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The Vertebrate Fauna of Ichauway, Baker County, GA
Lora L. Smith, David A. Steen, Jonathan M. Stober, Mary C. Freeman, Steve W. Golladay, L. Mike Conner, and Jessica Cochrane

Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 5, Number 4 (2006): 599–620

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2006 SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST 5(4):599–620 The Vertebrate Fauna of Ichauway, Baker County, GA Lora L. Smith1,*, David A. Steen1, Jonathan M. Stober1, Mary C. Freeman2, Steve W. Golladay1, L. Mike Conner1, and Jessica Cochrane1 Abstract - Less than 4% of the once extensive Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) ecosystem remains today. Although longleaf pine habitats are recognized for their high species diversity, few published accounts document the vertebrate faunas of remaining tracts. Here we report on the vertebrate species richness of Ichauway, an 11,300-ha property in Baker County, GA. The property includes ca. 7300 ha of longleaf pine with native ground cover, along with more than 30 seasonal wetlands and ca. 45 km of riparian habitat associated with Ichawaynochaway Creek, Big Cypress Creek, and the Flint River. The fauna includes 61 species of fish, 31 amphibians, 53 reptiles, 191 birds, and 41 mammals. Despite the relative isolation of the property from other natural ecosystems, the vertebrate fauna of Ichauway is remarkably diverse and may offer an example of reference conditions to guide restoration of longleaf pine forests, associated seasonal wetlands, and riparian areas elsewhere in the southeastern US. Introduction Prior to European settlement, the Pinus palustris Miller (longleaf pine) ecosystem occupied 37 million ha in the southern United States (Frost 1993). Today ca 1.2 million ha of longleaf pine forest remain (Brockway and Outcalt 2000), of which < 0.5% is old growth (Means 1996, Varner and Kush 2004). Most of the original forest has been converted to crop land or pine plantations (Barnett 1999, Ewel 1990, Landers et al. 1995, Wahlenberg 1946) and few sites exist where studies addressing the biodiversity of this habitat type may be conducted. The Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center (JWJERC) is located at Ichauway, a former quail (Colinus virginianus [Northern Bobwhite]) hunting plantation on the Dougherty Plain ca. 20 km south of Newton, Baker County, GA (Fig. 1). The 11,300-ha research site is managed with prescribed fire to maintain a forest dominated by longleaf pine, with Aristida stricta Michaux (wiregrass) and other herbaceous vegetation in the ground cover (Fig. 2). Scattered hardwoods, primarily Quercus spp. (oaks), exist within the longleaf pine matrix. The site has ca. 1200 ha of agricultural fields, and an additional 120 ha of wildlife food plots. Land use within the region is ca. 50% agriculture and 30% managed forest lands (primarily pine plantations; Golladay and Battle 2002), and the landscape immediately surrounding Ichauway is dominated by center-pivot agriculture (Michener et 1Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center, Route 2, Box 2324, Newton, GA, 39870-9651. 2US Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2152. *Corresponding author - 600 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 4 Figure 1. Location of Ichauway, Baker County, GA. Also depicted are three Wildlife Management Areas: Elmodel, Chickasawhatchee, and Mayhaw WMA. 2006 L.L. Smith et al. 601 al. 1998). However, three large protected areas—Mayhaw Wildlife Management Area (WMA), Elmodel WMA, and Chickasawhatchee Swamp WMA lie west and north of Ichauway within 25 km, although the closest is within less than 1 km. Drew et al. (1998) provide a detailed description of the region and plant communities of Ichauway. Ichauway has more than 30 seasonal wetlands that support a diverse array of wildlife. There are also numerous ephemeral depressions that fill only during very wet conditions. Ichawaynochaway Creek runs through the property for 23 km, and the Flint River borders the eastern boundary. Big Cypress Creek, an intermittent stream, intersects the southwestern portion of the property. Both Ichawaynochaway Creek and Big Cypress Creek are tributaries of the Flint River, which ultimately drains into the Apalachicola River. Although the longleaf pine ecosystem (and associated seasonal wetlands) is recognized for its high diversity of plants and animals (Dodd 1995, Guyer and Figure 2. General habitat map of Ichauway, Baker County, GA. Habitats include agriculture (wildlife food plots and agricultural fields), creek (Ichawaynochaway and Big Cypress Creek), longleaf pine, mixed hardwood pine forests, river (Flint River), and seasonal wetlands. Riparian areas discussed in the text are adjacent to the Flint River and Ichawaynochaway Creek. 602 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 4 Bailey 1993, Kirkman et al. 1999), few published accounts document vertebrate species richness in remaining tracts. The value of such accounts may lie in their use as references to guide restoration of degraded sites. Here we document the vertebrate species richness of Ichauway. Collectively, the data summarize more than 50 years of wildlife research on the property. This activity began with the establishment of the Emory Field Station in 1939 and intensified when the site became the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center in 1994. Materials and Methods A variety of collecting techniques has been used for vertebrates at Ichauway (Table 1). Fishes have been sampled using boat and backpack electrofishing, rotenone, angling, seining, and minnow traps (Keefer 1987, Freeman and Freeman 1992). The primary collecting periods were 1985– 1987 (streams; Keefer [1997]), 1990–1992 (streams and wetlands; Freeman and Freeman [1992]), and 2004 (wetlands; A. Liner, JWJERC, Newton, GA, pers. comm.). From 1997–2005, amphibians and reptiles were collected in and around seasonal wetlands using drift fences with pitfall and funnel traps, minnow and crayfish traps, dipnets, call surveys, automated frog call recorders, cover board arrays, PVC pipe traps, and hand capture (Heyer et al. 1994, Johnson and Barichivich 2004). Hoop traps, basking traps, and snorkel surveys have been used to capture turtles on Ichawaynochaway Creek, and snake trap arrays (Rudolph et al. 1999) have been deployed in longleaf pine uplands. Many species of amphibians and reptiles have also been recorded incidentally on Ichauway, primarily on the 450 km of interior roads (15 km paved, 435 km unpaved). Table 1. Techniques used to sample vertebrate taxa at Ichauway. The habitat type and approximate number of sites sampled are indicated in parentheses. Habitat types included creek (CR), longleaf pine (LLP), and seasonal wetland (SW). Fish Amphibians Reptiles Electrofishing (CR, 18) Automated call recorders (SW, >30) Basking trap (CR, 4) Rotenone (CR, 3) Crayfish trap (SW, 30) Crayfish trap (SW, 30) Angling (CR, 30) Minnow trap (SW, 30) Hoop trap (CR, 1) Seining (CR, 15) Dipnet (SW, >30) Incidental (site-wide) Minnow traps (SW, 30) Hand capture (site-wide) Snake trap (LLP, 16) Dipnet (SW, > 30) Incidental (site-wide) Cover boards (SW, 12) Call surveys (SW, 30) Snorkel surveys (CR, 2) Drift fence/pitfall trap (SW, 2) Drift fence/funnel trap (SW, 4) Cover boards (SW, 12) PVC pipe refugia (SW, 29) Birds Mammals Point counts (site-wide) Box traps (site-wide) Incidental (site-wide) Foot-gripping traps (site-wide) MAPS station Sherman traps (site-wide) Sport hunting (site-wide) 2006 L.L. Smith et al. 603 Birds at Ichauway have been identified through incidental observation, point counts (Bibby et al. 1992), and a Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) station (DeSante and Burton 1994). The first documentation of birds on Ichauway occurred in the early 1950s (Norris 1951; M. Hopkins, Emory Field Station, pers. comm.). Documentation resumed in 1991 with recording of incidental observations of birds observed on site. In 1995, JWJERC teamed with the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GADNR) and Partners in Flight (PIF) to conduct point counts within designated habitats on site, and from 2000–2005, a MAPS station was maintained in longleaf-wiregrass habitat. Most mammals were documented by a variety of trapping approaches and direct observation that were initiated in 1997 and continued through 2005. Bats were sampled with mist nets (Kunz and Kurta 1988) placed over bodies of water. Terrestrial species were captured with Sherman traps, box traps (Mosby 1955), and foot-gripping traps (Schemnitz 1994). Sport hunting provided documentation of game species on the property. Cumulatively, the techniques described above have allowed us to develop a reasonably comprehensive list of the vertebrate species of Ichauway. We categorized the general habitat types where species were observed as: agricultural fields, creek, longleaf pine forest, mixed hardwood pine, seasonal wetland, river, and riparian areas. Taxonomy follows Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) for mammals, Crother (2000) for amphibians and reptiles, Boschung and Mayden (2004) for fish, and the AOU (2005) 46th checklist for birds. Results A large percentage of the fish fauna of the Apalachicola River Basin occurs at Ichauway. Of approximately 80 fishes native to this ecosystem (Couch et al. 1995), at least 61 occur in aquatic habitats at Ichauway (Appendix 1). Collections from shoals and associated shallow areas of Ichawaynochaway Creek typically included 15–20 species of fish with five or more cyprinids (minnows), two to four percids (darters), and two or more centrarchids (sunfishes). Deeper habitats harbor Lepisosteus spp. (gar), Amia calva (bowfin), pike (Esocidae), shad (Clupeidae), bass (Centrarchidae), and larger catfishes (Ictaluridae; Freeman and Freeman 1992). Despite annual drying, Big Cypress Creek also supports a large number of the fishes listed above. Many Ichauway wetlands are fishless due to seasonal drying and isolation from perennially flooded refugia. However, 10 species of fish have been observed in wetlands (Appendix 1; Freeman and Freeman 1992; A. Liner, JWJERC, pers. comm.). Of the species observed, Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner), Gambusia holbrooki (mosquitofish), Erimyzon sucetta (lake chubsucker), Fundulus chrysotus (golden topminnow), and Etheostoma fusiforme (swamp darter) represent a unique assemblage that is rare or absent in permanent streams and rivers (Freeman and Freeman 1992). These fish colonize isolated wetlands via 604 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 4 ephemeral surface flow during extremely wet periods. Refugia for such species during seasonal drying have not been documented. Fifty-three species of reptiles and 31 species of amphibians were documented at Ichauway from 1997–2005 (Appendices 2 and 3). These included 13 salamanders, 18 frogs, one crocodilian, 14 turtles, 10 lizards, and 28 snakes. Three species of turtles are listed as threatened by the state of Georgia: Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise), Graptemys barbouri (Barbour’s Map Turtle), and Macrochelys temminckii (Alligator Snapping Turtle) (Table 2). Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a state and federally listed threatened species, also was observed at Ichauway, although the snakes observed were marked individuals that had been translocated to the property in the 1980s (D. Speake, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, pers. comm.). Ambystoma cingulatum (Flatwoods Salamander; Table 2), a federally and state-listed threatened species, has been confirmed at three seasonal wetlands on the site; however, the most recent sighting was in 1997 (J. Jensen, Georgia DNR, Forsyth, GA, pers. comm.). Ichauway’s avian community consists of 191 species (Appendix 4), with 58 considered permanent residents, and 34 and 33 summer and winter residents, respectively. Birds of fire-maintained pine grassland habitats, such as the state-listed rare Aimophila aestivalis (Bachman’s Sparrow), are abundant at Ichauway. The Flint River corridor provides an avenue for migration and has yielded sightings of 38 transient species; among these is the state-listed endangered Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon). Thirteen summer and 12 winter vagrants are also found before and after breeding Table 2. Vertebrate species with protected status observed on Ichauway, Baker County, GA. State (nongame) and Federal status categories include: E = endangered; T = threatened; R = rare; U = Unusual (state only); C = Candidate, currently under review. Source: http:// Species State status Federal status Fish Alosa alabamae U C Ameiurus serracanthus R Notropis harperi R Notropis hypsilepis T Amphibians Ambystoma cingulatum T T Notophthalmus perstriatus R Reptiles Drymarchon couperi1 T T Gopherus polyphemus T Graptemys barbouri T Macrochelys temminckii T Birds Aimophila aestivalis R Picoides borealis E E 1Observed individuals were translocated to Ichauway, last observation was in 2000 (R.D. Birkhead, Auburn University, pers. comm.). 2006 L.L. Smith et al. 605 season; these include the state-listed rare Elanoides forficatus (Swallowtailed Kite) and the state endangered and federally listed Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle) and Mycteria americana (Wood Stork). The state and federally endangered Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker [RCW]) was found at Ichauway during the 1950s, but the population dwindled to one bird by 1997. In 1999, a cooperative restoration effort between JWJERC and GADNR was begun to reestablish a population of RCWs as private lands mitigation. The RCW population in 2005 consisted of 18 active clusters and ca. 50 birds. Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkeys) were reestablished on the property during the late 1980s through a cooperative effort with GaDNR. Over the past 55 years, the introduced Streptopelia decaoto (Eurasian Collared-dove) and Bubulcus ibis (Cattle Egret) have expanded their ranges into the local area and established populations. Forty-one species of mammal have been observed on Ichauway since 1993 (Appendix 5). None of the mammals documented on Ichauway are state or federally protected. However, two species characteristic of the southeastern longleaf pine forest, Sciurus niger shermani (Sherman’s fox squirrel; Turner and Laerm 1993) and Geomys pinetus (southeastern pocket gopher), are common in virtually all longleaf pine forests on site. Discussion Vertebrates documented at Ichauway include 61 species of fish, 31 amphibians, 53 reptiles, 191 birds, and 41 mammals. Of fishes known to occur in the Apalachicola River Basin, 41% have been observed at Ichauway. Fully 42% of the amphibian species and 55% of the reptile species found in longleaf pine forests were recorded on site (31 of 74 amphibians and 53 of 96 reptiles [Dodd 1995], or 31 of 73 amphibians and 53 of 95 reptiles [Guyer and Bailey 1993]). The 191 bird species that have been recorded at Ichauway represent 47% of the 408 species on the Georgia state list (Beaton et al. 2003); of these, 40 are closely associated with longleaf pine habitat. There are 91 species of mammals that occur in Georgia (Golley 1962, Whitaker and Hamilton 1998); 45% of these species have been documented on Ichauway. Two mammals characteristic of longleaf pine forest, the southeastern pocket gopher and Sherman’s fox squirrel, are common at Ichauway. The greatest conservation significance of Ichauway, in terms of fishes, probably lies in the preservation of assemblages native to the Apalachicola/ Flint River system, rather than the protection of individual species. This especially applies to fishes endemic to the Apalachicola River Basin and to striped bass, which require riverine springs for summer refuge. The Flint River and Ichawaynochaway Creek are also of regional importance because they support populations of Barbour’s Map Turtle and Alligator Snapping Turtle, two species of concern in the southeast. Continuing loss of highquality habitat in the Apalachicola River Basin may make Ichauway an important reserve for these species. 606 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 4 Although seasonal wetlands comprise only about 3% of the Ichauway land base, they contribute disproportionately to amphibian diversity. Twenty-eight (90%) of the amphibian species observed in this study were found in seasonal wetlands. Of these, 13 breed almost exclusively in these wetlands (Moler and Franz 1987) and spend a significant portion of their lives in the surrounding longleaf pine forest. Seasonal wetlands also support high plant and invertebrate diversity at Ichauway (Battle and Golladay 2002, Kirkman et al. 1999). The longleaf pine habitat at Ichauway supports a diverse array of reptiles, and the property hosts one of the largest populations of Gopher Tortoises in Georgia (Smith et al., in press). Three birds native to pine-grassland ecosystems, Bachman’s Sparrow, Sitta pusilla (Brown-headed Nuthatch), and Lanius ludovicianus (Loggerhead Shrike), are abundant at Ichauway. The grassland communities also provide ideal habitat for a diverse wintering sparrow community. The Red-cockaded Woodpecker population at Ichauway was limited by the availability of suitable roosting and nesting cavities. With artificial insert cavities, intensive habitat management, and translocation of 30 subadult RCWs, the population has grown at an average annual rate of 25% per year since 2000 (Stober and Jack 2004; J.M. Stober, JWJERC Newton, GA, The extant vertebrate fauna of Ichauway represents a significant proportion of that of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. However, the property was heavily timbered in the early 1900s, and portions of the site were extensively used for agriculture during the late 20th century. At present, the predominant land use surrounding Ichauway is center-pivot agriculture (Michener et al. 1998). The full effect of this large-scale habitat alteration on Ichauway’s vertebrate fauna is unknown. Nonetheless, likely due to the diversity of habitat types on-site, including seasonal wetlands, the fauna of Ichauway is remarkably diverse and may offer an example of reference conditions to guide restoration of longleaf pine forests and riparian systems elsewhere in the southeastern US. Acknowledgments Funding for the study was provided by the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center at Ichauway. The data presented represent considerable effort by many graduate students, field technicians, and other Ichauway staff. We especially thank Jimmy Atkinson, Bobby Bass, Roger Birkhead, Jim Bradley, Aubrey Heupel, Shannon Hoss, Brent Howze, Anna Liner, Gabe Miller, Shannan Miller, Jack Mulliford, Dale Rigsby, Robert Smith, Sean Sterrett, Amanda Subalusky, and Danielle Temple. John Jensen, Steve A. Johnson, Linda LaClaire, and John Palis documented the occurrence of several rare amphibians on the property. We thank Jean Brock for assistance with developing the habitat map. Comments from two anonymous reviewers greatly improved the manuscript. 2006 L.L. Smith et al. 607 Literature Cited American Ornithologists’ Union (AOU). 2005. Forty-sixth supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American Birds: Auk 122:1026–1031 Barnett, J.P. 1999. Longleaf pine ecosystem restoration: The role of fire. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 9:89–96. Battle J.M., and S.W. Golladay. 2002. Aquatic invertebrates in hardwood depressions of southwest Georgia. Southeastern Naturalist 1:149–58. Beaton, G., P. Sykes and J. Parrish. 2003. Annotated Checklist of Georgia Birds. Georgia Ornithological Society. Occasional Publication No. 14. Bibby, C.J., N.D. Burgess, and D.A. Hill. 1992. Bird Census Techniques. Academic Press, London, UK. Boschung, Jr., H.T., and R.L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Books, Washington, DC. Brockway, D.G., and K.W. Outcalt. 2000. Restoring longleaf pine wiregrass ecosystems: Hexazinone application enhances effects of prescribed fire. Forest Ecology and Management 137:121–138. Couch, C.A., E.H. Hopkins, and P.S. Hardy. 1995. Influences of Environmental Settings on Aquatic Ecosystems in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin. USGS Water-Resources Report 95-4278, Atlanta, GA. Crother, B.I. (Ed.). 2000. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. SSAR Herpetological Circular 29. DeSante, D.F., and K.M. Burton. 1994. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program third annual report (1992). Bird Populations 2:62–89. Dodd, Jr., C.K. 1995. Reptiles and amphibians in the endangered longleaf pine ecosystem. Pp. 129–131, In E.T. Laroe, G.S. Farris, C.E. Puckett, P.D. Doran, and M.J. Mac (Eds.). Our Living Resources. National Biological Service, Washington, DC. Drew, M.B., L.K. Kirkman, and A.K. Gholson, Jr. 1998. The vascular flora of Ichauway, Baker County, Georgia: A remnant longleaf pine/wiregrass ecosystem. Castanea 63:1–24. Ewel, J.J. 1990. Introduction. Pp. 3–10, In R.L. Myers, and J.J. Ewel (Eds.). Ecosystems of Florida. University of Central Florida Press, Orlando, FL. Freeman, M.C., and B.J. Freeman. 1992. Ichauway fishes, species occurrence and a study of movements by individuals relative to instream habitat. Unpublished report to J.W. Jones Ecological Research Center, Newton, GA. Frost, C.C. 1993. Four centuries of changing landscapes patterns in the longleaf pine ecosystem. Pp. 17–43, In S.M. Hermann (Ed.). Proceedings of the Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, Vol. 18. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. Golladay S.W., and J.M. Battle. 2002. Effects of flooding and drought on water quality in Gulf Coastal Plain streams in Georgia. Journal of Environmental Quality 31:1266–72. Golley, F. 1962. Mammals of Georgia: A Study of their Distribution and Functional Role in the Ecosystem. University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. 608 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 4 Guyer, C., and M.A. Bailey. 1993. Amphibians and reptiles of longleaf pine communities. Pp. 139–158, In S.M. Hermann (Ed.). Proceedings of the Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference. No. 18, The Longleaf Pine Ecosystem: Ecology, Restoration and Management. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. Heyer, W.R., M.A. Donnelly, R.W. McDiarmid, L.C. Hayek, and M.S. Foster. 1994. Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: Standard methods for amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. Johnson, S.A., and W.J. Barichivich. 2004. A simple technique for trapping Siren lacertina, Amphiuma means, and other aquatic vertebrates. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 19:263–269. Keefer, L.C. 1987. A survey of the Ichawaynochaway/Chickasawhatchee Creek system in southwest Georgia. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Final Report, Project number F-28-14. Kirkman, L.K., S.W. Golladay, L. LaClaire, and R. Sutter. 1999. Biodiversity in southeastern, seasonally ponded, isolated wetlands: Management and policy perspectives for research and conservation. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 18:553–562. Kunz, T.H., and A. Kurta. 1998. Capture methods and holding devices. Pp. 1–30, In T.H. Kunz (Ed.). Ecological and Behavioral Methods for the Study of Bats. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, DC. Landers, J.L., D.H. Van Lear, and W.D. Boyce. 1995. The longleaf pine forest of the southeast: Requiem or renaissance? Journal of Forestry 93:39–44. Means, D.B. 1996. Longleaf pine forest, going, going… Pp. 210–229, In M.B. Davis (Ed.). Eastern Old-growth Forests: Prospects for Rediscovery and Recovery. Island Press, Washington, DC. Michener, W.K., E.R. Blood, J. Brim Box, C.A. Couch, S.W. Golladay, D.J. Hippe, R.J. Mitchell, and B.J. Palik. 1998. Tropical storm flooding of a Coastal Plain landscape: Extensive floodplains ameliorated potential adverse effects on water quality, fishes, and molluskan communities. BioScience 48:696–705. Moler, P., and R. Franz. 1987. Wildlife values of small isolated wetlands in the southeastern coastal plain. Pp. 234–241, In R.R. Odom, K.A. Riddleberger, and J.C. Ozier. (Eds). Third Southeastern Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Symposium. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Game and Fish Division, Athens, GA. Mosby, H.S. 1955. Live trapping objectionable animals. Virginian Polytechnic Institute Agriculture Extension Service Circular 667. Norris, R.A. 1951. Distribution and Populations of Summer Birds in Southwestern Georgia. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. Rudolph, D.C., S.J. Burgdorf, R.N. Conner, and R.R. Schaefer. 1999. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of roads and associated vehicular traffic on snake populations in eastern Texas. Pp. 129–136, In G.L. Evink. (Ed.). The International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL. Schemnitz, S.D. 1994. Capturing and handling wild animals. Pp. 106–124, In T.A. Bookhout. (Ed.). Research and Management Techniques for Wildlife and Habitats. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD. Smith, L.L., T.D. Tuberville, and R.A. Seigel. In press. Workshop on the ecology, status, and management of the Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Chelonian Conservation and Biology. 2006 L.L. Smith et al. 609 Stober, J.M., and S.B. Jack. 2004. Down for the Count? Red-cockaded Woodpecker restoration on Ichauway. Pp. 347–354, In R. Costa and S.J. Daniels (Eds.). Redcockaded Woodpecker: Road to Recovery. Hancock House Publishers Ltd., Surrey, BC, Canada. Turner, D.A., and J. Laerm. 1993. Systematic relationships of populations of the fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) in the southeastern United States. Pp. 21–36, In N.D. Moncrief, J.W. Edwards, and P.A. Tappe (Eds.). Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Southeastern Fox Squirrels. Virginia Museum of Natural History, Martinsville, VA. Special Publication Number 1. Varner, J.M., and J.S. Kush. 2004. Remnant old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas and forests of the southeastern USA: Status and threats. Natural Areas Journal 24:141–149. Wahlenberg, W.G. 1946. Longleaf Pine: Its Use, Ecology, Regeneration, Protection, Growth, and Management. C.L. Pack Forestry Foundation and USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. Whitaker, J.O., and W.J. Hamilton. 1998. Mammals of the Eastern United States. Third Edition. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 610 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 4 Appendix 1. Fishes known from Ichauway, Baker County, GA. Species presence confirmed by Freeman and Freeman (1992), Keefer (1987), or by Dr. D.C. Scott, University of Georgia (1948, Georgia Museum of Natural History collection records). * = endemic (species occur as natives only in the Apalachicola River system); † = introduced. Habitat types included creek (CR) and seasonal wetland (SW). Scientific name Common name Habitat Lampreys Ichthyomyzon gagei Hubbs and Trautman Southern brook lamprey CR Gars Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell Spotted gar CR Lepisosteus osseus Linnaeus Longnose gar CR Bowfin Amia calva Linnaeus Bowfin CR, SW Freshwater Eels Anguilla rostrata Lesueur American eel CR Shads and herrings Alosa alabamae Jordan and Evermann Alabama shad CR Dorosoma cepedianum Lesueur Gizzard shad CR Pikes Esox americanus Gmelin Redfin pickerel CR Esox niger Lesueur Chain pickerel CR Minnows Cyprinella callitaenia* Bailey and Gibbs Bluestripe shiner CR Cyprinella venusta Girard Blacktail shiner CR Cyprinus carpio† Linnaeus Common carp CR Hybopsis sp. “Coastal chub” CR Notemigonus crysoleucas Mitchill Golden shiner SW Notropis chalybeus Cope Ironcolor shiner CR Notropis harperi Fowler Redeye chub CR Notropis hypsilepis Suttkus and Raney Highscale shiner CR Notropis longirostris Hay Longnose shiner CR Notropis maculatus Hay Taillight shiner CR Notropis petersoni Fowler Coastal shiner CR Notropis texanus Girard Weed shiner CR Opsopoeodus emiliae Hay Pugnose minnow CR Pteronotropis grandipinnis Jordan Apalachee shiner CR Suckers Erimyzon sucetta Lacepède Lake chubsucker SW Minytrema melanops Rafinesque Spotted sucker CR Moxostoma lachneri* Robins and Raney Greater jumprock CR Moxostoma sp.* “Apalachicola redhorse” CR Bullhead catfish Ameiurus brunneus Jordan Snail bullhead CR Ameiurus melas Rafinesque Black bullhead SW, CR Ameiurus nebulosus Lesueur Brown bullhead SW, CR 2006 L.L. Smith et al. 611 Scientific name Common name Habitat Ameiurus serracanthus Yerger and Relyea Spotted bullhead CR Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque Channel catfish CR Noturus gyrinus Mitchill Tadpole madtom CR Noturus leptacathus Jordan Speckled madtom CR Pylodictis olivaris† Rafinesque Flathead catfish CR Pirate Perches Aphredoderus sayanus Gilliams Pirate perch CR, SW Top minnows Fundulus chrysotus Günther Golden topminnow SW Fundulus escambiae Bollman Russetfin topminnow CR Live bearers Gambusia holbrooki Girard Eastern mosquitofish SW, CR Silversides Labidesthes sicculus Cope Brook silverside CR Needlefish Strongylura marina Walbaum Atlantic needlefish CR Pigmy Sunfishes Elassoma zonatum Jordan Banded pygmy sunfish CR Temperate bass Morone saxatilis Walbaum Striped bass CR Sunfish and bass Ambloplites ariommus Viosca Shadow bass CR Centrarchus macropterus Lacepède Flier SW, CR Lepomis auritus Linnaeus Redbreast sunfish CR Lepomis cyanellus† Rafinesque Green sunfish CR Lepomis gulosus Cuvier Warmouth CR Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque Bluegill sunfish CR Lepomis marginatus Holbrook Dollar sunfish CR Lepomis megalotis† Rafinesque Longear sunfish CR Lepomis microlophus Günther Redear sunfish CR Lepomis miniatus x L. punctatus1 Redspotted sunfish - CR spotted sunfish contact populations Micropterus salmoides Lacepède Largemouth bass CR Micropterus cataractae* Williams and Shoal bass CR Burgess Pomoxis nigromaculatus Lesueur Black crappie CR Darters Etheostoma edwini Hubbs and Cannon Brown darter CR Etheostoma fusiforme Girard Swamp darter SW Etheostoma swaini Jordan Gulf darter CR Percina nigrofasciata Agassiz Blackbanded darter CR Percina sp.* “Halloween darter” CR 1See: Warren 1992. 612 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 4 Appendix 2. Reptiles known from Ichauway, Baker County, GA. Species listed were documented on-site from 1995–2005. Habitat types included agricultural (AG), creek (CR), longleaf pine (LLP), mixed hardwood pine (MHP), seasonal wetland (SW), river (R), and riparian area (RP). UK = unknown. Scientific name Common name Habitat Crocodilians Alligator mississippiensis Daudin American Alligator CR, SW, LLP, R Turtles Apalone ferox Schneider Florida Softshell SW Apalone spinifera Lesueuer Spiny Softshell CR Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus Snapping Turtle SW Deirochelys reticularia Latreille Chicken Turtle SW Gopherus polyphemus Daudin Gopher Tortoise LLP, MHP Graptemys barbouri Carr and Barbour’s Map Turtle CR Marchand Kinosternon subrubrum Lacepède Eastern Mud Turtle SW, LLP, MHP Macrochelys temminckii Troost Alligator Snapping Turtle CR Pseudemys concinna LeConte River Cooter CR, SW Pseudemys floridana LeConte Florida Cooter CR, SW Sternotherus minor Agassiz Loggerhead Musk Turtle CR Sternotherus odoratus Latreille Stinkpot SW Terrapene carolina Linnaeus Eastern Box Turtle LLP, MHP, RP Trachemys scripta Schoepff Yellow-bellied Slider SW, CR, LLP Lizards Anolis carolinensis Voigt Green Anole LLP, MHP Aspidocelis sexlineatus Linnaeus Six-lined Racerunner LLP Eumeces egregius Baird Mole Skink LLP Eumeces fasciatus Linnaeus Common Five-lined Skink LLP, MHP Eumeces inexpectatus Taylor Southeastern Five-lined Skink LLP, MHP Eumeces laticeps Schneider Broad-headed Skink LLP, MHP Ophisaurus attenuatus Cope Slender Glass Lizard LLP Ophisaurus ventralis Linnaeus Eastern Glass Lizard LLP Sceloporus undulatus Bosc and Eastern Fence Lizard LLP, MHP Daudin Scincella lateralis Say Ground Skink LLP, MHP, SW Snakes Agkistrodon contortrix Linnaeus Copperhead LLP, MHP Agkistrodon piscivorus Lacepède Cottonmouth SW Cemophora coccinea Blumenbach Scarlet Snake LLP Coluber constrictor Linnaeus Black Racer LLP, MHP, SW Crotalus adamanteus Palisot Eastern Diamondback LLP, MHP de Beauvois Rattlesnake Crotalus horridus Linnaeus Timber Rattlesnake LLP, MHP Diadophis punctatus Linnaeus Ring-necked Snake SW Drymarchon couperi Holbrook Eastern Indigo Snake LLP Elaphe guttata Linnaeus Corn Snake LLP Elaphe obsoleta Duméril Gray Rat Snake LLP, MHP, RP Farancia abacura Holbrook Red-bellied Mud Snake SW 2006 L.L. Smith et al. 613 Scientific name Common name Habitat Farancia erytrogramma Palisot Rainbow Snake RP, CR de Beauvois Heterodon platirhinos Latreille Eastern Hog-nosed Snake LLP, MHP Heterodon simus Linnaeus Southern Hog-nosed Snake LLP Lampropeltis getula Linnaeus Eastern King Snake LLP Lampropeltis triangulum Lacepède Scarlet Kingsnake LLP, MHP Masticophis flagellum Shaw Coachwhip LLP, MHP Nerodia erythrogaster Forster Plain-bellied Water Snake SW Nerodia fasciata Linnaeus Southern Water Snake SW Nerodia taxispilota Holbrook Brown Water Snake CR, RP Opheodrys aestivus Linnaeus Rough Green Snake RP Pituophis melanoleucus Daudin Pine Snake LLP Sistrurus miliarius Linnaeus Pygmy Rattlesnake UK Storeria dekayi Holbrook Dekay’s Brown Snake SW Storeria occipitomaculata Storer Red-bellied Snake SW Thamnophis sauritus Linnaeus Eastern Ribbon Snake SW Thamnophis sirtalis Linnaeus Common Garter Snake LLP, SW Virginia valeriae Baird and Girard Smooth Earth Snake SW Appendix 3. Amphibians known from Ichauway, Baker County, GA. Habitat types included creek (CR), longleaf pine (LLP), mixed hardwood pine (MHP), seasonal wetland (SW), and riparian area (RP). Scientific name Common name Habitat Salamanders Ambystoma cingulatum Cope Flatwoods Salamander SW Ambystoma opacum Gravenhorst Marbled Salamander RP, SW Ambystoma talpoideum Holbrook Mole Salamander SW Ambystoma tigrinum Green Tiger Salamander SW Amphiuma means Garden Two-toed Amphiuma SW Eurycea cirrigera Green Southern Two-lined CR, RP Salamander Eurycea guttolineata Holbrook Three-Lined Salamander RP Eurycea quadridigitata Holbrook Dwarf Salamander SW Notophthalmus perstriatus Bishop Striped Newt SW Notophthalmus viridescens Rafinesque Eastern Newt SW Plethodon grobmani Allen and Neill Southeastern Slimy LLP, SW Salamander Pseudobranchus striatus LeConte Northern Dwarf Siren SW Siren lacertina Linnaeus Greater Siren SW Frogs Acris gryllus LeConte Southern Cricket Frog RP, SW Bufo terrestris Bonnaterre Southern Toad LLP, MHP, SW Gastrophryne carolinensis Holbrook Eastern Narrow-mouthed SW, LLP Toad Hyla chrysoscelis Cope Cope’s Gray Treefrog SW Hyla cinerea Schneider Green Treefrog LLP, SW 614 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 4 Scientific name Common name Habitat Hyla femoralis Bosc Pinewoods Treefrog LLP, SW Hyla gratiosa LeConte Barking Treefrog LLP, SW Hyla squirella Bosc Squirrel Treefrog LLP, SW Pseudacris crucifer Wied-Neuwied Spring Peeper RP, SW Pseudacris feriarum Baird Upland Chorus Frog SW Pseudacris nigrita LeConte Southern Chorus Frog SW Pseudacris ocularis Bosc and Daudin Little Grass Frog SW Pseudacris ornata Holbrook Ornate Chorus Frog SW Rana capito LeConte Gopher Frog LLP, SW Rana catesbeiana Shaw Bull Frog SW Rana grylio Stejneger Pig Frog SW Rana sphenocephala Cope Southern Leopard Frog SW Scaphiopus holbrooki Harlan Eastern Spadefoot Toad LLP, SW Appendix 4. Birds known from Ichauway, Baker County, GA. Species were documented on-site from 1950–2005. R = Residency (PR = permanent resident, SR = summer resident, WR = winter resident, SV = summer vagrant, WV = winter vagrant, T = transient, AC = accidental); I = incidental, P = point count, M = MAPS. † = introduced. Habitat types included agricultural (AG), creek (CR), longleaf pine (LLP), mixed hardwood pine (MHP), seasonal wetland (SW), river (R), and riparian area (RP), while G = habitat generalist. † = introduced species. Scientific name Common name R I P M Habitat Geese and ducks Aix sponsa L. Wood Duck PR Y SW, RP Anas acuta L. Northern Pintail WV Y SW, RP Anas discors L. Blue-winged Teal WR Y SW, RP Anas platyrhynchos L. Mallard WV Y SW, RP Anas rubripes Brewster American Black Duck WV Y SW, RP Anas strepera L. Gadwall WR Y SW, RP Aythya affinis Eyton Lesser Scaup WR Y SW, RP Aythya collaris Donovan Ring-necked Duck WV Y SW, RP Aythya valisineria Wilson Canvasback WR Y SW, RP Branta canadensis L. Canada Goose WV Y SW, RP Chen caerulescens L. Snow Goose WV Y SW, RP Lophodytes cucullatus L. Hooded Merganser WV Y SW, RP Upland game birds Meleagris gallopavo L. Wild Turkey PR Y RP, MHP, LLP Colinus virginianus L. Northern Bobwhite PR Y Y LLP Grebes Podiceps auritus L. Horned Grebe WV Y SW, RP Podilymbus podiceps L. Pied-billed Grebe PR Y SW, RP True cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus Lesson Double-crested SV Y R Cormorant 2006 L.L. Smith et al. 615 Scientific name Common name R I P M Habitat Anhinga Anhinga anhinga L. Anhinga SV Y R Wading birds Ardea alba L. Great Egret SV Y SW,CR Ardea herodias L. Great Blue Heron PR Y SW,CR Botaurus lentiginosus Rackett American Bittern WR Y SW,CR Bubulcus ibis L. Cattle Egret SR Y SW,CR Butorides virescens L. Green Heron SR Y SW,CR Egretta caerulea L. Little Blue Heron SR Y SW,CR Egretta thula Molina Snowy Egret SV Y SW,CR Egretta tricolor Muller Tricolored Heron SV Y SW,CR Eudocimus albus L. White Ibis SV Y SW,CR Mycteria americana L. Wood Stork SV Y SW,CR Nycticorax nycticorax L. Black-crowned Night SV Y SW, RP Heron Nycticorax violacea L. Yellow-crowned Night SV Y SW, RP Heron New world vultures Cathartes aura L. Turkey Vulture PR Y LLP, RP Coragyps atratus Bechstein Black Vulture PR Y LLP, RP Ospreys Pandion haliaetus L. Osprey SV Y R, CR Kites Elanoides forficatus L. Swallow-tailed Kite SV Y RP Ictinia mississippiensis Wilson Mississippi Kite SR Y RP Eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus L. Bald Eagle PR Y RP Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus L. Northern Harrier WV Y AG, LLP Hawks Accipiter cooperii Bonaparte Cooper’s Hawk PR Y LLP, MHP Accipiter striatus Vieillot Sharp-shinned Hawk WV Y LLP, MHP Buteos Buteo jamaicensis Gmelin Red-tailed Hawk PR Y LLP Buteo lineatus Gmelin Red-shouldered Hawk PR Y RP Buteo platypterus Vieillot Broad-winged Hawk SR Y RP Falcons Falco columbarius L. Merlin T Y LLP, AG Falco peregrinus Tunstall Peregrine Falcon T Y LLP, AG Falco sparverius L. American Kestrel WR Y LLP, AG Rails Fulica americana Gmelin American Coot T Y SW Gallinula chloropus L. Common Moorhen PR Y SW Porphyrio martinica L. Purple Gallinule SR Y SW Rallus elegans Audubon King Rail SR Y SW 616 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 4 Scientific name Common name R I P M Habitat Shorebirds Actitis macularia L. Spotted Sandpiper SV Y SW Bartramia longicauda Upland Sandpiper T Y SW Bechstein Calidris melanotos Vieillot Pectoral Sandpiper T Y SW Calidris minutilla Vieillot Least Sandpiper WV Y SW Calidris pusilla Bonaparte Semipalmated Sandpiper T Y SW Charadrius semipalmatus L. Semipalmated Plover T Y SW Charadrius vociferus L. Killdeer PR Y SW Gallinago gallinago L. Common Snipe WR Y SW Grus canadensis L. Sandhill Crane T Y SW Scolopax minor Gmelin American Woodcock WV Y SW Tringa flavipes Gmelin Lesser Yellowlegs T Y SW Tringa melanoleuca Gmelin Greater Yellowlegs T Y SW Tringa solitaria Wilson Solitary Sandpiper T Y SW Gulls Larus delawarensis Ord Ring-billed Gull T Y G Larus argentatus Pontoppidan Herring Gull T Y G Terns Chlidonias niger L. Black Tern T Y G Pigeons and Doves Columba livia † Gmelin Rock Pigeon PR Y AG Columbina passerina L. Common Ground-dove PR Y Y LLP Streptopelia decaocto† Eurasian Collared-dove PR Y AG Frivaldszky Streptopelia risoria † L. Ringed Turtle-dove PR Y G Zenaida macroura L. Mourning Dove PR Y LLP Cuckoos Coccyzus americanus L. Yellow-billed Cuckoo SR Y RP,MHP Owls Tyto alba Scopoli Barn Owl PR Y AG, LLP Megascops asio L. Eastern Screech Owl PR Y LLP, MHP Bubo virginianus Gmelin Great Horned Owl PR Y LLP Strix varia Barton Barred Owl PR Y SW,RP Goatsuckers and swifts Caprimulgus carolinensis Chuck-will’s Widow SR Y LLP Gmelin Caprimulgus vociferus Wilson Whip-poor-will T Y LLP Chaetura pelagica L. Chimney Swift SR Y LLP Chordeiles minor Forster Common Nighthawk SR Y LLP Hummingbirds Archilochus colubris L. Ruby-throated SR Y Y RP, MHP Hummingbird Kingfishers Ceryle alcyon L. Belted Kingfisher PR Y RP,SW Woodpeckers Colaptes auratus L. Northern Flicker PR Y LLP Dryocopus pileatus L. Pileated Woodpecker PR Y MHP, RP 2006 L.L. Smith et al. 617 Scientific name Common name R I P M Habitat Melanerpes carolinus L. Red-bellied Woodpecker PR Y Y LLP Melanerpes erythrocephalus L. Red-headed Woodpecker PR Y Y LLP Picoides borealis Vieillot Red-Cockaded PR Y LLP Woodpecker Picoides pubescens L. Downy Woodpecker PR Y LLP Picoides villosus L. Hairy Woodpecker PR Y LLP Sphyrapicus varius L. Yellow-bellied WR Y LLP Sapsucker Tyrant flycatchers Contopus virens L. Eastern Wood-pewee SR Y LLP Empidonax flaviventris Baird Yellow-bellied T Y LLP Flycatcher Empidonax virescens Vieillot Acadian Flycatcher SR Y RP Myiarchus crinitus L. Great Crested Flycatcher SR Y Y LLP Pyrocephalus rubinus Boddaert Vermilion Flycatcher T Y RP Sayornis phoebe Latham Eastern Phoebe PR Y LLP Tyrannus forficatus Gmelin Scissor-tailed Flycatcher AC Y LLP, AG Tyrannus tyrannus L. Eastern Kingbird SR Y Y LLP, AG Shrikes and vireos Lanius ludovicianus L. Loggerhead Shrike PR Y LLP,SW Vireo flavifrons Vieillot Yellow-throated Vireo SR Y RP Vireo griseus Boddaert White-eyed Vireo SR Y Y RP, MHP Vireo olivaceus L. Red-eyed Vireo SR Y RP, MHP Vireo solitarius Wilson Blue-headed Vireo WR Y RP, MHP Jays and crows Corvus brachyranchus Brehm American Crow PR Y LLP Corvus ossifragus Wilson Fish Crow PR Y LLP Cyanocitta cristata L. Blue Jay PR Y Y LLP Swallows Hirundo rustica L. Barn Swallow SR Y RP Progne subis L. Purple Martin SR Y AG Stelgidopteryx serripennis Northern Rough-winged SR Y LLP, R Audubon Swallow Tachycineta bicolor Vieillot Tree Swallow T Y G Chickadees Baeolophus bicolor L. Tufted Titmouse PR Y Y LLP Poecile carolinensis Audubon Carolina Chickadee PR Y Y LLP Nuthatches and creepers Cherthia americana Bonaparte Brown Creeper WR Y SW Sitta carolinensis Latham White-breasted Nuthatch PR Y LLP Sitta pusilla Latham Brown-headed Nuthatch PR Y LLP Wrens Cistothorus palustris Wilson Marsh Wren WR Y SW Cistothorus platensis Latham Sedge Wren WR Y SW Thryomanes bewickii Audubon Bewick’s Wren T Y SW Thryothorus ludovicianus Carolina Wren PR Y Y LLP Latham Troglodytes aedon Vieillot House Wren WR Y AG Troglodytes troglodytes L. Winter Wren WR Y SW 618 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 4 Scientific name Common name R I P M Habitat Old world warblers, thrushes, and their allies Catharus fuscescens Stephens Veery T Y RP Catharus guttatus Pallas Hermit Thrush WR Y LLP Catharus ustulatus Nuttall Swainson’s Thrush T Y RP Hylocichla mustelina Gmelin Wood Thrush SR Y RP Polioptila caerulea L. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher PR Y Y LLP Regulus calendula L. Ruby-crowned Kinglet WR Y RP, MHP Regulus satrapa Lichtenstein Golden-crowned Kinglet WR Y RP, MHP Sialia sialis L. Eastern Bluebird PR Y Y LLP, AG Turdus migratorius L. American Robin WR Y LLP, AG Mimids Dumetella carolinensis L. Gray Catbird PR Y Y MHP Mimus polyglottos L. Northern Mockingbird PR Y LLP Toxostoma rufum L. Brown Thrasher PR Y Y LLP Starlings and mynas Sturnus vulgaris L. European Starling PR Y Y AG Wagtails and pipits Anthus rubescens Tunstall American Pipit WR Y RP Waxwings Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot Cedar Waxwing T Y AG Dendroica coronata L. Yellow-rumped Warbler WR Y LLP, AG Dendroica discolor Vieillot Prairie Warbler T Y Y Y MHP Dendroica dominica L. Yellow-throated Warbler SR Y MHP Dendroica fusca Muller Blackburnian Warbler T Y RP Dendroica magnolia Wilson Magnolia Warbler T Y RP Dendroica palmarum Gmelin Palm Warbler WR Y LLP Dendroica pensylvanica L. Chestnut-sided Warbler T Y RP Dendroica petechia L. Yellow Warbler T Y RP Dendroica pinus Wilson Pine Warbler PR Y Y LLP Dendroica striata Forster Blackpoll Warbler T Y RP Dendroica tigrina Gmelin Cape May Warbler T Y RP Dendroica virens Gmelin Black-throated Green T Y RP Warbler Geothlypis trichas L. Common Yellowthroat PR Y Y MHP, LLP Mniotilta varia L. Black-and-white Warbler SV Y RP, MHP Parula americana L. Northern Parula SR Y Y RP, MHP Protonotaria citrea Boddaert Prothonotary Warbler SR Y RP, SW Seiurus aurocapillus L. Ovenbird T Y RP Seiurus motacilla Vieillot Louisiana Waterthrush T Y RP Setophaga ruticilla L. American Redstart SR Y Y RP Vermivora celata Say Orange-crowned Warbler T Y RP Vermivora peregrina Wilson Tennessee Warbler T Y RP Wilsonia citrina Boddaert Hooded Warbler SR Y RP Wood-warblers Icteria virens L. Yellow-breasted Chat SR Y Y MHP, LLP Tanagers, cardinals, and their allies Aimophila aestivalis Bachman’s Sparrow PR Y Y LLP Lichenstein 2006 L.L. Smith et al. 619 Scientific name Common name R I P M Habitat Ammodramus henslowii Henslow’s Sparrow WR Y SW, AG Audubon Ammodramus leconteii Le Conte’s Sparrow WR Y SW Audubon Ammodramus savannarum Grasshopper Sparrow WR Y SW Gmelin Cardinalis cardinalis L. Northern Cardinal PR Y Y LLP, AG Junco hyemalis L. Dark-Eyed Junco WR Y LLP, AG Melospiza georgiana Latham Swamp Sparrow WR Y SW Melospiza lincolnii Audubon Lincoln’s Sparrow AC Y G Melospiza melodia Wilson Song Sparrow WR Y G Passerculus sandwichensis Savannah Sparrow WR Y G Gmelin Passerella iliaca Merrem Fox Sparrow WR Y G Passerina caerulea L. Blue Grosbeak SR Y Y LLP, AG Passerina cyanea L. Indigo Bunting SR Y Y LLP Pheucticus ludovicianus L. Rose-breasted Grosbeak T Y G Pipilo erythrophthalmus L. Eastern Towhee PR Y Y LLP Piranga olivacea Gmelin Scarlet Tanager T Y RP Piranga rubra L. Summer Tanager SR Y Y LLP, MHP Pooecetes gramineus Gmelin Vesper Sparrow WR Y G Spizella pallida Swainson Clay-colored Sparrow AC Y G Spizella passerina Bechstein Chipping Sparrow PR Y LLP Spizella pusilla Wilson Field Sparrow PR Y Y LLP Zonotrichia albicollis Gmelin White-throated Sparrow WR LLP Zonotrichia leucophrys Forster White-crowned Sparrow WR Y LLP Icterids Agelaius phoeniceus L. Red-winged Blackbird PR Y SW Dolichonyx oryzivorus L. Bobolink T Y AG Icterus spurius L. Orchard Oriole SR Y LLP, AG Molothrus ater Boddaert Brown-headed Cowbird PR Y Y LLP, AG Quiscalus quiscula L. Common Grackle PR Y SW, AG Sturnella magna L. Eastern Meadowlark PR Y SW, AG Finches and old world sparrows Carduelis tristis L. American Goldfinch T Y AG Carpodacus mexicanus Muller House Finch SR Y AG Carpodacus purpureus Gmelin Purple Finch WR Y AG Passer domesticus† L. House Sparrow PR Y AG Appendix 5. Mammals known from Ichauway, Baker County, GA. Species were documented from 1993–2005. Habitat types included creek (CR), longleaf pine (LLP), mixed hardwood pine (MHP), seasonal wetland (SW), river (R), and riparian area (RP). G = commonly found in > 3 of the habitats described above. † = introduced species. Scientific name Common name Habitat Shrews Blarina carolinensis Bachman Southern short-tailed shrew G Cryptotis parva Say Least shrew G 620 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 4 Scientific name Common name Habitat Rodents Castor canadensis Kuhl Beaver CR, R, RP Geomys pinetis Rafinesque Southeastern pocket LLP gopher Glaucomys volans Linnaeus Southern flying squirrel LLP, MHP Microtus pinetorum Le Conte Pine vole LLP Mus musculus† Linnaeus House mouse G Neotoma floridana Ord Eastern woodrat LLP, MHP, RP Ochrytomys nuttalli Harlan Golden mouse LLP, MHP, RP Oryzomys palustris Harlan Rice rat SW Peromyscus gossypinus Le Conte Cotton mouse G Peromyscus polionotus Wagner Oldfield mouse LLP Rattus norvegicus† Berkenhout Norway rat G Reithrodontomys humulis Audubon Harvest mouse LLP and Bachman Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin Gray squirrel MHP, RP Sciurus niger shermani Moore Sherman’s fox squirrel LLP, MHP Sigmodon hispidus Say and Ord Cotton rat G Tamias striatus Linnaeus Eastern chipmunk LLP, MHP Rabbits Sylvilagus floridanus J.A. Allen Cottontail rabbit G Sylvilagus palustris Bachman Marsh rabbit RP, SW Bats Myotis austroriparius Rhoads Southeastern myotis G Pipistrellus subflavus F. Cuvier Eastern pipistrelle G Eptesicus fuscus Beauvois Big brown bat G Lasiurus borealis Muller Red bat G Lasiurus seminolus Rhoads Seminole bat G Nycticeius humeralis Rafinesque Evening bat G Tadarida brasiliensis I. Geoffroy Brazilian free-tailed bat G Carnivores Canis familiaris† Linnaeus Domestic dog G Canis latrans Say Coyote G Felis catus† Linnaeus Domestic cat G Lutra canadensis Schreber River otter CR, R, RP Lynx rufus Schreber Bobcat G Mephitis mephitis Schreber Striped skunk G Mustela vison Schreber Mink CR, R, RP Procyon lotor Linnaeus Raccoon G Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber Gray fox G Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus Red fox G Artiodactyls Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann White-tailed deer G Sus scrofa† Linneaus Feral hog G Armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus† Linnaeus Nine-banded armadillo G Opossums Didelphis virginiana Kerr Opossum G