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A Revised Distribution of Hydropsyche carolina Banks (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) with a New Record from Tennessee
Rick D. Bivens, Bart D. Carter, and Carl E. Williams

Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 7, Number 4 (2008): 744–747

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724040 6 NSOoRuTthHeEasAteSrTnE NRaNt uNrAalTisUt RNAoLteIsST Vol. 7, No. 4 A Revised Distribution of Hydropsyche carolina Banks (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) with a New Record from Tennessee Rick D. Bivens1,*, Bart D. Carter1, and Carl E. Williams1 Abstract - Larvae of Hydropsyche carolina were collected from Doe Creek, Johnson County, TN in 2005 during a qualitative benthic survey conducted by the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency. This finding represents a new distribution record for this species, and its first reported collection in Tennessee. A revised distribution for H. carolina is presented. Until recently, the known distribution of Hydropsyche carolina Banks had been restricted to high elevation (≈1000 m) stream reaches in and around the mountains of North Carolina and Georgia (Schuster and Etnier 1978). It had been so rarely collected that Schuster and Etnier (1978) stated that little was actually known about its distribution. Banks (1938) only lists the type locality as “from North Carolina.” Other published distribution accounts for Hydropsyche carolina prior to 1980 include one location near Lakemont, GA (30 June 1939) and two from North Carolina. The North Carolina collections include three separate collections from the Cullasaja River, near Highlands, Macon County in 1976, and one collection from the Oconaluftee River at Cherokee, Swain County, also in 1976 (Schuster and Etnier 1978). Since 1980, it has been collected from three additional streams in Jackson and Transylvania counties, NC and nine localities in northern Greenville, Oconee, and Pickens counties, SC. Many of these were reported during the Lake Jocasee catchment aquatic insect study in North and South Carolina (Floyd et al. 1997, Morse et al. 1989). While more widely distributed than previously thought, it is still considered fairly rare within its range. We report herein the collection of four larval Hydropsyche carolina specimens from the lower reach of Doe Creek along State Route 167, Johnson County, TN (36.38279ºN, 81.95271ºW) on 22 April 2005. This finding represents a significant range extension for this species, and its first reported collection in Tennessee. Doe Creek is a spring-fed, fourth-order tributary to Roan Creek (Watauga Reservoir/ Watauga River) in the upland (Limestone Valley and Coves, sub-level IV Ecoregion 66f; Griffith et al. 1997) of the Blue Ridge Mountain ecoregion in northeastern Tennessee. It fl ows through privately owned land that is mostly residential or used for agricultural purposes. At the collection location, cobble and bedrock were the dominant substrate components in riffl e areas, comprising about 70% of the substrate. Basic water quality measurements on 22 April 2005 were: temperature = 16 °C, conductivity = 97 μs/cm, and pH = 6.2. The stream has a mean width of about 14 m, and discharge was calculated at 2.1 m3/s. Elevation was about 615 m (Carter et al. 2006). Macroinvertebrates collected during a routine qualitative benthic survey from this section of Doe Creek comprised 37 families representing 45 identified genera. A total of 54 taxa was identified from the sample, of which 31 were from the ecologically sensitive orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Mayfl ies (Ephemeroptera) comprised 42.9% of the specimens collected. Caddisfl ies (Trichoptera) (27.8%) and dipterans (12.4%) were the second and third most abundant taxa, respectively. Stonefl ies (Plecoptera) accounted for 7.2% of the sample. Other hydropsychid caddisfl ies collected with H. carolina included Ceratopsyche bronta (Ross), C. sparna (Ross), and Cheumatopsyche spp. Notes of the Southeastern Nat u ral ist, Issue 7/4, 2008 744 2008 Southeastern Naturalist Notes 745 The distinctive larva of H. carolina is easily recognized by the presence of a wide arcuate carina on a black head capsule (Schuster and Etnier 1978). It shares this similarity only with H. rotosa Ross, which keys to H. carolina in Schuster and Etnier 1978. Hydropsyche carolina is distinguished from H. rotosa by the absence of long, dense, silky setae on the posterior portion of the frontoclypeus (Etnier et al. 1998). The Doe Creek specimens were verified with material housed at The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Two of the four specimens were deposited into The University of Tennessee holdings (UT 4.896). The other two specimens were deposited into the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA) Region IV collection (TWRA 5.279). A revised distribution for H. carolina (Fig. 1) is presented, based on known published accounts and collection records, and includes the new Tennessee record reported here. The majority of the updated information is based on specimens housed in the Clemson University Arthropod Collection (CUAC), Clemson, SC and from localities reported in the Lake Jocassee catchment studies (Floyd et al. 1997, Morse et al. 1989). Other collections holding H. carolina specimens include: the Illinois Figure 1. Distribution of Hydropsyche carolina. 746 Southeastern Naturalist Notes Vol. 7, No. 4 Natural History Survey (INHS); the National Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian Institution (USNM); and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UT). Records examined. We did not verify specimens from the collections reported herein. However, we considered them valid based on the individual collectors and those making determinations. Questionable records were excluded. Georgia. Rabun County: Lakemont, GA., 30 June 1939, P.W. Fattig, 3 male, 5 female; INHS Collection. North Carolina. Type locality, 1938, listed only as “from North Carolina”, N. Banks, male holotype specimen, Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ) No. 22657. Jackson County: Whitewater Falls, 14 July 1979, 1 male, 1 female, J.C. Morse, USNM Collection; Whitewater River, Whitewater Falls, 22 September 1980, J.C. Morse, 4 larvae, Det. J.C. Morse, 1981, CUAC; same, except 13 July 1983, at Hwy 281, l male, l female, O.S. Flint, USNM Collection; same, except 6 March 1987, R.L. Canterbury, 1 larva, Det. J.C. Morse, 1987, CUAC; same, except 7 May 1991, J.C. Morse, 9 larvae, Det. J.C. Morse, 1991, CUAC. Macon County: Cullasaja River, 9 May 1976, 19.1 km above jct. NC 28 and Bypass US 441 and 23, D.A. Etnier, many larvae; same, except 7 larvae, UT 4.314; same, except 19 June 1976, 9.6 km. W of Highlands, G.A. Schuster, 4 larvae, 1 male mmt., 3 female mmts.; same, except 41 male, 34 female; same, except 11 male, 1 female, USNM Collection. Transylvania/Jackson counties: Whitewater River, 3 July 1991, at 35.03333ºN, 83.01667ºW, D. Loch, 32 male, 65 female, Det. Yang 1991, CUAC; same, except 22 July 1993, J.C. Morse, 23 male, 24 female, Det. J.C. Morse, 1993, CUAC. Transylvania County: Bearcamp Creek, 15–16 June 1987, at 427 m elevation, Duke loc. #585.3, UV light coll., S.W. Hamilton, K.M. Hoffman, 4 female, Det. S.W. Hamilton, 1987, CUAC; Corbin Creek, June 1987, 2.4 highway km N of SR 281 Whitewater River bridge, ca. 910 m elevation (Floyd et al. 1997). Swain County: Oconaluftee River, 27 May 1976, at Cherokee, NC, D.A. Etnier, 1 larva; Smokemont, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, NC, 7 June 1988, light trap, 1 male, UT 4.635. South Carolina. Greenville County: Matthews Creek, 30 January 1993, 3.9 km W of Caesars Head, 35.10397ºN, 82.67458ºW, 914 m elevation, J.C. Morse, A. Horton, 1 larva, Det. A. Horton, CUAC. Oconee County: Whitewater River, 15–16 June 1987, above Lower Falls, ca. 561 m elevation, Duke loc. #582.1, S.W. Hamilton, K.M. Hoffman, 43 male, 54 female, Det. M.A. Floyd, 1994, CUAC; same, except 20–21 July 1987, 3 male, Det. M.A. Floyd, 1995, CUAC; Howard Creek (right fork), 12–13 May 1989, off Hwy. S-413, 738 m elevation, Duke loc. #577.0, S.W. Hamilton, K.M. Hoffman, 1 male, 7 female, Det. M.A. Floyd, 1994, CUAC; Coley Creek, 15–16 June 1987, at 439 m elevation, Duke loc. #584.4, UV light coll., S.W. Hamilton, K.M. Hoffman, 2 female, Det. S.W. Hamilton, 1987, CUAC; Toxaway Creek, 22 October 1982, on SC Rt. 48, 34.70142ºN, 83.23662ºW, C. Missimer, 9 larvae, Det. C. Missimer, CUAC; Thompson River, 15–16 June 1987, at NC border, ca. 439 m elevation, Duke loc. #583.2, UV light coll., S.W. Hamilton, K.M. Hoffman, 82 male, 141 female, Det. S.W. Hamilton, 1987, CUAC; Chattooga River, 26–27 May 1981, at Burrell’s Ford, near Route 107, coll. ENT 412/612 [Clemson University class], many males and females, Det. S.W. Hamilton, 1985, CUAC; East Fork Chattooga River, 30 March 1989, US Fish Hatchery (Walhalla), J.C. Morse, 2 larvae, CUAC. Pickens County: Eastatoe Creek, 29 June 1993, at State Route 237, approx. 1.6 km W of Rocky Bottom, M.A. Floyd, 4 male, 40 female, Det. M.A. Floyd, 1993, CUAC; same, except 9 July 1993, 13 male, 113 female, Det. M.A. Floyd, 1993, CUAC. 2008 Southeastern Naturalist Notes 747 Tennessee. Johnson County: Doe Creek, 22 April 2005, public access area along SR 167, ca. 1.6 km upstream of Watauga Reservoir, 36.38279ºN, 81.95271ºW, R.D. Bivens, B.D. Carter, and C.E. Williams, 2 larvae, UT 4.896; same, except 2 larvae, TWRA 5.279. Acknowledgments. We thank David A. Etnier, Department of Evolutionary Biology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, for verification of our identifications and helpful comments on the manuscript. John C. Morse, Department of Entomology, Soils, and Plant Sciences Clemson University, Clemson, SC, provided information from the Clemson University Arthropod Collection (CUAC). Oliver S. Flint, Jr. provided records from the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution (USNM), and Colin Favret provided records from the Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS). Funding and support were provided in part by funds from Federal Aid in Fish and Wildlife Restoration (Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency Project 4321 and 4350) as documented in Federal Aid Project FW-6 (Public Law 91-503). Literature Cited Banks, N. 1938. New native neuropteroid insects. Psyche 45:72–79. Carter, B.D., C.E. Williams, R.D. Bivens, and J.W. Habera. 2006. Warmwater stream fisheries report, Region IV, 2005. Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency Fisheries Report 06-02. Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, Nashville, TN. Etnier, D.A., J.T. Baxter, Jr., S.J. Fraley, and C.R. Parker. 1998. A checklist of the Trichoptera of Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 73(1–2):53–72. Floyd, M.A., J.C. Morse, and S.C. Harris. 1997. Aquatic insects of Lake Jocassee catchment, North and South Carolina, part II: Caddisfl ies (Trichoptera) of six additional drainages, with a description of a new species. The Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 113(3):133–142. Griffith, G.E., J.M. Omernik, and S.H. Azevedo. 1997. Ecoregions of Tennessee (map and narrative). EPA 600R-97-022-516. NHREEL, Western Ecological Division, US Environmental Protection Agency. Corvallis, OR. Morse, J.C., S.W. Hamilton, and K.M. Hoffman. 1989. Aquatic insects of Lake Jocassee catchment in North and South Carolina, with descriptions of four new species of caddisfl ies (Trichoptera). The Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 105(1):14–33. Schuster, G.A., and D.A. Etnier. 1978. A manual for the identification of the larvae of the caddisfl y genera Hydropsyche Pictet and Symphitopsyche Ulmer in eastern and central North America (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). EPA- 600/4-78-060. Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnatti, OH. 128 pp. 1Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, 3030 Wildlife Way, Morristown, TN 37814. *Corresponding author -