Civil War-era cemeteries. One pioneering farming family, the Kirkpatricks, rose to prominence after the Civil War by becoming early adopters of crop diversification (their lands included large pecan orchards, saddle horses, hogs, a large dairy, and other row crops) (Meador 2009). This diversification from cotton had a major impact on the landscape of the area, demonstrated today by remnants of the immense pecan orchards. Today, intense row-crop farming, roadways, and Loblolly Pine plantations have further fragmented this area. Methods The systematic sampling of the OCFWT flora was conducted from January 2010 through July 2013. The study area was surveyed utilizing a modified meandering method similar to that of Goff et al. (1982). When possible, plants were collected in a manner (i.e., top-snatched) that was non-destructive for the populations sampled. Because of the size of the OCFWT, the natural divisions of the property, and the frequency of survey visits, we were able to thoroughly sample the tract. Voucher specimens were collected and identified by the authors. Verifications were subsequently made by Dan Spaulding, Curator of the Anniston Museum of Natural History and deposited at the Natural Heritage Section Herbarium (ALNHS). We deposited duplicates at the Anniston Museum of Natural History Herbarium (AMAL), Jacksonville State University Herbarium (JSU), and Auburn University Herbarium (AUA). Plant identifications, comparison of related species, and state records were determined using the following: Alabama Plant Atlas (Kral et al. 2013); Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States (Weakley 2013); Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle (Clewell 1985); Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern United States. Dicotyledons (Godfrey and Wooten 1981); Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern United States. Monocotyledons (Godfrey and Wooten 1979); Manual of the Grasses of the United States. Volumes I and II (Hitchcock 1971); Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas (Radford et al. 1968); and Plant Life of Alabama (Mohr 1901). Guidelines for construction of this flora followed recommendations outlined by Palmer et al. (1995). Placement of species at the family rank and binomials follow Weakley (2013). Abbreviations for authorities and nativity of species follow Kartesz (2013). Results and Discussion Vegetation survey summary Samples obtained from the OCFWT included a total of 691 taxa representing 690 species, 411 genera, and 139 families, with 280 taxa (40%) ascertained to Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 292 be county records for Dallas County (Kartesz 2013). Asteraceae was the mostcollected family with 74 species. Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Cyperaceae were the next most-represented families with 63, 57, and 29 species, respectively. Quercus was the most-collected genus, represented by 13 species and two named hybrids. Flowering plants comprised 96% of the flora, with dicots making up 74% and monocots the remaining 22% (Table 1). Ferns and fern allies followed with 3%, and conifers represented 1% of the total number of taxa sampled. One hundred and thirty-three species, or 19%, were introduced species (non-native to North America). Selected rare and notable plant species We found many notable rare, undercollected, or regionally uncommon species while conducting this flora, including: the Alabama endemic Silphium perplexum (Old Cahawba Rosinweed), the federally listed Apios priceana (Price’s Potatobean), Corallorhiza wisteriana (Spring Coralroot), Isoetes melanopoda ssp. sylvatica (Eastern Black-foot Quillwort), Trillium lancifolium (Lanceleaf Trillium), and Polygala boykinii (Boykin’s Milkwort). Endemic to remnant Black Belt prairie sites over chalk in two west-central Alabama counties (Dallas and Perry Counties), Old Cahawba Rosinweed is a G1 species and is considered very rare throughout its range (Kartesz 2013, Nature- Serve 2013). Currently, all known populations of Old Cahawba Rosinweed are within 13.5 km of the Cahaba River, with the collections made for this study occurring only a few meters from the type locality (Allison and Stevens 2001). Typically flowering from July to October and fruiting from August to frost, Old Cahawba Rosinweed has yellow ray and disk florets, heads normally with 17 or more ray florets, lanceolate leaves up to 30 cm long, stems 150–200 cm, and glandular hairs that are approximately the same length as pointed hairs covering the plant (Allison and Stevens 2001). The general appearance of the plant is very similar to Silphium glutinosum J. Allison, which prefers soils over limestone or dolomite and normally has 13 rays per head (Allison and Stevens 2001). Old Cahawba Rosinweed may have been spared extirpation from the OCFWT (or even extinction across its range) because of its unpalatability to grazing livestock (Allison and Stevens 2001). Table 1. Summary of vegetation surveys by Divisions, Flowering Plant Class, Family, Genus and Species for the Old Cahawba Forever Wild Tract. Nativity of species refers to North America. Composition given in percent. Total Non-native Total taxa Native Non-native taxa Division/Class Families Genera taxa composition taxa taxa composition Lycopodiophyta 1 1 1 0.1 1 0 0.0 Monilophyta 14 20 22 3.0 18 4 0.5 Coniferophyta 2 3 6 0.9 6 0 0.0 Magnoliophyta 122 387 662 96.0 533 129 18.5 Class Liliopsida 21 84 149 22.0 116 33 4.8 Class Magnoliopsida 101 303 513 74.0 417 96 13.7 Total 139 411 691 100.0 558 133 19.0 Southeastern Naturalist 293 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 Additionally, the clayey soil characteristics of some prairie soils could have spared rosinweed habitat from timber monocultures. Price’s Potato-bean was listed federally as threatened in 1990 and is currently known from 10 Alabama counties (Kartesz 2013). Price’s Potato-bean is thinly scattered over about 30 populations throughout its distribution outside of Alabama in southwestern Kentucky, central Tennessee, and northeastern Mississippi (Kartesz 2013, NatureServe 2013). This imperiled G2 species is commonly found on calcareous soils in open mixed hardwood forests/forest edges, especially over limestone (Weakley 2013) and is seemingly intolerant to deep shade. Price’s Potato- bean produces only a single large tuber from which the twining vine arises; the close relative, Apios americana Medik. (Common Groundnut), produces a string of numerous small tubers along its rootstock. Distinguishing features of the flowers, along with slight differences in leaves, legumes, and seeds, also set Price’s Potatobean apart from Common Groundnut. Often found in somewhat clayey-sandy soils of flat low-woods, Eastern Blackfoot Quillwort is rare in the southeastern US and has been reliably documented from only five Alabama counties (D.F. Brunton, Brunton Consulting Services, Ottawa, ON, Canada, pers. comm.). Eastern Black-foot Quillwort has been reported from 10 other US counties, arcing from Virginia south-southwest through the Carolinas and Georgia; the seemingly more common Isoetes melanopoda ssp. melanopoda (Black-foot Quillwort) has a wide range throughout the Midwest to the Great Plains, south to Texas. Exotic plant species Eighty-five of the 133 non-native plant taxa collected were considered county records for Dallas County (Kartesz 2013). The percentage of exotics collected (19%) during this study is slightly higher than that found in other floras conducted in the state. Other Alabama floras yielded the following percentages of exotics: the 7365-ha Perdido River Forever Wild Tract yielded 11% non-natives (Barger et al. 2013), the 240-ha Indian Mountain Forever Wild Tract yielded 11% non-natives (Barger and Holt 2010), the 130-ha Coon Creek Forever Wild Tract yielded 7% non-natives (Barger and Tenaglia 2008), 2528-ha Lake Guntersville State Park yielded 17% non-natives (Spaulding 1999), the 28,329-ha Talladega Ranger District in Talladega National Forest yielded 12% non-natives (Ballard 1995), and 1101-ha Cheaha State Park yielded 10% non-natives (Bussey 1983). The slightly higher percentage of non-natives was likely due to the naturalization of many cultivated plants introduced by the residents of Old Cahawba. While this study did not focus on quantitative measurements of the exotic plant coverage, the observed land area covered by these non-native plants was restricted to primarily ruderal or disturbed areas of the tract. The most commonly encountered non-native plant species, in order of relative abundance, were: Chinese Privet, Lonicera japonica (Japanese Honeysuckle), Albizia julibrissin (Silktree), Daucus carota (Queen Anne's Lace), and the combined Trifolium spp. (clovers) and Vicia spp. (vetches). One non-native plant collection of note was Oxalis brasiliensis (Brazilian Wood-sorrel). As outlined in Horne et al. (2013), before discovery of this large Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 294 population (dense clumps, forming mats that stretch for approximately 2.5 km) on the OCFWT, Brazilian Wood-sorrel had not been reported as a naturalized species for North America. A full species description and additional information on related Oxalis species were also covered in detail in Horne et al. (2013). Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Jim Allison, Curtis Hansen, and Michael Palmer along with the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments in crafting this manuscript. Ashley Peters was also instrumental in the assembly of this manuscript, particularly with map construction and database assistance. Special thanks are extended to Dan Spaulding for verification of plant specimens. Literature Cited Allison, J.R., and T.E. Stevens. 2001. Vascular flora of Ketona Dolomite outcrops in Bibb County, Alabama. Castanea 66:154–205. Ballard, J.M. 1995. A vascular flora of the Talladega Ranger District of the Talladega National Forest, Alabama. M.Sc. Thesis. Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL. 270 pp. Barger, T.W., and B.D. Holt. 2010. The vascular flora of the Indian Mountain Forever Wild Tract, Cherokee County, AL. Southeastern Naturalist 9:327–346. Barger, T.W., and D. Tenaglia. 2008. The vascular flora of the Coon Creek Forever Wild Tract, Tallapoosa County, AL. Southeastern Naturalist 7:527–540. Barger, T.W., D.D. Spaulding, and B.D. Holt. 2013. The vascular flora of the Perdido River Forever Wild Tract, Baldwin County, AL. Castanea 78:119–133. Barone, J.A. 2005. Historical presence and distribution of prairies in the Black Belt of Mississippi and Alabama. Castanea 70:170–183. Barone, J.A., and J.G. Hill. 2007. Herbaceous flora of Blackland Prairie remnants in Mississippi and western Alabama. Castanea 72:226–234. Bussey, M.G. 1983. Flora of Cheaha State Park, Alabama. M.Sc. Thesis. Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL. 90 pp. Campbell, J.J.N., and W.R. Seymour, Jr. 2011. The vegetation of Pulliam Prairie, Chickasaw County, Mississippi: A significant remnant of pre-Columbian landscape in the Black Belt. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Science. 56:248–263. Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle. University Presses of Florida, Tallahassee, FL. 605 pp. Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States. Monocotyledons. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. 712 pp. Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States. Dicotyledons. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. 933 pp. Goff, F.G., G.A. Dawson, and J.J. Rochow. 1982. Site examination for threatened and endangered plant species. Environmental Management 6:307–316. Griffith, G.E., J.M. Omernik, J.A. Comstock, G. Martin, A. Goddard, and V.J. Hulcher. 2001. Ecoregions of Alabama. US Environmental Protection Agency, National Healthand Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR. Gunn, S.C. 1985. Flora of Alabama River Bluffs in the Black Belt. M.Sc. Thesis. Auburn University, Auburn, AL. 222 pp. Southeastern Naturalist 295 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 Hitchcock, A.S. 1971. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. Volumes I and II. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY. 1051 pp. Horne, H.E., T.W. Barger, and G.L. Nesom. 2013. Two South American species of Oxalis (Oxalidaceae) naturalized in Alabama and the USA, first report. Phytoneuron 54:1–7. Kartesz, J.T. 2013. Floristic Synthesis of North America, Version 1.0. Biota of North America (BONAP). Available online at Accessed 31 March 2013. Kral, R., A.R. Diamond, Jr., S.L. Ginzbarg, C.J. Hansen, R.R. Haynes, B.R. Keener, M.G. Lelong, D.D. Spaulding, and M. Woods. 2013. Alabama Plant Atlas. University of West Alabama, Livingston, AL. Available online at Accessed 31 March 2013. Meador, D.J. 2009. At Cahaba: From Civil War to Great Depression. Cable Publishing, Brule,WI. 268 pp. Mohr, C.T. 1901. Plant Life of Alabama. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. v.6. US Department of Agriculture, Division of Botany, Washington, DC. NatureServe. 2013. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life. Version 6.1. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. Available online at Accessed 19 January 2013. Palmer, M.W., G.L. Wade, and P. Neal. 1995. Standards for the writing of floras. Bioscience 45:339–345. Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp. Satterfield, W.H., and G.G. Waddell. 1993. A history and analysis of Alabama’s “Forever Wild” constitutional amendment. Alabama Law Review 44:393–419. Spaulding, D.D. 1999. The vascular flora of Lake Guntersville State Park, Marshall County, Alabama. Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science 70:163–204. US Census Bureau. 2013. State and county quick facts. Available online at http://quickfacts. Accessed 2 February 2013. US Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA NRCS). 2013. The PLANTS database Available online at Accessed 20 February 2013. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA Weakley, A.S. 2013. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas [25 February 2013 Online Draft Version]. Available online at http://www.herbarium.unc. edu/flora.htm. Accessed 25 February 2013. 1254 pp. 2013. Records for Selma, AL. Available online at Accessed 24 February 2013. Atlanta, GA. Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 296 Appendix 1. Annotated checklist of the vascular flora of the Old Cahawba Forever Wild Tract, with breakdown of the survey by taxa level and native vs. non-native species. As previously mentioned, the nomenclature follows Weakley (2013) and abbreviations for the authorities follow Kartesz (2013). The United States Department of Agriculture’s Plants Database (USDA NRCS 2013) was also referenced for synonyms and common names (for labels). Arrangement of the checklist is by division, then alphabetically by family, genus, and specific epithet. Species followed with a dagger (†) after the collection number are considered non-native species; those followed by an asterisk (*) are species of special concern or are considered state rare; and those followed by a double dagger (‡) were determined to be county records. Collection numbers listed are not lifetime collection numbers, but rather are specific to the current flora of the OCFWT. The collection numbers in the list below are recorded as such on the vouchered specimens, i.e., Sceptridium lunarioides OCFWT-652, Cyrtomium falcatum OCFWT-282, etc. LYCOPODIOPHYTA (Quillworts, Clubmosses, and Spikemosses) ISOETACEAE Quillwort Family Isoetes melanopoda Gay & Durieu ssp. sylvatica D.F. Brunton & D.M. Britton 001 ‡ * MONILOPHYTA (Horsetails and Ferns) ASPLENIACEAE Spleenwort Family Asplenium platyneuron (L.) B.S.P. 111 ATHYRIACEAE Lady Fern Family Athyrium asplenioides (Michx.) A.A. Eaton 003 Deparia petersenii (Kunze) M. Kato 674 † ‡ BLECHNACEAE Chain Fern Family Woodwardia virginica (L.) Sm. 595 DENNSTAEDTIACEAE Bracken Fern Family Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn ssp. pseudocaudatum (Clute) Hultén 329 DRYOPTERIDACEAE Wood Fern Family Cyrtomium falcatum (L. f.) K. Presl 282 † ‡ Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott 055 EQUISETACEAE Horsetail Family Equisetum hyemale L. ssp. affine (Engelm.) Calder & R.L. Taylor 284 LYGODIACEAE Climbing Fern Family Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.) Swartz 220 † ONOCLEACEAE Sensitive Fern Family Onoclea sensibilis L. var. sensibilis 045 OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Adder's Tongue Fern Family Botrypus virginianus (L.) Michx. 076 ‡ Southeastern Naturalist 297 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 Ophioglossum crotalophoroides Walt. 119 ‡ Sceptridium lunarioides (Michx.) Holub 652 ‡ Sceptridium dissectum (Spreng.) Lyon 010 ‡ OSMUNDACEAE Royal Fern Family Osmunda spectabilis 691 Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (L.) K. Presl var. cinnamomeum 692 PTERIDACEAE Maidenhair Fern Family Adiantum capillus-veneris L. 053 Adiantum pedatum L. 666 SALVINIACEAE Floating Fern Family Azolla caroliniana Willd. 029 THELYPTERIDACEAE Marsh Fern Family Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Ching 685 † Thelypteris kunthii (Desv.) Morton 054 WOODSIACEAE Woodsia Family Woodsia obtusa (Spreng.) Torr. 030 CONIFEROPHYTA (Gymnosperms) CUPRESSACEAE Cypress Family Juniperus virginiana L. var. virginiana 135 Taxodium distichum (L.) L.C. Rich. 348 PINACEAE Pine Family Pinus echinata P. Mill. 380 Pinus glabra Walt. 483 Pinus taeda L. 423 Pinus virginiana P. Mill. 404 MAGNOLIOPHYTA (Flowering Plants) ACANTHACEAE Acanthus Family Dicliptera brachiata (Pursh) Spreng. 506 Justicia ovata (Walt.) Lindau var. ovata 251 Ruellia caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Steud. 390 Ruellia purshiana Fern. 664 ‡* Yeatesia viridiflora (Nees) Small 262 ADOXACEAE Moschatel Family Sambucus canadensis L. 214 Viburnum rufidulum Raf. 064 Viburnum scabrellum (Torr. & Gray) Chapman 215 ‡ Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 298 AGAVACEAE Agave Family Manfreda virginica (L.) Salisb. ex Rose 475 ‡ Yucca filamentosa L. 222 Yucca flaccida Haw. 631 ALISMATACEAE Water-plantain Family Sagittaria australis (J.G. Sm.) Small 406 ‡ ALLIACEAE Onion Family Allium canadense L. var. canadense 624 Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britt. 009 Nothoscordum gracile (Dry. ex Ait.) Stearn 077 † ‡ ALTINGIACEAE Sweet-gum Family Liquidambar styraciflua L. 097 AMARANTHACEAE Amaranth Family Amaranthus spinosus L. 456† Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants 454† AMARYLLIDACEAE Amaryllis Family Hymenocallis occidentalis (Le Conte) Kunth 667 ‡ Leucojum aestivum L. 661 † ‡ Narcissus ×intermedius Loisel. 015 † ‡ Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. 016 † ‡ Zephyranthes atamasca (L.) Herbert 043 ANACARDIACEAE Cashew Family Rhus copallinum L. var. copallinum 212 Rhus glabra L. 230 Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill. 679 Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze var. radicans 473 ANNONACEAE Custard-apple Family Asimina parviflora (Michx.) Dunal 046 Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal 200 APIACEAE Carrot Family Chaerophyllum tainturieri Hook. 275 Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC. 265 Eryngium integrifolium Walt. 253 ‡ Eryngium prostratum Nutt. ex DC. 287 ‡ Eryngium yuccifolium Michx. var. yuccifolium 435 ‡ Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC. 056 ‡ Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf. 243 Sanicula canadensis L. var. canadensis 049 ‡ Scandix pecten-veneris L. 396 † Thaspium trifoliatum (L.) Gray var. aureum Britt. 044 Southeastern Naturalist 299 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link 548 † ‡ Trepocarpus aethusae Nutt. ex DC. 104 APOCYNACEAE Dogbane Family Asclepias amplexicaulis J.E. Smith 235 ‡ Asclepias tuberosa L. var. tuberosa 217 Asclepias viridiflora Raf. 421 Asclepias viridis Walt. 343 Cynanchum laeve (Michx.) Pers. 458 Matelea carolinensis (Jacq.) Woods. 669 ‡ Gonolobus suberosus (L.) R. Brown var. suberosus 216 ‡ Thrysanthella difformis (Walt.) Pichon 231 Vinca major L. 154 † ‡ AQUIFOLIACEAE Holly Family Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxton 662 † ‡ Ilex decidua Walt. var. decidua 181 Ilex longipes Chapman ex Trel. 137 ‡ Ilex verticillata (L.) Gray 640 Ilex vomitoria Ait. 291 ARACEAE Arum Family Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott 128 Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott 680 Lemna aequinoctialis Welw. 028 ‡ ARALIACEAE Ginseng Family Aralia spinosa L. 337 Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. 604 ARECACEAE Palm Family Sabal minor (Jacq.) Pers. 519 ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Birthwort Family Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf. 050 Hexastylis arifolia (Michx.) Small var. arifolia 168 Isotrema tomentosum (Sims) Huber 402 ASTERACEAE Aster Family Ageratina aromatica (L.) Spach 646 ‡ Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. 608 Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida 582 ‡ Arnoglossum atriplicifolium (L.) H.E. Robins. 286 Arnoglossum plantagineum Raf. 083 Baccharis halimifolia L. 339 Bidens bipinnata L. 420 Brickellia eupatorioides (L.) Shinners var. eupatorioides 566 ‡ Cirsium altissimum (L.) Hill 448 Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 300 Cirsium horridulum Michx. var. horridulum 149 Conoclinium coelestinum (L.) DC. 376 Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. 353 ‡ Coreopsis pubescens Ell. var. pubescens 357 ‡ Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. 455 Elephantopus carolinianus Rausch. 452 Elephantopus tomentosus L. 681 Erigeron philadelphicus L. var. philadelphicus 165 Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. var. strigosus 193 Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & Gray 629 ‡ Eupatorium altissimum L. 581 Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam.) Small 190 ‡ Eupatorium glaucescens Ell. 322 ‡ Eupatorium hyssopifolium L. 478 ‡ Eupatorium perfoliatum L. 605 ‡ Eupatorium pubescens Muhl. ex. Willd. 326 ‡ Euthamia caroliniana (L.) Greene ex Porter & Britt. 512 ‡ Euthamia hirtipes (Fern.) Sieren 644 ‡ Gamochaeta calviceps (Fern.) Cabrera 615 ‡ Gamochaeta purpurea (L.) Cabrera 052 Helenium amarum (Raf.) H. Rock var. amarum 246 Helenium autumnale L. 574 Helenium flexuosum Raf. 268 ‡ Helianthus angustifolius L. 413 ‡ Helianthus resinosus Small 381 ‡ Heterotheca latifolia Buckley var. latifolia 312 ‡ Hieracium gronovii L. 632 ‡ Hypochaeris glabra L. 138 † Iva annua L. 572 ‡ Krigia cespitosa (Raf.) Chambers 032 Krigia dandelion (L.) Nutt. 033 Krigia virginica (L.) Willd. 273 ‡ Lactuca canadensis L. 332 ‡ Liatris squarrulosa Michx. 569 ‡ Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. 288 Packera anonyma (Wood) W.A. Weber & A. Löve 132 Packera glabella (Poir.) C. Jeffrey 126 Packera obovata (Muhl. ex Willd.) W.A. Weber & A. Löve 091 ‡ Parthenium hysterophorus L. 278 † ‡ Pluchea camphorata (L.) DC. 419 Pluchea foetida (L.) DC. 330 Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.) Hilliard & Burtt 397 Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walt.) DC. 207 Pyrrhopappus pauciflorus (D. Don) DC. 545 ‡ Ratibida pinnata (Vent.) Barnh. 210 Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. var. fulgida 520 ‡ Rudbeckia hirta L. var. pulcherrima Farwell 038 Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. laciniata 446 ‡ Southeastern Naturalist 301 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 Rudbeckia triloba L. var. triloba 310 Silphium asteriscus L. var. dentatum (Ell.) Chapman 194 Silphium perplexum J. Allison 444 * Smallanthus uvedalia (L.) Mackenzie 682 ‡ Solidago altissima L. 480 Solidago nemoralis Ait. var. nemoralis 472 ‡ Solidago rugosa P. Miller var. aspera (Ait.) Fern. 497 ‡ Sonchus asper (L.) Hill 245 † ‡ Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) Nesom var. dumosum 637 ‡ Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) Nesom 575 ‡ Symphyotrichum patens (Ait.) Nesom var. patens 570 ‡ Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willd.) Nesom var. pilosum 505 Symphyotrichum subulatum (Michx.) Nesom 573 Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers 013 † Verbesina virginica L. 474 Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel. 583 Xanthium strumarium L. 460 BERBERIDACEAE Barberry Family Nandina domestica Thunb. 346 † ‡ Podophyllum peltatum L. 173 BETULACEAE Birch Family Betula nigra L. 511 Carpinus caroliniana Walt. var. caroliniana 350 Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch 518 BIGNONIACEAE Crossvine Family Bignonia capreolata L. 122 Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. ex Bureau 213 Catalpa bignonioides Walt. 183 BORAGINACEAE Borage Family Heliotropium indicum L. 462 † Heliotropium tenellum (Nutt.) Torr. 362 Lithospermum tuberosum Rugel ex DC. 047 Myosotis macrosperma Engelm. 110 Nemophila aphylla (L.) Brummitt 160 BRASSICACEAE Mustard Family Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. 614 † ‡ Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb. ex Muhl.) B.S.P. 514 Cardamine hirsuta L. 012 † Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd. 024 Lepidium didymum L. 619 † ‡ Lepidium virginicum L. 451 Nasturtium officinale R. Brown 002 † ‡ Raphanus raphanistrum L. 311 † ‡ Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 302 BROMELIACEAE Pineapple Family Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. 276 CAMPANULACEAE Bellflower Family Campanula americana L. 401 Lobelia puberula Michx. var. puberula 589 Wahlenbergia marginata (Thunb.) A. DC. 065 † ‡ CANNABACEAE Hops Family Celtis laevigata Willd. 101 Celtis occidentalis L. 302 CAPRIFOLIACEAE Honeysuckle Family Lonicera fragrantissima Lindl. & Paxton 027 † ‡ Lonicera japonica Thunb. 432 † Lonicera sempervirens L. 227 CARYOPHYLLACEAE Pink Family Arenaria lanuginosa (Michx.) Rohrb. var. lanuginosa 547 ‡ Arenaria serpyllifolia L. 074 † ‡ Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. 014 † Silene antirrhina L. 542 Stellaria media (L.) Vill. 021 † Stellaria pubera Michx. 058 ‡ CELASTRACEAE Bittersweet Family Euonymus americanus L. 546 CISTACEAE Rock-rose Family Crocanthemum carolinianum (Walt.) Spach 129 ‡ Lechea mucronata Raf. 304 Lechea pulchella Raf. 331 ‡ COMMELINACEAE Spiderwort Family Commelina erecta L. var. erecta 237 Tradescantia ohiensis Raf. 070 Tradescantia virginiana L. 108 ‡ CONVOLVULACEAE Morning-glory Family Cuscuta campestris Yuncker 602 Cuscuta compacta Juss. ex Choisy 301 Dichondra carolinensis Michx. 011 ‡ Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G.F.W. Mey. 369 Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth 515 † ‡ Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb. 352 † ‡ CORNACEAE Dogwood Family Cornus drummondii C.A. Mey. 084 Cornus florida L. 408 Southeastern Naturalist 303 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 CUCURBITACEAE Cucurbit Family Melothria pendula L. 476 CYPERACEAE Sedge Family Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) C.B. Clarke 558 † ‡ Carex aureolensis Steud. 526 ‡ Carex cherokeensis Schwein. 197 Carex gigantea Rudge 606 ‡ Carex glaucescens Ell. 415 ‡ Carex grayi Carey 556 Carex microdonta Torr. & Hook. 549 Carex tribuloides Wahl. var. sangamonensis Clokey 641 Carex vulpinoidea Michx. 544 Cyperus compressus L. 649 Cyperus croceus Vahl 636 ‡ Cyperus echinatus (L.) Wood 538 Cyperus iria L. 442 † Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud. 391 Cyperus retrorsus Chapman 368 ‡ Cyperus strigosus L. 412 Cyperus virens Michx. 294 Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) J.A. Schultes 295 ‡ Eleocharis vivipara Link 319 ‡ Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes 522 Fimbristylis puberula (Michx.) Vahl 635 ‡ Isolepis carinata Hook. & Arn. ex Torr. 543 ‡ Kyllinga pumila Michx. 469 ‡ Rhynchospora corniculata (Lam.) Gray 382 ‡ Rhynchospora glomerata (L.) Vahl var. glomerata 521 Rhynchospora inexpansa (Michx.) Vahl 531 ‡ Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth 334 Scirpus pendulus Muhl. 527 Scleria triglomerata Michx. 627 ‡ DIOSCORACEAE Yam Family Dioscorea villosa L. 069 EBENACEAE Ebony Family Diospyros virginiana L. 481 ELAEAGNACEAE Oleaster Family Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneider 655 † ‡ ERICACEAE Heath Family Lyonia ligustrina (L.) DC. var. foliosiflora (Michx.) Fern. 594 ‡ Rhododendron canescens (Michx.) Sweet 610 Vaccinium arboreum Marsh. 409 Vaccinium elliottii Chapman 086 Vaccinium stamineum L. 115 Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 304 EUPHORBIACEAE Spurge Family Acalypha gracilens Gray 579 ‡ Acalypha rhomboidea Raf. 393 ‡ Cnidoscolus stimulosus (Michx.) Eng. & A. Gray 201 ‡ Croton capitatus Michx. 386 † Croton glandulosus L. var. septentrionalis Müller of Aargau 580 Croton michauxii G.L. Webster 320 ‡ Croton monanthogynus Michx. 208 ‡ Ditrysinia fruticosa (Bartr.) Govaerts & Frodin 378 Euphorbia commutata Engelm. ex Gray 283 Euphorbia corollata L. 486 Euphorbia nutans Lagasca y Segura 363 ‡ Euphorbia prostrata Ait. 445 †‡ Euphorbia spathulata Lam. 270 ‡ Tragia cordata Michx. 683 Tragia urticifolia Michx. 256 ‡ Triadica sebifera (L.) Small 345 † ‡ FABACEAE Pea Family Albizia julibrissin Durazz. 226 † Amorpha fruticosa L. 067 Apios americana Medik. 598 ‡ Apios priceana B.L. Robins. 400 * Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth. 628 Cercis canadensis L. var. canadensis 279 Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene var. fasciculata 588 Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench var. nictitans 597 Clitoria mariana L. 298 Crotalaria sagittalis L. 209 Dalea candida Michx. ex Willd. 372 Dalea purpurea Vent. 671 Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM. ex B.L. Robins. & Fern. 366 Desmodium canescens (L.) DC. 410 ‡ Desmodium perplexum Schub. 498 ‡ Erythrina herbacea L. 240 Galactia mollis Michx. 586 ‡ Galactia regularis (L.) B.S.P. 625 Galactia volubilis (L.) Britt. 388 Gleditsia triacanthos L. 144 Hylodesmum pauciflorum (Nutt.) H. Ohashi & R.R. Mill 403 Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino 370 † ‡ Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. 592 † ‡ Lathyrus hirsutus L. 179 † Lespedeza capitata Michx. 484 ‡ Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don 239 † Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. var. hirta 536 ‡ Lespedeza procumbens Michx. 356 ‡ Lespedeza stuevei Nutt. 367 Lespedeza violacea (L.) Pers. 634 ‡ Southeastern Naturalist 305 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 Medicago arabica (L.) Huds. 155 † ‡ Medicago lupulina L. 630 † ‡ Melilotus albus Medik. 371 †‡ Mimosa microphylla Dry. 198 ‡ Phaseolus polystachios (L.) B.S.P. 399 ‡ Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. Almeida 073 † Robinia pseudoacacia L. 242 Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby 351 †‡ Senna occidentalis (L.) Link 607 † Sesbania herbacea (P. Mill.) McVaugh 467 Strophostyles helvola (L.) Ell. 417 Strophostyles umbellata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Britt. 374 Stylosanthes biflora (L.) B.S.P. 255 Tephrosia spicata (Walt.) Torr. & Gray 358 Trifolium campestre Schreb. 618 † Trifolium dubium Sibthorp 277 † Trifolium incarnatum L. 166 † Trifolium lappaceum L. 176 † Trifolium nigrescens Viviani 274 † ‡ Trifolium pratense L. 136 † Trifolium resupinatum L. 072 † ‡ Vicia grandiflora Scop. 099 † ‡ Vicia hirsuta (L.) S.F. Gray 100 † Vicia minutiflora F.G.Dietr.658 ‡ Vicia sativa L. ssp. nigra (L.) Ehrhart 151 † Vicia villosa Roth ssp. varia (Host) Corb. 162 † ‡ Wisteria sinensis (Sims) DC. 107 † FAGACEAE Beech Family Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. var. caroliniana (Loud.) Fern. & Rehd. 062 Quercus ×capesii W. Wolf 313 ‡ Quercus ×garlandensis Palmer 164 Quercus alba L. 042 Quercus coccinea Muenchh. 146 Quercus falcata Michx. 196 Quercus hemisphaerica 540 Quercus incana Bartr. 169 Quercus laurifolia Michx. 090 Quercus lyrata Walt. 645 Quercus michauxii Nutt. 061 ‡ Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm. 440 Quercus nigra 499 Quercus pagoda Raf. 513 Quercus shumardii 477 Quercus stellata Wangenh. 407 FUMARIACEAE Fumitory Family Corydalis flavula (Raf.) DC. 280 ‡ Corydalis halei (Small) Fern. & Schubert 657 ‡ Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 306 GELSEMIACEAE Jessamine Family Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) St. Hilaire 114 GENTIANACEAE Gentian Family Bartonia virginica (L.) B.S.P. 261 ‡ Sabatia angularis (L.) Pursh 289 GERANIACEAE Geranium Family Geranium carolinianum L. 617 Geranium dissectum L. 098 † HALORAGACEAE Water Milfoil Family Proserpinaca pectinata Lam. 488 ‡ HAMAMELIDACEAE Witch-Hazel Family Hamamelis virginiana L. var. virginiana 057 HEMEROCALLIDACEAE Day-lily Family Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. 248 † ‡ HYDRANGEACEAE Hydrangea Family Hydrangea cinerea Small 405 HYDROLEACEAE Hydrolea Family Hydrolea quadrivalvis Walt. 333 HYPERICACEAE Hypericum Family Hypericum crux-andreae (L.) Crantz 316 ‡ Hypericum drummondii (Grev. & Hook.) Torr. & Gray 321 ‡ Hypericum gentianoides (L.) B.S.P. 325 ‡ Hypericum gymnanthum Engelm. & Gray 323 ‡ Hypericum hypericoides (L.) Crantz 678 Hypericum mutilum L. var. mutilum 510 Hypericum prolificum L. 290 ‡ Hypericum punctatum Lam. 389 ‡ Hypericum setosum L. 416 ‡ Hypericum walteri J.G. Gmel. 626 IRIDACEAE Iris Family Gladiolus communis L. 673 † ‡ Iris brevicaulis Raf. 250 Iris germanica L. 120 † ‡ Sisyrinchium albidum Raf. 131 ‡ Sisyrinchium angustifolium P. Mill. 161 Sisyrinchium capillare Bickn. 096 ‡ Sisyrinchium langloisii Greene 068 ‡ Sisyrinchium pruinosum Bickn. 479 ‡ Sisyrinchium rosulatum Bickn. 153 ‡ Southeastern Naturalist 307 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 ITEACEAE Sweetspire Family Itea virginica L. 612 JUGLANDACEAE Walnut Family Carya aquatica (Michx. f.) Nutt. 383 Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch 503 Carya ovalis (Wangenh.) Sarg. 516 Carya pallida (Ashe) Engl. & Graebn. 241 Juglans nigra L. 463 JUNCACEAE Rush Family Juncus acuminatus Michx. 040 Juncus brachycarpus Engelm. 552 Juncus effusus L. ssp. solutus (Fern. & Wieg.) Hämet-Ahti 039 ‡ Juncus repens Michx. 533 ‡ Juncus scirpoides Lam. 534 ‡ Luzula echinata (Small) F.J. Herm. 487 LAMIACEAE Mint Family Blephilia ciliata (L.) Benth. 676 Callicarpa americana L. 422 Cantinoa mutabilis (A. Richard) Harley & J.F.B. Pastore 470 † Lamium amplexicaule L. 008 † ‡ Lamium purpureum L. 007 † ‡ Lycopus rubellus Moench 178 ‡ Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lagasca y Segura var. citriodora 206 Monarda fistulosa L. var. fistulosa 192 ‡ Monarda punctata L. var. punctata 609 Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. 577 † Prunella vulgaris L. var. lanceolata (W. Barton) Fern. 182 Pycnanthemum muticum (Michx.) Pers. 425 Salvia azurea Michx. ex Lam. var. grandiflora Benth. 565 Salvia lyrata L. 150 Scutellaria elliptica Muhl. ex Spreng. 550 Scutellaria integrifolia L. 219 Scutellaria parvula Michx. 112 ‡ Trichostema dichotomum L. 517 LAURACEAE Laurel Family Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg. 340 ‡ Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 225 LILIACEAE Lily Family Lilium michauxii Poir. 524 ‡ LINACEAE Flax Family Linum sulcatum Riddell 223 ‡ Linum virginianum L. 430 Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 308 LINDERNIACEAE False-pimpernel Family Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell var. anagallidea (Michx.) Cooperrider 596 ‡ LOGANIACEAE Logania Family Mitreola petiolata (J.F. Gmel.) Torr. & Gray 431 Spigelia marilandica (L.) L. 247 LYTHRACEAE Loosestrife Family Ammannia coccinea Rottb. 429 Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr. 379 †‡ Lagerstroemia indica L. 424 † Lythrum alatum Pursh 365 Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne 428 MAGNOLIACEAE Magnolia Family Liriodendron tulipifera L. var. tulipifera 427 Magnolia grandiflora L. 159 Magnolia virginiana L. var. australis Sarg. 482 MALVACEAE Hibiscus Family Firmiana simplex (L.) W. Wight 307 † ‡ Hibiscus laevis All. 464 Hibiscus moscheutos L. 318 Hibiscus syriacus L. 308 † ‡ Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don 260 ‡ Sida rhombifolia L. 317 Tilia americana L. var. caroliniana (P. Mill.) Castigl. 398 MAYACACEAE Mayaca Family Mayaca fluviatilis Aubl. 490 ‡ MELASTOMATACEAE Melastome Family Rhexia mariana L.var. mariana 328 Rhexia virginica L. 438 MELIACEAE Mahogany Family Melia azedarach L. 387 † MENISPERMACEAE Moonseed Family Calycocarpum lyonii (Pursh) Gray 264 Cocculus carolinus (L.) DC. 189 MOLLUGINACEAE Carpetweed Family Mollugo verticillata L. 439 † MONOTROPACEAE Indian Pipe Family Monotropa uniflora L. 229 ‡ Southeastern Naturalist 309 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 MONTIACEAE Montia Family Claytonia virginica L. 172 MORACEAE Mulberry Family Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. 466 † Ficus carica L. 309 † ‡ Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. 426 Morus alba L. 263 † ‡ Morus rubra L. 117 MYRICACEAE Bayberry Family Morella cerifera (L.) Small 031 NARTHECIACEAE Bog-Asphodel Family Aletris aurea Walt. 686 ‡ NYSSACEAE Tupelo Family Nyssa sylvatica Marsh 593 OLEACEAE Olive Family Fraxinus americana L. 188 Fraxinus caroliniana P. Mill. 601 ‡ Ligustrum lucidum Ait. f. 461 † ‡ Ligustrum sinense Lour. 106 † ONAGRACEAE Evening-Primrose Family Ludwigia alternifolia L. 315 Ludwigia decurrens Walt. 449 Ludwigia linearis Walt. var. linearis 105 Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell. 392 Oenothera biennis L. 599 ‡ Oenothera filipes (Spach) W. L. Wagner & Hoch 633 ‡ Oenothera laciniata Hill 075 Oenothera speciosa Nutt. 195 ORCHIDACEAE Orchid Family Corallorhiza wisteriana Conrad 281 ‡ * Listera australis Lindl. 118 ‡ Spiranthes magnicamporum Sheviak 642 * Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray 211 ‡ Tipularia discolor (Pursh) Nutt. 018 ‡ OROBANCHACEAE Broomrape Family Agalinis fasciculata (Ell.) Raf. 494 ‡ Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell 638 Dasistoma macrophylla (Nutt.) Raf. 347 OXALIDACEAE Wood-sorrel Family Oxalis articulata Savigny 551 † ‡ Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 310 Oxalis brasiliensis G. Lodd 663 † ‡ Oxalis corymbosa DC. 103 † ‡ Oxalis dillenii Jacq. 080 Oxalis violacea L. 071 PASSIFLORACEAE Passion Flower Family Passiflora incarnata L. 272 Passiflora lutea L. 202 PENTHORACEAE Ditch-stonecrop Family Penthorum sedoides L. 293 PHRYMACEAE Lopseed Family Mimulus alatus Ait. 600 PHYTOLACCACEAE Pokeweed Family Phytolacca americana L. 355 PLANTAGINACEAE Plantain Family Bacopa rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst. 578 Callitriche heterophylla Pursh var. heterophylla 25 ‡ Gratiola floridana Nutt. 059 Gratiola virginiana L. 395 Leucospora multifida (Michx.) Nutt. 450 Mecardonia acuminata (Walt.) Small var. acuminata 079 ‡ Nuttallanthus canadensis (L.) D.A. Sutton 145 Penstemon laevigatus Ait. 218 ‡ Penstemon tenuiflorus Pennell 081 Plantago aristata Michx. 180 Plantago heterophylla Nutt. 620 ‡ Plantago lanceolata L. 185 † ‡ Plantago pusilla Nutt. 616 ‡ Plantago virginica L. 133 ‡ Sophronanthe pilosa (Michx.) Small 324 ‡ Veronica arvensis L. 022 † Veronica peregrina L. var. peregrina 175 ‡ Veronica persica Poir. 006 † ‡ PLATANACEAE Plane-Tree Family Platanus occidentalis L. 034 POACEAE Grass Family Alopecurus carolinianus Walt. 623 ‡ Andropogon glomeratus (Walt.) B.S.P. 502 Andropogon ternarius Michx. var. ternarius 648 Andropogon virginicus L. var. virginicus 500 ‡ Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl. 447 Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng var. songarica (Rup. & Mey.) Celarier & Harlan 541 † Briza minor L. 152 † ‡ Southeastern Naturalist 311 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 Bromus pubescens Spreng. 688 ‡ Bromus racemosus L. 113 † ‡ Chasmanthium latifolium (Michx.) Yates 349 Chasmanthium sessiliflorum (Poir.) Yates 354 Coleataenia anceps (Michx.) Soreng ssp. rhizomata (Hitch. & Chase) Soreng 434 Coleataenia rigidula (Bosc ex Nees) LeBlond ssp. rigidula (Bosc ex Nees) LeBlond 507 Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. 375 † ‡ Dichanthelium commutatum (J.A. Schultes) Gould var. commutatum 186 Dichanthelium dichotomum (L.) Gould var. ramulosum (Torrey) LeBlond 690 ‡ Dichanthelium polyanthes (Schultes) Mohl. 528 ‡ Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon (Ell.) Gould 525 Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel. 585 † ‡ Digitaria ischaemum Schreb. ex Muhl. 557 † ‡ Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link 537 † Echinochloa muricata (Beauv.) Fern. var. microstachya Wiegand 471 ‡ Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. 559 † ‡ Elymus glabriflorus (Vasey) Scribn. & Ball var. glabriflorus 571 Elymus virginicus L. var. virginicus 385 Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign. ex Janchen 361 † ‡ Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) B.S.P. 437 Eragrostis refracta (Muhl.) Scribn. 561 ‡ Glyceria striata (Lam.) A.S. Hitchc. var. striata 687 ‡ Hordeum pusillum Nutt. 271 ‡ Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. 037 † ‡ Leersia lenticularis Michx. 659 ‡ Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. 555 Leersia virginica Willd. 553 ‡ Lolium perenne L. var. aristatum Willd. 140 † Melica mutica Walt. 123 ‡ Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus 257 † ‡ Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv. ssp. setarius (Lam.) Mez 564 Panicum capillare L. 539 ‡ Panicum verrucosum Muhl. 562 ‡ Panicum virgatum L. var. virgatum 563 ‡ Paspalum laeve Michx. var. laeve 530 Paspalum notatum Flueggé 394 † Paspalum urvillei Steud. 341 † ‡ Phalaris caroliniana Walt. 675 Phyllostachys aurea Carr. ex A.& C. Rivière 414 † ‡ Poa annua L. 489 † ‡ Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. 492 † ‡ Saccharum baldwinii Spreng. 496 ‡ Saccharum contortum (Ell.) Nutt. 584 ‡ Saccharum giganteum (Walt.) Pers. 495 ‡ Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort. 639 † ‡ Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash var. scoparium 523 Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes 501 † ‡ Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. var. viridis 269 † ‡ Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash 560 ‡ Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 312 Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. 373 † Sphenopholis intermedia (Rydb.) Rydb. 689 ‡ Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. 509 ‡ Tridens flavus (L.) A.S. Hitchc. 554 ‡ Tridens strictus (Nutt.) Nash 485 ‡ Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L. 364 Urochloa plantaginea (Link) R. Webster 441 † ‡ POLEMONIACEAE Phlox Family Phlox divaricata L. 285 POLYGALACEAE Milkwort Family Asemeia grandiflora (Walt.) Small 299 Polygala boykinii Nutt. 233 ‡ * Polygala incarnata L. 338 ‡ Polygala mariana P. Mill. 327 POLYGONACEAE Buckwheat Family Brunnichia ovata (Walt.) Shinners 342 Persicaria glabra (Willd.) M. Gómez 457 ‡ Persicaria pensylvanica (L.) M. Gómez 504 Persicaria punctata (Ell.) Small 433 Persicaria setacea (Baldw.) Small 292 Rumex acetosella L. 147 † ‡ Rumex crispus L. 656 † ‡ Rumex verticillatus L. 177 ‡ PRIMULACEAE Primrose Family Samolus parviflorus Raf. 191 RANUNCULACEAE Buttercup Family Actaea pachypoda Ell. 048 ‡ Anemone berlandieri Pritz. 167 Clematis crispa L. 567 ‡ Delphinium carolinianum Walt. 672 Ranunculus abortivus L. 650 Ranunculus parviflorus L. 622 † ‡ Ranunculus pusillus Poir. 109 Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. var. recurvatus 063 Ranunculus sardous Crantz 005 † Thalictrum revolutum DC. 665 ‡ RHAMNACEAE Buckthorn Family Berchemia scandens (Hill) K. Koch 139 Frangula caroliniana (Walt.) Gray 148 ROSACEAE Rose Family Crataegus crus-galli L. var. crus-galli 384 Southeastern Naturalist 313 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 Crataegus lassa Beadle 143 Crataegus marshallii Egglest. 203 Crataegus spathulata Michx. 587 Geum canadense Jacq. 184 Malus angustifolia (Ait.) Michx. 035 Potentilla indica (Andr.) T. Wolf 51 † Potentilla simplex Michx. 158 ‡ Prunus americana Marsh. 529 Prunus angustifolia Marsh. 224 Prunus caroliniana Ait. 228 Prunus mexicana S. Wats. 254 ‡ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch 306 † ‡ Pyracantha coccinea M. Roemer 093 † ‡ Pyrus calleryana Dcne. 647 † ‡ Rosa bracteata J.C. Wendl. 156 † Rosa carolina L. ssp. carolina 232 ‡ Rosa damascena P. Mill.157 † ‡ Rosa laevigata Michx. 023 † ‡ Rosa wichuraiana Crépin 249 † ‡ Rubus flagellaris Willd. 041 Rubus trivialis Michx. 205 Spiraea cantoniensis Lour. 660 † ‡ Spiraea ×vanhouttei (Briot) Carr. 651 † ‡ RUBIACEAE Madder Family Cephalanthus occidentalis L. 335 Diodia teres Walt. 360 Diodia virginiana L. 252 Galium aparine L. 621 Galium circaezans Michx. 670 ‡ Galium sherardia E.H.L. Krause 142 † ‡ Galium uniflorum Michx. 199 ‡ Houstonia caerulea L. 078 ‡ Houstonia micrantha (Shinners) Terrell 653 ‡ Houstonia nigricans (Lam.) Fern. var. nigricans 568 Houstonia purpurea L. var. calycosa Shutt. ex A. Gray 092 Houstonia pusilla Schoepf 017 ‡ Mitchella repens L.187 Spermacoce glabra Michx. 576 ‡ RUSCACEAE Ruscus Family Liriope spicata Lour. 130 † ‡ Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl. 095 † ‡ Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. var. biflorum 121‡ RUTACEAE Citrus Family Citrus trifoliata L. 089 † ‡ Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L. 603 ‡ Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 314 SALICACEAE Willow Family Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. var. deltoides 036 Salix eriocephala Michx. 411 Salix nigra Marsh. 066 SANTALACEAE Sandalwood Family Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M.C. Johnston ssp. leucarpum 654 ‡ SAPINDACEAE Soapberry Family Acer floridanum (Chapman) Pax 088 Acer negundo L. var. negundo 085 Acer rubrum L. var. drummondii (Hook. & Arn. ex Nutt.) Sarg. 087 ‡ Acer rubrum L. var. rubrum 019 Acer saccharinum L. 453 Aesculus parviflora Walt. 668 * Aesculus pavia L. var. pavia 170 SAPOTACEAE Sapodilla Family Sideroxylon lanuginosum ssp. lanuginosum Michx. 684 Sideroxylon lanuginosum Michx. ssp. oblongifolium (Nutt.) T.D. Penn. 493 Sideroxylon lycioides L. 082 SAURURACEAE Lizard's-tail Family Saururus cernuus L. 204 SAXIFRAGACEAE Saxifrage Family Micranthes virginiensis (Michx.) Small 020 SCROPHULARIACEAE Figwort Family Verbascum thapsus L. 443 † ‡ SIMAROUBACEAE Quassia Family Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle 244 † SMILACACEAE Catbrier Family Smilax bona-nox L. 590 Smilax glauca Walt. 336 Smilax hugeri (Small) J.B.S. Norton ex Pennell 258 ‡ Smilax lasioneura Hook. 259 ‡ Smilax rotundifolia L. 377 Smilax smallii Morong 314 SOLANACEAE Nightshade Family Datura stramonium L. 303 † ‡ Physalis pubescens L. var. integrifolia (Dunal) Waterfall 266 ‡ Solanum carolinense L. var. carolinense 221 Solanum ptychanthum Dunal 267 SPHENOCLEACEAE Chickenspike Family Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn. 465 †‡ Southeastern Naturalist 315 T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 STYRACACEAE Styrax Family Halesia diptera Ell. var. diptera 163 Styrax americanus Lam. var. americanus 613 Styrax grandifolius Ait. 643 SYMPLOCACEAE Sweetleaf Family Symplocos tinctoria (L.) L'Hér. 591 TETRACHONDRACEAE Tetrachondra Family Polypremum procumbens L. 359 THEACEAE Tea Family Camellia japonica L. 026 † ‡ TRILLIACEAE Trillium Family Trillium lancifolium Raf. 171 * Trillium maculatum Raf. 127 ‡ TYPHACEAE Cattail Family Typha latifolia L. 344 ULMACEAE Elm Family Planera aquatic J.F. Gmel. 508 Ulmus alata Michx.116 Ulmus americana L. var. americana 297 Ulmus rubra Muhl. 125 URTICACEAE Nettle Family Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. 296 Pilea pumila (L.) Gray 459 VALERIANACEAE Valerian Family Valerianella radiata (L.) Dufr. 134 VERBENACEAE Verbena Family Glandularia bipinnatifida (Nutt.) Nutt. var. bipinnatifida 174 Glandularia canadensis (L.) Nutt. 677 Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene 300 Verbena brasiliensis Vellozo 236 † Verbena simplex Lehm. 234 VIOLACEAE Violet Family Viola bicolor Pursh 491 Viola palmata L. var. palmata 141 ‡ Viola primulifolia L. 611 ‡ Viola sororia Willd. var. sororia 004 Viola walteri House var. walteri 060 Southeastern Naturalist T.W. Barger, B.D. Holt, L. Derry, and J. Matthews 2014 Vol. 13, No. 2 316 VITACEAE Grape Family Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne 094 Ampelopsis cordata Michx. 305 Muscadinia rotundifolia (Michx.) Small var. rotundifolia 124 Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. 102 Vitis aestivalis Michx. var. aestivalis 238 Vitis cinerea (Engelm.) Engelm. ex Millard 436 ‡ Vitis vulpina L. 418 XYRIDACEAE Yellow-eyed Grass Family Xyris iridifolia Chapman 535 ‡ Xyris jupicai L.C. Rich. 532 ‡