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The Vascular Flora of the Coon Creek Forever Wild Tract, Tallapoosa County, Alabama
T. Wayne Barger and Dan Tenaglia

Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 7, Number 3 (2008): 527–540

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2008 SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST 7(3):527–540 The Vascular Flora of the Coon Creek Forever Wild Tract, Tallapoosa County, Alabama T. Wayne Barger1,* and Dan Tenaglia2 Abstract - The Coon Creek Forever Wild Tract (CCFWT) is an area of approximately 130 ha that was purchased by the State of Alabama Forever Wild Program on February 1, 1995. The CCFWT lies 45 km west of Auburn, AL with the main tributary, Coon Creek, dissecting the tract and eventually emptying into the Tallapoosa River. The site is managed by the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources with an emphasis on recreational use, habitat management, and rare species protection. A fl oristic study of this area was conducted from March 2006 through May 2007. A total of 503 species from 319 genera and 114 families were collected, with 195 species being county records. Asteraceae was the largest family with 74 species. Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Fabaceae were the next largest families with 45, 31, and 31 species, respectively. Carex was the largest genus represented with 15 taxa. Introduction In 1992, the Forever Wild Program was established by an Alabama constitutional amendment (Satterfield and Waddell 1993) to provide a mechanism for purchasing land from willing landowners to provide public recreation and conservation of vital habitat. Since its inception, this program, managed by the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (AL-DCNR), has purchased lands for general recreation, nature preserves, and additions to wildlife management areas and state parks. For each Forever Wild land tract purchased, a management plan laying out guidelines and recommendations for the tract must be in place within a year of acquisition. On February 1, 1995, the Coon Creek Forever Wild Tract (CCFWT) was purchased by the state of Alabama as the third Forever Wild property. This study represents the first systematic inventory of the vascular fl ora on the tract and provides many county records for the poorly surveyed fl ora of Tallapoosa County. Description of the Coon Creek Forever Wild Tract The 130-ha CCFWT is located in east-central Alabama in rural, southern Tallapoosa County (Fig. 1). Tallapoosa County had an estimated population of 40,717 in 2005 and has an area of 1860 km2 (US Census Bureau 2006). Located 6.4 km north of Tallassee (Elmore County) and 45 km west of Auburn (Lee County), the CCFWT was acquired to provide the public with outdoor recreational opportunities, a nature preserve, and an environmental education study area. 1State Lands Division, Natural Heritage Section, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 64 North Union Street, Montgomery, AL 36130. 21416 Victoria Avenue, Opelika, AL 36801. *Corresponding author - 528 Southeastern Naturalist Vol.7, No. 3 The CCFWT is located just east of the Tallapoosa River with Yates Dam located 2.4 km to the south of the property. An old concrete boat ramp allowing access to narrow Yates Lake through the southern edge of the property is the only developed area on the site, with the exception of old woods roads and a narrow paved road along the southern section of the property. The northern portion of the study area can be accessed via a graded county dirt road that runs along a portion of the northern boundary. When compared to the surrounding area’s land use or other area lakes (such as Lake Martin), Yates Lake is relatively isolated and there is little encroaching development. This lack of development is partially due to the property having one mindful land steward from 1961 until the time of its purchase by the state in 1995. Though the CCFWT technically falls in the Piedmont (Southern Outer Piedmont Ecoregion), the tract has many characteristics common to the Coastal Plain (Fall Line Hills Ecoregion). The vegetation and terrain generally consists of heavily wooded oak-hickory forest lands with rolling hills sloping into and surrounding the mouth of Coon Creek. Elevation ranges from 105 m to approximately 182 m above sea level, with slopes of near 15% present in places. The major soil association of the area is Gilead- Norfolk-Greenville and is described as being comprised primarily of pacolet Figure 1. Location of the Coon Creek Forever Wild Tract in Tallapoosa County, AL. Yates Dam (not shown on the map) backs up the Tallapoosa River to create Yates Lake. 2008 T.W. Barger and D. Tenaglia 529 sandy loam surface soils with clay loam subsoil, and secondarily of sandy surface soils and loamy sand subsoil (USDA NRCS 2007). The climate for the area averages a July high of 33 oC and a January low of 1 oC; rainfall for the area is approximately 134 cm (54 inches) per year, with March being the wettest month and October being the driest (The Weather Channel 2007). The number of frost-free days (growing season) averages 234. Coon Creek is the main drainage through the CCFWT, fl owing east to west, and eventually emptying into the Tallapoosa River. Several smaller creeks also extend into the CCFWT’s boundary, each eventually emptying in to Coon Creek. Backwater from Yates Lake covers approximately 9 ha of the 130-ha tract, with approximately 4 additional hectares being marshland. Classification of forested plant communities on the CCFWT in 1995 showed the following community-type percentages: 17% upland pine, 31% mixed pine/hardwood, 36% upland hardwood, 14% intermediate hardwood, and 2% bottomland hardwood (State Lands Division, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Montgomery, AL, unpubl. data). This breakdown accurately depicts the community types and percentages currently present. Oak-hickory is the primary climax forest, with scattered Pinus taeda L. (Loblolly Pine) being the predominant pine species. However, there is a natural inclusion of P. palustris P. Mill (Longleaf Pine) on the north side of the property. Historical Land Use Historically, land use of the CCFWT was documented to have supported the turpentine industry that was once widespread across the longleaf forests of the southeastern US. Longleaf Pines were the species typically utilized for sap because of their plentifulness, long life span, prolific sap fl ow, and ability to withstand injury. From the mid-1800s until the turn of the century, collection of pine sap for use in conversion to turpentine or use in naval stores was a vast industry. This natural resource was primarily derived from the Longleaf Pines that covered the southeastern US, but sometimes also employed other species such as Pinus elliottii Engelm. (Slash Pine). The discovery of a “catface” (the name for the resulting marks made on pine trees in an effort to collect the sap) and several turpentine collection pans indicate that Longleaf Pines may have been more prevalent around the CCFWT than they are today. Methods The systematic collection within the CCFWT was conducted from March 2006 through May 2007. Methodology for surveying the study area was performed utilizing a modified meandering method similar to that of Goff et al. (1982). When possible, plants were collected in a non-destructive (top-snatched) manner for plant populations that were sampled. Because of the relatively small size of the CCFWT, the natural divisions of the property, and the frequency of surveys, the entire tract was thoroughly sampled. 530 Southeastern Naturalist Vol.7, No. 3 Voucher specimens were collected and identified by the authors and subsequently deposited at the Anniston Museum of Natural History, part of the Jacksonville State University herbarium collections (JSU). Verifications were made by the museum’s curator of collections, Dan Spaulding. Duplicates were deposited at Troy Herbarium (TROY). Identifications were determined using the following: Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia and Surrounding Areas – online working draft version, August 9, 2006 (Weakley 2006); Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas (Radford et al. 1968); Manual of the Grasses of the United States. Volumes I and II (Hitchcock 1971); Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle (Clewell 1985); Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern United States. Monocotyledons (Godfrey and Wooten 1979); and Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern United States. Dicotyledons (Godfrey and Wooten 1981). Results and Discussion Plant survey summary A total of 503 species representing 319 genera and 114 families were collected from the CCFWT. Of these, 195 were ascertained to be county records for Tallapoosa County (Kartesz 2007). Asteraceae was the largest family with 74 species. Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Fabaceae were the next largest families with 45, 31, and 31 species, respectively. Carex represented the largest genus with 15 taxa. Flowering plants comprised 96% of the fl ora, with dicots making up 72% and monocots comprising 24% (Appendix 1). Ferns and allies accounted for another 3%, and conifers made up 1% of the total vegetation sampled. Thirty-five species, or 7% of the species composition, were introduced species to the fl ora. No members of Lycopodiophyta were discovered during vegetation sampling. Rare plant species Three species of special interest were collected during this study. They are: Matelea baldwyniana (Sweet) Woods. (Baldwin’s Milkvine), Croomia paucifl ora (Nutt.) Torr. (Croomia), and Baptisia megacarpa Chapman ex Torr. & Gray (Apalachicola Wild Indigo). These species are designated by NatureServe as G3, G3, and G2, species respectively (NatureServe 2007). The G3 designation indicates that a species is “vulnerable range-wide,” and G2 indicates that a species is “imperiled range-wide.” Matelea baldwyniana is a twining, perennial herbaceous vine that has mostly heart-shaped leaves that are opposite in articulation. The fl owers are approximately 1 cm wide with strongly to moderately twisted petals that are creamy-white. Anthesis for this site was mid-April. This species is typically found on dry to slightly mesic slopes over calcareous bluffs and was once considered for listing as an endangered species. However, populations were considered too abundant for this designation. Baldwin’s Milkvine was historically found in four Alabama counties (Barbour, Clarke, Monroe, and 2008 T.W. Barger and D. Tenaglia 531 Wilcox), however each of those populations are considered extirpated (Mohr 1901). Ironically, Mohr (1901) recognized this taxon as being among the rarest in the south. Verification of this species in Tallapoosa County marks a state record for rediscovery of the species. Prior to this study, the plant was only known in Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and two Florida counties. Croomia paucifl ora is an herbaceous perennial member of the Stemonaceae, which is comprised of four genera and approximately 35 species. There are only 3 species of Croomia worldwide, with C. paucifl ora being the sole species found within the US (Whetstone 1984). Currently, C. paucifl ora has a limited distribution outside Alabama, occurring in only one Louisiana parish, two Florida counties, and eight Georgia counties. In Alabama, Croomia occurs in 25 counties, extending from the upper Coastal Plain to Harper’s discovery in the lower Appalachians (Harper 1942). Found mostly in moist, rich forests with common mesophytic forest indicators such as Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (Beech) and Tilia americana L. (Basswood), anthesis for Croomia in our area is mid to late-April. Croomia was also once a candidate species for federal listing under provisions of the Endangered Species Act; however, listing was denied because the plant was found to be too abundant in Alabama (Patrick et al. 1995). In 1983, Kral noted Baptisia megacarpa as a “rare or threatened plant species.” Occurring mostly in moist forest fl oodplains and lower wet slopes, Apalachicola Wild Indigo is endemic to three Georgia counties, seven Florida counties, and 10 Alabama counties. It is considered imperiled or critically imperiled throughout its distribution and is regarded as being particularly susceptible to disturbance (Nelson 2005). The present discovery is near the northern limit for the distribution of the species, with only one known location lying further north. Anthesis for B. megacarpa is early to mid-May for this location. Relatively little information has been published regarding this uncommon species. Other species of interest, because of state or distributional rarity, included: Agalinis tenella Pennell (Ten-lobe False Foxglove) G4; Celastrus scandens L. (American Bittersweet) G5; Crataegus pulcherrima Ashe (Beautiful Hawthorn) G3; Sida elliottii Torr. & Gray (Elliott’s Fanpetals) G4; and Verbesina aristata (Ell.) Heller (Coastal-plain Crownbeard) G4. Exotic plant species Thirty-five non-native plant species were collected on the CCFWT. This group accounts for approximately 7% of the total species observed. Other regional fl oras have had slightly higher percentages of non-native plant species; however, the areas surveyed were generally much larger than the 130 ha from the present study: 2528 ha of Lake Guntersville State Park yielded 17% non-natives (Spaulding 1999); 28,329 ha of Talladega Ranger District, Talladega National Forest yielded 12% non-natives (Ballard 1995); and 1101 ha of Cheaha State Park yielded 10% non-natives (Bussey 1983). While this study did not focus on quantitative measurements of plant coverage, the observed land area covered by these non-native plants was relatively small. 532 Southeastern Naturalist Vol.7, No. 3 The most commonly encountered non-native plant species, in order of abundance, were: Albizia julibrissin Durazzini (Mimosa), Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus (Japanese Stilt Grass), Lespedeza cuneata (Dumont) G. Don (Chinese Lespedeza), Melia azederach L. (Chinaberry), Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. (Kudzu), Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet (Chinese Wisteria), and the combined Trifolium spp. Acknowledgments The authors thank Curtis Hansen and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments in crafting this manuscript. Numerous field assistants were also very helpful in the collection of specimens for this project. Special thanks are extended to Dan Spaulding for his gracious assistance with plant specimen identification and to John Kartesz for verification of county record data. Literature Cited Ballard, J.M. 1995. A vascular fl ora of the Talladega Ranger District of the Talladega National Forest, Alabama. M.Sc. Thesis. Jacksonville State University. 270 pp. Bussey, M.G. 1983. Flora of Cheaha State Park, Alabama. M.Sc. Thesis. Jacksonville State University. 90 pp. Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle. University Presses of Florida, Tallahassee, FL. 605 pp. Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States. Monocotyledons. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. 712 pp. Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States. Dicotyledons. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. 933 pp. Goff, F.G., G.A. Dawson, and J.J. Rochow. 1982. Site examination for threatened and endangered plant species. Environmental Management 6:307–316. Harper, R.M. 1942. Croomia: A member of the Appalachian fl ora. Castanea 7:109– 113. Hitchcock, A.S. 1971. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. Volumes I and II. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY. 1051 pp. Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland, 2nd Edition, Volume 1. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 622 pp. Kartesz, J.T. 2007. Draft of a synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular fl ora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Second Edition. In J.T. Kartesz (Ed.). Floristic Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. Unpublished draft. Kral, R. 1983. Fabaceae. Pp. 617–680, In A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the south. Vol. 1, T.P. RB-TP2. USDAForest Service, Atlanta, GA. Mohr, C.T. 1901. Plant Life of Alabama. Geological Survey of Alabama. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. NatureServe. 2007. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 6.1. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. Available online at http:// Accessed August 20, 2007. 2008 T.W. Barger and D. Tenaglia 533 Nelson, G. 2005. East Gulf Coast Coastal Plain Wildfl owers. Globe Pequot Press, Guilford, CT. 264 pp. Patrick, T.S., J.R. Allison, and G.A. Krakow. 1995. Protected Plants of Georgia. Georgia Natural Heritage Program. Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Social Circle, GA. 246 pp. Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp. Satterfield, W.H., and G.G. Waddell. 1993. A history and analysis of Alabama’s “Forever Wild” constitutional amendment. Alabama Law Review 44:393–419. Spaulding, D.D. 1999. The vascular fl ora of Lake Guntersville State Park, Marshall County, Alabama. Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science 70:163–204. US Census Bureau. 2005. State and county quick facts. Available online at http:// May 1, 2007. US Department of Agriculture Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA NRCS). 2007. Soil survey of Tallapoosa County, Alabama. Available online at May 1, 2007. USDA NRCS. 2006. The PLANTS database. Available online at http://plants.usda. gov. Accessed May 1, 2007. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA. Weakley, A.S. 2006. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas [Online Draft Version]. Available online at ora. htm. Accessed August 9, 2006. 1014 pp. Whetstone, R.D. 1984. Notes on Croomia paucifl ora (Stemonaceae). Rhodora 86:131–137. The Weather Channel. 2007. Records for Tallassee, AL. Available online at http:// Accessed May 1, 2007. Atlanta, GA. 534 Southeastern Naturalist Vol.7, No. 3 Appendix 1. Annotated checklist of the fl ora of the Coon Creek Forever Wild Tract, with breakdown of the fl oristic survey by taxa level and native vs. exotic species of the Coon Creek Forever Wild Tract, Tallapoosa County, AL. The nomenclature, in most cases, follows Kartesz (1994). Synonymy, authorities, common names (for labels), and nomenclature were verified using the United States Department of Agriculture’s Plants Database (USDA NRCS 2006). Arrangement of the checklist is by division, then alphabetically by family, genus, and specific epithet. An asterisk (*) after the authority indicates a non-native species. Species followed by (-) are species of special concern. Collection numbers listed are those of the first author and are not lifetime collection numbers, but rather are specific to the current fl ora of Coon Creek. PTERIDOPHYTA Aspleniaceae Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes 71 Blechnaceae Woodwardia areolata (L.) Moore 2 Dennstaedtiaceae Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. pseudocaudatum (Clute) Heller 41 Dryopteridaceae Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth ssp. asplenioides (Michx.) Hultén 42 Onoclea sensibilis L. 100 Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott 17 Ophioglossaceae Botrychium dissectum Spreng. 399 Botrychium virginianum (L.) Swartz 8 Osmundaceae Osmunda cinnamomea L. 131 O. regalis L. 168 Polypodiaceae Pleopeltis polypodioides (L.) Andrews & Windham 38 Pteridaceae Adiantum pedatum L. 28 Thelypteridaceae Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Ching * 207 Phegopteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) Fée 228 CONIFEROPHYTA Cupressaceae Juniperus virginiana L. 94 Pinaceae Pinus echinata P. Mill. 223 P. palustris P. Mill. 224 P. taeda L. 244 Taxodiaceae Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard 102 MAGNOLIOPHYTA Acanthaceae Justicia americana (L.) Vahl 487 Ruellia caroliniensis (J.F. Gmelin) Steudel 201 Ruellia purshiana Fern. 67 Aceraceae Acer negundo L. 429 Acer rubrum L. 233 Acer saccharum Marsh. var. leucoderme (Small) Rehd. 7 Agavaceae Manfreda virginica (L.) Salisb. 160 Yucca fl accida Haw. 216 Amaryllidaceae Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Coville 12 Anacardiaceae Rhus copallina L. 213 R. glabra L. 319 Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill. 149 T. radicans (L.) Kuntze var. radicans 360 Annonaceae Asimina parvifl ora (Michx.) Dunal 6 A. triloba (L.) Dunal 96 Apiaceae Angelica venenosa (Greenway) Fern. 336 Chaerophyllum tainturieri Hook. 104 Cicuta maculata L. var. maculata 493 Eryngium yuccifolium Michx. var. yuccifolium 204 Hydrocotyle umbellata L. 400 H. verticillata Thunb. 116 Ligusticum canadense (L.) Britton 16 Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf. 500 Sanicula canadensis L. 242 S. smallii Bickn. 58 Thaspium trifoliatum (L.) Gray var. aureum Britt. 333 Zizia aptera (Gray) Fern. 90 2008 T.W. Barger and D. Tenaglia 535 Apocynaceae Amsonia tabernaemontana Walt. var. salicifolia (Pursh) Woods. 13 Apocynum cannabinum L. 133 Aquifoliaceae Ilex opaca Aiton 78 I. verticillata (L.) Gray 345 I. vomitoria Aiton 221 Araceae Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott 155 A. triphyllum (L.) Schott 4 Peltandra virginica (L.) Kunth. 101 Araliaceae Aralia spinosa L. 202 Arecaceae Sabal minor (Jacq.) Pers. 64 Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia serpentaria L. 179 Hexastylis arifolia (Michx.) Small 9 Asclepiadaceae Asclepias amplexicaulis Small 181 A. tuberosa L. 214 A. variegata L. 153 Matelea baldwyniana (Sweet) Woods. 70 - M. carolinensis (Jacq.) Woods. 136 Asteraceae Ageratina aromatica (L.) Spach 430 Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. 249 Arnoglossum atriplicifolium (L.) H.E. Robins. 120 Bidens discoidea (Torr. & Gray) Britt. 434 B. frondosa L. 369 Chrysopsis mariana (L.) Ell. 391 Cirsium horridulum Michx. 475 Conoclinium coelestinum (L.) DC. 454 Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. 420 Coreopsis auriculata L. 40 C. major Walt. 280 Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. 353 Elephantopus carolinianus Raeusch 190 E. tomentosus L. 312 Erechtites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf. 359 Erigeron pulchellus Michx. 477 E. strigosus Muhl. 272 Eupatoriadelphus fistulosus (Barratt) King & H.E. Robins. 303 Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam.) Small 211 E. hyssopifolium L. 343 E. rotundifolium L. 191 E. serotinum Michx. 240 Gamochaeta chionesthes G.L. Nesom * 97 G. coarctata (Willd.) Kerguélen * 81 Helenium amarum (Raf.) H. Rock var. amarum 314 H. autumnale L. 315 Helianthus hirsutus Raf. 320 H. resinosus Small 330 H. strumosus L. 325 Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet var. gracilis (Nutt.) Gandhi & Thomas 169 Hieracium venosum L. 56 Krigia caespitosa (Raf.) Chambers 259 Lactuca canadensis L. 331 L. fl oridana (L.) Gaertn. 465 Liatris elegantula (Greene) K. Schumann 414 Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. 124 Packera anonyma (Wood) W.A. Weber & A. Löve 273 Pityopsis aspera (Shuttlw.) Small var. adenolepis (Fern.) Semple & Bowers 387 P. graminifolia (Michx.) Nutt. var. graminifolia 385 Pluchea camphorata (L.) DC. 455 Pluchea foetida (L.) DC. var. foetida 380 Polymnia uvedalia L. 185 Prenanthes serpentaria Pursh 390 Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.) Hilliard & Burtt 407 Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walt.) DC. 318 Rudbeckia hirta L. 326 R. laciniata L. var. digitata (P. Mill.) Fiori 373 Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. laciniata 236 Sericocarpus asteroides (L.) BSP. 180 Silphium compositum Michx. var. venosum (Small) Kartesz & Gandhi 208 Solidago altissima L. 416 S. arguta Aiton 335 S. auriculata Shuttlw. 238 S. caesia L. 277 S. curtisii Torr. & Gray 446 S. odora Aiton 246 S. petiolaris Aiton 463 S. rugosa P. Mill. 209 S. ulmifolia Muhl. ex Willd 452 Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.) Nesom 372 S. dumosum (L.) Nesom var. dumosum 431 S. laterifl orum (L.) A. & D. Löve var. laterifl orum 443 S. patens (Aiton) Nesom 419 S. pilosum (Willd.) Nesom 442 S. puniceum (L.) A. & D. Löve var. puniceum 424 S. shortii (Lindl.) Nesom 324 S. undulatum (L.) Nesom 376 S. urophyllum (Lindl.) Nesom 444 Tetragonotheca helianthoides L. 199 Verbesina aristata (Elliott) Heller 194 - V. helianthoides Michx. 497 536 Southeastern Naturalist Vol.7, No. 3 V. occidentalis (L.) Walt. 395 Vernonia angustifolia Michx. 328 V. fl accidifolia Small 370 Balsaminaceae Impatiens capensis Meerb. 358 Berberidaceae Podophyllum peltatum L. 19 Betulaceae Alnus serrulata (Aiton) Willd. 79 Betula nigra L. 503 Carpinus caroliniana Walt. 72 Ostrya virginiana (P. Mill.) K. Koch 227 Bignoniaceae Bignonia capreolata L. 48 Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. 175 Boraginaceae Cynoglossum virginianum L. 157 Lithospermum tuberosum Rugel 203 Brassicaceae Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb. ex Muhl.) B.S.P. 479 Barbarea verna (P. Mill.) Aschers. * 488 Buddlejaceae Polypremum procumbens L. 342 Caesalpiniaceae Cercis canadensis L. 59 Calycanthaceae Calycanthus fl oridus L. var. fl oridus 310 Campanulaceae Lobelia cardinalis L. 307 L. puberula Michx. 381 Wahlenbergia marginata (Thunb.) A. DC. * 260 Caprifoliaceae Lonicera japonica Thunb. * 47 Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli 499 Viburnum rufidulum Raf. 146 Caryophyllaceae Cerastium glomeratum Thuillier. * 99 Silene stellata (L.) Aiton f. 235 S. virginica L. 93 Stellaria media (L.) Vill. * 480 S. pubera Michx. 18 Celastraceae Celastrus scandens L. 229 - Euonymus americana L. 62 Clusiaceae Hypericum drummondii (Grev. & Hook.) Torr. & Gray 299 H. hypericoides (L.) Crantz. 198 H. mutilum L. 329 H. punctatum Lamarck 197 Triadenum walteri (J.G. Gmel.) Gleason 404 Commelinaceae Commelina diffusa Burm. f. var. diffusa 436 Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz. * 375 Tradescantia hirsutifl ora Bush 52 T. ohiensis Raf. 152 T. virginiana L. 368 Convovulaceae Calystegia spithamaea (L.) Pursh 73 Dichondra carolinensis Michx. 471 Ipomoea pandurata L. 322 Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb. 313 Stylisma humistrata (Walt.) Chapm. 417 S. patens (Desr.) Myint ssp. patens 311 Cornaceae Cornus amomum P. Mill. 118 C. fl orida L. 218 C. foemina P. Mill. 69 Cuscutaceae Cuscuta campestris Yuncker 344 C. compacta Juss. 121 Cyperaceae Carex blanda Dewey 283 C. complanata Torr. & Hook. 266 C. crinita Lam. 106 C. debilis Michx. 122 C. digitalis Willd. var. fl oridana (L.H. Bailey) Naczi & Bryson 114 C. festucacea Schkuhr 384 C. fl accosperma Dewey 265 C. intumescens Rudge 111 C. leptalea Wahlenb. 286 C. lupulina Muhl. 253 C. lurida Wahlenb. 115 C. muehlenbergii Schkuhr ex Willd. var. muehlenbergii 276 C. nigromarginata Scwein. 117 C. striatula Michx. 258 C. umbellata Schkuhr 290 Cyperus fl avescens L. 468 C. haspan L. 406 C. strigosus L. 450 C. virens Michx. 364 Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britt. 397 Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes 403 E. obtusa (Willd.) J.A. Schultes 469 Fimbristylis littoralis Gaud. 472 F. miliacea (L.) Vahl 361 2008 T.W. Barger and D. Tenaglia 537 Kyllinga pumila Michx. 428 Rhynchospora corniculata (Lam.) Gray 231 R. miliaceae (Lam.) Gray 192 R. mixta Britt. 456 Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (K.C. Gmel.) Palla 457 Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth 178 Scleria oligantha Michx. 110 Cyrillaceae Cyrilla racemifl ora L. 504 Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea villosa L. 35 Ebenaceae Diospyros virginiana L. 182 Ericaceae Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC. 170 Rhododendron canescens (Michx.) Sweet 478 Vaccinium arboreum Marsh. 278 V. elliottii Chapm. 135 V. stamineum L. var. sericeum C. Mohr 55 Euphorbiaceae Acalypha gracilens Gray 432 A. rhomboidea Raf. 433 Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small 458 C. nutans (Lag.) Small 377 Cnidoscolus stimulosus (Michx.) Engel. & Gray 68 Croton capitatus Michx. 323 C. glandulosus L. 441 Ditrysinia fruticosa (Bartr.) Govaerts & Frodin 219 Euphorbia corollata L. 350 E. mercurialina Michx. 495 E. pubentissima Michx. 159 Phyllanthus urinaria L. * 352 Tragia urticifolia Michx. 255 Fabaceae Albizia julibrissin Durazzini * 83 Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern. 162 Apios americana Medicus. 171 Baptisia megacarpa Chapm. ex Torr. & Gray 264 - Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth. 316 Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench ssp. nictitans 301 Clitoria mariana L. 210 Desmodium glabellum (Michx.) DC. 378 D. laevigatum (Nutt.) DC. 256 D. marilandicum (L.) DC. 268 D. panciulatum (L.) DC. 422 D. rotundifolium DC. 269 D. viridifl orum (L.) DC. 348 Gleditsia triacanthos L. 498 Lespedeza cuneata (Dumont) G. Don * 89 L. procumbens Michx. 271 L. repens (L.) W. Bart. 275 L. virginica (L.) Britt. 389 Psoralea psoralioides (Walt.) Cory 140 Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. * 357 Robinia pseudo-acacia L. 295 Schrankia microphylla (Dry.) J.F. Macbr. 150 Stylosanthes bifl ora (L.) Britton 195 Tephrosia spicata (Walt.) Torr. & Gray 262 T. virginiana (L.) Pers. 125 Trifolium campestre Schreber * 105 T. incarnatum L. * 50 T. repens L. * 502 Vicia caroliniana Walt. 11 Wisteria frutescens (L.) Poir. 462 W. sinensis (Sims) Sweet * 88 Fagaceae Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. 51 Quercus alba L. 65 Q. falcata Michx. 147 Q. marilandica (L.) Muenchh. 212 Q. muehlenbergii Engelm. 163 Q. nigra L. 139 Q. phellos L. 77 Q. rubra L. 289 Q. stellata Wangenh. 138 Q. velutina Lam. 340 Geraniaceae Geranium carolinianum L. 143 Halograceae Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb. * 87 Hamamelidaceae Hamamelis virginiana L. 25 Liquidambar styracifl ua L. 24 Hippocastanaceae Aesculus pavia L. 33 Hydrangeaceae Hydrangea quercifolia Bartram 85 Hydrophyllaceae Hydrolea quadrivalvis Walt. 130 Iridaceae Iris brevicaulis Raf. 447 I. cristata Aiton 92 Sisyrinchium atlanticum Bickn. 98 Juglandaceae Carya glabra (P. Mill.) Sweet 239 C. tomentosa (L.) Nutt. ex Ell. 226 Juncaceae Juncus acuminatus Michx. 252 J. effusus L. 248 538 Southeastern Naturalist Vol.7, No. 3 Luzula acuminata Raf. 230 L. bulbosa (Wood) Smyth & Smyth 145 Lamiaceae Blephilia ciliata (L.) Benth. 281 Clinopodium georgianum Harper 374 Collinsonia canadensis L. 379 Hyptis alata (Raf.) Shinners 401 Lycopus rubellus Moench 449 L. virginicus L. 351 Prunella vulgaris L. 296 Pycnanthemum loomisii Nutt. 383 Salvia lyrata L. 45 S. urticifolia L. 95 Scutellaria elliptica Muhl. ex Spreng. var. elliptica 250 S. laterifl ora L. 382 S. ovata Hill 291 Trichostema setaceum Houtt. 393 Lauraceae Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume 183 Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 29 Liliaceae Aletris aurea Walt. 225 Allium canadense L. var. canadense 156 Chamaelirium luteum (L.) Gray 132 Hymenocallis occidentalis (J. Le Conte) Kunth 304 Medeola virginiana L. 3 Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf. 14 Uvularia perfoliata L. 482 U. sessilifolia L. 297 Loganiaceae Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) Aiton 161 Mitreola petiolata (J.F. Gmel.) Torr. & Gray 305 Spigelia marilandica L. 74 Lythraceae Ammannia coccinea Rottb. 445 Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne 356 Magnoliaceae Liriodendron tulipifera L. 54 Magnolia grandifl ora L. 61 M.tripetala L. 66 M. virginiana L. 75 Malvaceae Sida elliottii Torr. & Gray 413 - S. rhombifolia L. var. rhombifolia 347 S. spinosa L. 470 Meliaceae Melia azedarach L. * 189 Menispermaceae Calycocarpum lyonii (Pursh) Gray 154 Cocculus carolinus (L.) DC. 279 Monotropaceae Monotropa unifl ora L. 440 Moraceae Morus rubra L. 57 Nyssaceae Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. 176 Oleaceae Fraxinus americana L. 151 Ligustrum sinense Lour. * 80 Onagraceae Ludwigia alternifolia L. 341 L. decurrens Walt. 302 L. leptocarpa (Nutt.) Hara 306 L. palustris (L.) Ell. 474 Oenothera fruticosa L. 267 Orchidaceae Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray 274 Tipularia discolor (Pursh.) Nuttall 76 Orobanchaceae Conopholis americana (L.) Wallroth 27 Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart. 60 Oxalidaceae Oxalis priceae Small ssp. colorea (Small) Eiten 34 O. violacea L. 31 Papaveraceae Sanguinaria canadensis L. 22 Passifl oraceae Passifl ora incarnata L. 200 P. lutea L. 134 Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca americana L. 317 Platanaceae Platanus occidentalis L. 49 Poaceae Andropogon ternarius Michx. 402 Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl. 215 Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng var. songarica (Rupr. ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Celarier & Harlan * 451 Bromus pubescens Muhl. 421 Chasmanthium latifolium (Michx.) Yates 82 C. sessilifl orum (Poir.) Yates 366 Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. * 392 Danthonia sericea Nutt. 243 Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C.A. Clark var. acuminatum 284 D. boscii (Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark 148 D. commutatum (Schult.) Gould ssp. commutatum (J.A. Schultes) Gould 142 D. dichotomum (L.) Gould ssp. microcarpon (Muhl.) Freckmann & Lelong 367 2008 T.W. Barger and D. Tenaglia 539 D. laxifl orum (Lam.) Gould 144 D. ovale var. villosissimum (Ell.) Gould & C.A. Clark 141 D. ravenelii (Scribn. & Merr.) Gould 261 Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. * 467 Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. * 466 E. muricata (Beauv.) Fern. var. muricata 435 Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. * 461 Elymus glabrifl orus L. var. glabrifl orus 337 Eragrostis hirsuta (Michx.) Nees 263 E. spectabilis (Pursh) Steud. 412 Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. 426 L. virginica Willd. 365 Lolium perenne L. * 282 Melica mutica Walt. 109 Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus * 288 Panicum anceps Michx. 411 P. rigidulum Bosc ex. Nees ssp. elongatum (Pursh) Lelong 363 P. rigidulum Bosc ex Nees ssp. rigidulum 473 Paspalum notatum Flueggé 332 P. urvillei Steud. * 334 Piptochaetium avenaceum (L.) Parodi 418 Poa annua L.* 113 Saccharum baldwinii Spreng. 405 S. giganteum (Walt.) Pers. 388 Sacciolepis striata (L.) Nash 338 Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes ssp. pumila * 355 Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash 415 S. secundum (Ell.) Nash 410 Sphenopholis nitida (Biehler) Scribn. 127 Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. 464 Steinchisma hians (Ell.) Nash 460 Tridens fl avus (L.) A.S. Hitchc. var. fl avus 349 Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L. 309 Polemoniaceae Phlox amoena Sims 177 P. glaberrima L. 234 Polygalaceae Polygala grandifl ora Walt. 394 Polygonaceae Polygonum caespitosum var. longisetum Blume 287 P. glabrum Willd. 448 P. hydropiper L. * 425 P. pensylvanicum L. 339 P. sagittatum L. 251 P. setaceum Baldw. 232 P. virginianum L. 293 Pontederiaceae Pontederia cordata L. 294 Portulacaceae Claytonia virginica L. 481 Primulaceae Lysimachia ciliata L. 188 L. lanceolata Walt. 217 Ranunculaceae Actaea pachypoda Ell. 129 Clematis glaucophylla Small 494 Hepatica acutiloba DC. 37 Ranunculus bulbosus L. * 501 R. recurvatus Poiret. 23 Thalictrum thalictroides (L.) Boivin 5 Trautvetteria caroliniensis (Walt.) Vail 206 Rhamnaceae Berchemia scandens (Hill) K. Koch 184 Ceanothus americanus L. 237 Frangula caroliniana (Walt.) Gray 165 Rosaceae Agrimonia microcarpa Wallr. 346 Amelanchier arborea (Michx.) Fern. 123 Crataegus intricata Lange 492 C. iracunda Beadle 490 C. pulcherrima Ashe 321 - C. spathulata Michx. 53 Malus angustifolia (Aiton) Michx. 222 Prunus americana Marsh. 164 P. mexicana S. Wats. 491 P. serotina Ehrhart 196 P. umbellata Ell. 126 Rosa carolina L. 409 Rubus cuneifolius Pursh 427 R. fl agellaris Willd. 220 Rubiaceae Cephalanthus occidentalis L. 308 Diodia teres Walt. 300 D. virginiana L. 270 Galium aparine L. 103 G. trifl orum Michx. 167 G. unifl orum Michx. 257 Houstonia caerulea L. 30 H. pusilla Schoepf 476 Mitchella repens L. 39 Oldenlandia unifl ora L. 437 Rutaceae Ptelea trifoliata L. var. trifoliata 496 Salicaceae Populus deltoides Bartram 241 Salix nigra Marsh. 396 Sapotaceae Sideroxylon lanuginosa (Michx.) Pers. 119 Saururaceae Saururus cernuus L. 187 540 Southeastern Naturalist Vol.7, No. 3 Saxifragaceae Heuchera americana L. var. americana 32 Itea virginica L. 107 Tiarella cordifolia L. 20 Scrophulariaceae Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell 386 A. tenella Pennell 453 - Gratiola neglecta Torr. 371 G. virginiana L. 254 Mecardonia acuminata (Walt.) Small 362 Micranthemum umbrosum (J.F. Gmel.) Blake 398 Mimulus alatus Aiton 245 Pedicularis canadensis L. 91 Veronica arvensis L. * 483 Smilacaceae Smilax bona-nox L. 86 S. ecirrhata Engelm. var. hugeri (Small) Ahles 15 S. glauca Walt. 186 S. herbacea L. 137 S. laurifolia L. 285 S. pumila Walt. 408 S. rotundifolia L. 63 Solanaceae Physalis virginiana P. Mill. 172 Solanum carolinense L. 327 Staphyleaceae Staphylea trifolia L. 484 Stemonaceae Croomia paucifl ora (Nutt.) Torr. 1 - Styracaceae Halesia tetraptera Ellis. 26 Styrax americanus Lam. 108 S. grandifolius Aiton 128 Tiliaceae Tilia americana L. var. heterophylla (Vent.) Loud. 166 Trilliaceae Trillium maculatum Raf. 44 T. underwoodii Small 43 Typhaceae Typha latifolia L. 439 Ulmaceae Celtis laevigata Willd. 173 C. occidentalis L. 174 Ulmus alata Michx. 84 U. americana L. 10 Urticaceae Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. 205 Pilea pumila (L.) Gray 423 Verbenaceae Callicarpa americana L. 247 Phryma leptostachya L. 292 Verbena brasiliensis Vell. * 354 V. rigida Spreng. * 485 Violaceae Viola palmata L. 193 V. pedata L. 438 V. pubescens Aiton var. eriocarpon 36 V. sororia Willd. 21 V. walteri House 112 Vitaceae Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne 459 Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. 46 Vitis aestivalis Michx. var. aestivalis 486 V. rotundifolia Michx. 158 Xyridaceae Xyris jupicai L.C. Rich. 298