Regular issues
Monographs
Special Issues



Southeastern Naturalist
    SENA Home
    Range and Scope
    Board of Editors
    Staff
    Editorial Workflow
    Publication Charges
    Subscriptions

Other EH Journals
    Northeastern Naturalist
    Caribbean Naturalist
    Neotropical Naturalist
    Urban Naturalist
    Eastern Paleontologist
    Journal of the North Atlantic
    Eastern Biologist

EH Natural History Home

Microfungi of Forest Litter From Healthy American Beech, Fraser Fir, and Eastern Hemlock Stands in Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Richard E. Baird, Sandra Woolfolk, and Clarence E. Watson

Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 8, Number 4 (2009): 609–630

Full-text pdf (Accessible only to subscribers.To subscribe click here.)

 

Site by Bennett Web & Design Co.
2009 SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST 8(4):609–630 Microfungi of Forest Litter From Healthy American Beech, Fraser Fir, and Eastern Hemlock Stands in Great Smoky Mountains National Park Richard E. Baird1, Sandra Woolfolk1, and Clarence E. Watson2 Abstract - As part of an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, an assemblage of microfungi associated in litter samples from healthy Fagus grandifolia (American Beech), Abies fraseri (Fraser Fir), and Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock) trees was determined in 2005 and 2006. Additionally, litter samples from the collection sites were assayed for pH, nutrient content, ash, crude proteins, and levels of organic matter to determine their impact on the mycobiota. Species richness, diversity, and evenness patterns were evaluated from the litter samples collected in May, July, and September of each year. A total of 6249 isolates of fungi were obtained, with greater than 90% belonging to the Deuteromycota. Over 100 species of fungi were identified from litter of the three tree species, with 55 being new records from the Park. As in previous studies, the most common fungi isolated from the three tree species were 13 species of Trichoderma during the two-year study. Other common fungi included Virgaria nigra and Penicillium spp. Species richness and diversity values pooled across sampling dates and years were significantly greater from American Beech litter, followed by Eastern Hemlock and lowest for Fraser Fir. Species richness and diversity values compared by sampling dates for each year were generally greater in May than July or September, but evenness values showed a reverse trend for each year. When species richness and diversity were compared between sampling dates per year and among or by tree species, significant differences often occurred, but no trends were determined. Data from the litter tissue assay showed that Fraser Fir, which had the lowest species richness and diversity, may have been impacted by having significantly lower pH and percent litter chemical compositions of ash, crude protein, and N than the other tree species. All other comparisons of species richness were similar. Introduction An All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) has been ongoing for all categories of organisms including macro- and microscopic fungi over the past decade (Baird et al. 2007, Sharkey 2001). In the latter study, the bark of Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (American Beech), Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (Eastern Hemlock), and Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Fraser Fir) in GSMNP were sampled for the presence of microfungi. These three tree species were selected for study since baseline data from healthy stands will soon be lost throughout the Park and region from introduced exotic pests (Baird et al. 2007). In this study, a total 1Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, Box 9655, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762. 2Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Oklahoma State University, 139 Ag Hall, Stillwater, OK 74078. *Corresponding author - rbaird@plantpath.msstate.edu. 610 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 4 of 93 different species of fungi were identified from bark of the three tree species, using selected isolation media. Species assemblages have been shown to be highly variable within different climatic regions or zones (e.g., tropical versus temperate) (Cannon and Sutton 2004). These differences in fungal species not only occur across large geographical regions, but local differences related to niche can have a dramatic impact on their diversity. For example, taxa from low elevations can differ significantly from those collected at higher elevations, but both sites can occur within the same geographical area (Baird 1986). The differences in fungal diversity are due to a combination of factors such as variations in temperature and fl ora between the sites. Factors that infl uence site species richness include temperature, water relations, available nutrition, pH, plant host diversity, seasonality, and physical factors (Barron 2003, Cannon and Sutton 2004). It has also been stated that specific slopes (aspects) will affect the amounts of local rainfall, temperature, and plant species present. Because forest ecosystems within the GSMNP vary due to elevation differences within a small geographical area, many of the factors listed above would be expected to have an impact on microfungal assemblages. Forest soils are continually enriched by plant debris derived from aboveground biomass or forest litter (Fogel 1980). Litter has often been defined as containing dead leaves, fruits, seeds, and wood ≤5 cm in diameter (Rossman et al. 1998), but litter can also include unrecognizable plant tissues that have been degraded (Bills and Polishook 1994). Organisms characteristically found within the complex litter microhabitat include bacteria, fungi, bryophytes, yeasts, lichens, and mesofauna (Bier 1963a,b; Bills et al. 2004). However, fungi were reported to comprise nearly 89% of the living microbial biomass in deciduous forests of Britain (Frankland 1981). Burges (1965) stated that over 600 species of anamorphic forming fungi were identified from forest litter, whereas Watanabe (1994) suggested that over 1200 or more fungal species colonized dead tissue. Most recently, Cannon and Sutton (2004) estimated that approximately 23,500 species of fungi occur on dead plant tissue. These include members of the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota along with their anamorphic taxa contained within the artificial assemblage Fungi Imperfecti (mitosporic). The majority of mitosporic fungi identified belonged to the Ascomycota and a smaller percentage to the Basidiomycota. In a previous study conducted in a Costa Rican rain forest, four samples of 1-ml sterile, distilled-water suspensions from leaf litter yielded a total of 1709 isolates (Bills and Polishook 1994). Within these samples, the most abundant species identified occur in no more than 23% of the total samples. In another study, repeated over three consecutive years, senescent and decayed Sugar Maple leaves contained a succession of microfungi that were consistently identified each year (Kuter 1986). The succession was partially based on changes due to nutritional succession and weather-pattern variations throughout each year. Hogg and Hudson (1966) followed the progression of decay of beech leaf litter over a two-year period and determined that fungal species increased over time when identified directly from the 2009 R.E. Baird, S. Woolfolk, and C.E. Watson 611 tissues, but densities decreased over the same period using cultural studies with leaf fragments. Additional research involving surveys of microfungi from litter of different habitats have been conducted during the last 50 years and have utilized different sampling and laboratory methods for identifications (Bandoni 1981; Gremmen 1957; Hayes 1965; Heredia 1993; Hering 1965; Kendrick and Burgess 1962; Polishook et al. 1996; Remacle 1971; Subramanian and Vittal 1979; Tubaki and Yokoyama 1971, 1973; Visser and Parkinson 1975; Wildman and Parkinson 1979). The numbers and diversity of microfungi identified in those studies may have been affected in part by experimental factors such as temperature for incubation, choice of growth media (high-nutrition), and the presence of fast-growing contaminates or superficially occurring mycofl ora. When conducting “total inventory” studies of microfungi, the techniques employed by Bills and Polishook (1994) are presently accepted as the best procedures for microfungal surveys of litter (Cannon and Sutton 2004). Various soil factors infl uence the accuracy of cataloging the diversities and densities of microfungi during a “total inventory.” These factors include litter particle size used for processing samples, growth-medium composition, and growth inhibitors added to media (Cannon and Sutton 2004). Particle size of litter fragments should be small enough to avoid multiple colonies arising from the same fragments. For heavily degraded tissues, specific tissue sizes cannot be readily obtained, and litter weight must then be used for consistency. Growth media have been shown in many ecological studies of fungi to affect the isolation frequencies of the microfungi. The most effective types of media are ones low in nutrients, since hyphal growth will then be restricted for fast growing fungi (e.g., Rhizopus) and allow the slow-growing species to be observed (Bills and Polishook 1994, Bills et al. 2004). Lastly, strategies which slow growth of fast-growing fungi, including incubating colonies at low temperatures and/or the addition of chemicals in the growth media such as cyclosporin A, selective fungicides (e.g., Botran for Rhizopus spp.), and antibiotics for bacteria, have proven to allow slowergrowing fungi to be identified (Baird et al. 1991). The objectives of the study reported herein were to develop baseline data by cataloging the fungal microfl ora present in litter samples collected under stands of American Beech, Eastern Hemlock, and Fraser Fir for the ATBI in GSMNP and to compare select parameters including date of sampling litter, plant-tissue nutrient levels, and other chemical component levels that can infl uence species richness. Materials and Methods Field collections of litter samples were obtained from American Beech, Eastern Hemlock, and Fraser Fir stands at most of the locations used previously for bark samples (Baird et al. 2007). Samples were collected in May, July, and September of 2005 and 2006 (Table 1). Litter samples were always taken from beneath trees ≥20 cm in diameter at breast-height 1.3 m above the ground. Additional criteria for sampling are discussed below. 612 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 4 Table 1. Sampling dates and locations within GSMNP of litter samples collected from three tree species over a two-year period. 2005 2006 Sampling date American Beech Fraser Fir Eastern Hemlock American Beech Fraser Fir Eastern Hemlock May 20–25 Cataloochee, GSMNP- Clingman’s Dome A Cataloochee, GSMNP- Behind Ball House Mt. Buckley Gabes Mt. Trail Horse Camp before Big Fork Ridge Trail near SR 441 Little Cataloochee Trail 17S9443951NA 17S3938104N 17S3939633N 17S3959984N 17S3938089N 17S3959133N 17S0273087E 17S0272998E 17S0307911E 17S0294193E 17S0272790E 17S297330E July 1–3 Beech Gap A Appalachian Trail Beech Gap B Fork Ridge Trail Mt. Sterling A Laurel Falls 17S3946910N 17S3938128N 17S3946822N 17S3939907N 17S3952586N 17S3950395N 17S0300490E 17S0271952E 17S0300636E 17S0278128E 17S0307796E 17S0266283E Sept 9–10 Beech Forest on New Mt. Buckley Thomas Divide Trail Sugarlands Center Clingman’s Dome B Copeland Ck Area Found Gap Trail 17S3943462N 17S3938089N 17S3939844N 17S3951831N 17S3938080N 17S3957991N 17S0278482E 17S272790E 17S284566E 17S0270532E 17S0273302E 17S283518E AUTM NAD27 CONUS 2009 R.E. Baird, S. Woolfolk, and C.E. Watson 613 To determine the diversity and density of the microfungi present in the litter samples, specific sampling strategies were used for “total inventory” determination. All samples were collected under closed canopies and consisted of all forms of tissues including fallen leaves, twigs, and seeds in different stages of decomposition. On each sampling date, four replicate trees (healthy) per species were sampled at each location. Healthy trees exhibited no symptoms of damage or presence of exotic pest and had a canopy that was considered 90–100% intact. All litter samples were collected from the north side of each of the trees within 1 m of the boles for uniformity and was raked unsorted by hand from a 10 cm2 area into large office envelopes. The litter samples, which included recognizable and unrecognizable tissues stored in the envelope (500 ml of material), were placed into cold storage (10 ºC) and returned to the laboratory for processing. Isolation procedures Techniques previously developed by Bills and Polishook (1994) and Cannon and Sutton (2003) and refined by Bills et al. (2004) were used for isolation and identification of the microfungi from litter samples from each location. Using the methods developed by Bills et al. (2004), the plant tissues were returned to the laboratory and air dried for 3–4 hr. Following drying, 5 g of litter tissue, consisting of all stages of decay, were placed into a sterile Black & Decker Mixer (Handy Chopper Plus™) and pulverized for 1 min. The tissue mixture was then washed in a steady stream of sterile distilled water for 10 min through 2-mm brass prescreens and then through two sterilized polypropylene mesh filters (Spectra/Mesh 210-μm and 105-μm). After washing, the 105-μm filter was placed into a 50-ml polystyrene centrifuge tube, and sterile distilled water was added. The tube was agitated vigorously for up to 1 min, and the filter was then removed, allowing the particles to settle. The supernatant was removed, and the particles were rewashed in 50 ml of sterile distilled water and allowed to settle. To ensure a uniform density of particles for each sample, sterile distilled water was added to all for a 20:1 (v/v) ratio of water/particles. For each tube, the particles were agitated and resuspended. At this time, 0.1 ml of the suspension was pippetted and added to each plate containing either CYCL or DRBC media (Bills et al. 2004). From each sample suspension, ten replicate plates per medium were used. All ingredients and antibiotics for the two media were those previously reported (Bills and Poolishook 1994). The 0.1-ml particle suspension was spread over the surface of the agar for each plate (10 x 100 mm) with a fl amed bent-glass rod. The plates were incubated at room temperature and 12-h photoperiod under artificial lighting. Four days after the suspension was added to the plates, five colonies per plate were randomly selected and placed onto potato-dextrose agar (PDA; Difco®, Detroit, MI) and corn-meal agar media (CMA; Difco®) and stored for later identification using standard mycological methods (Baird et al. 2004, 2007). Due to the large number of colonies per sampling period, only a limited number were subcultured, as suggested previously (Baird et al. 2007, Woolfolk and Inglis 2004). 614 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 4 Identifications were determined for the genera and species isolated. Single spores of cultures initially identified as Fusarium spp. were transferred to carnation leaf agar and identified using the classification system of Nelson et al. (1983). Keys for general identification of fungi were those developed by Ellis (1971), Sutton (1980), and Barnett and Hunter (1998). In addition, an unpublished guide and keys to Trichoderma spp. by G. Samuels, USDA/ ARS-Beltsville, MD were used. Nutrient analyses of litter samples For all sampling dates, litter samples were evaluated to determine percent ash content, crude protein, pH, and organic matter as analyzed by Mississippi State Chemical Laboratory, Mississippi State University. Procedures were followed using standard methods for nutrient analyses (Horwitz 2000). Total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) levels and C:N ratios were obtained using a Fisons NA 1500 NCS analyzer (ThermoQuest Italia, Milan, Italy) and following Dumas combustion techniques (Baccanti et al. 1993, Bellomonte et al. 1987, Jones and Case 1990). All procedures for C and N were conducted at Forest Hydrology Laboratory, Mississippi State University. Statistical analysis of data The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD) within each tree species and sampling date. Species richness values (SR) and species diversity indices (H') were calculated using Shannon-Weaver index, coefficient of community (CC), and evenness (E) (Stephenson 1989, Stephenson et al. 2004). Stephenson (1989) provides a thorough description of all formulas for these indices. Data were further analyzed as series of combined CRD’s using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC), and means were separated using Fisher’s protected least significant difference (LSD). Results Over 100 species of fungi representing 71 genera were isolated from litter samples collected at sites containing healthy American Beech, Fraser Fir, and Eastern Hemlock during the study (Appendix 1). A total of 3360 fungi were isolated in 2005 and 3406 in 2006. Of those totals, 38.3% were from American Beech, 30.6% from Fraser Fir, and 31.1% from Eastern Hemlock. More than 90% were members of the Deuteromycota (= Fungi Imperfecti), 2.6% members of the Ascomycota, 1.4% members of the Zygomycota, and 6% were representatives of other groups or unknowns. The most common species identified during the study were Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, Trichoderma virens (J. Miller et al.) Arx, Virgaria nigra (Link) Nees, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma hamatum (Bonord.) Bainier, and Penicillium oxalicum Currie & Thom, all of which belong to the Deuteromycota. Phymatotrichum omnivorum Duggar was common on American Beech and Fraser Fir, but only in 2005. Many isolates were unknown, since the majority did not sporulate in culture. 2009 R.E. Baird, S. Woolfolk, and C.E. Watson 615 Yeasts were isolated at low frequencies from the litter of all three tree species during the study. Overall species richness values for the fungi were significantly different on two selective media across tree species and years (Table 2). Values from both selective media were greater from American Beech than from Eastern Hemlock and lowest from Fraser Fir. The DRBC medium had numerically higher values for all three tree species compared to CYCL. Values were highest (n = 85) for American Beech litter values using DRBC and lowest (n = 44) on CYCL from Fraser Fir litter. Total taxa were the same as values from DRBC, indicating that this medium had the broadest spectrum for isolation of fungi from litter tissues. Species diversity was also signifi- cantly greater from American Beech than other tree species, but numerically greater from Eastern Hemlock than from Fraser Fir (Table 2). Further analyses of species richness and diversity values were determined between and among tree species compared to sampling dates for 2005 and 2006 (Figs. 1–4). For American Beech, the number of taxa in May 2006 was greater than for any other sampling dates and tree species (Fig. 1). Furthermore, values for American Beech were greater for all dates in both years except that Eastern Hemlock had numerically greater numbers of taxa at 31 compared to 27 for American Beech during July 2006. Species richness values by sampling date were similar between Fraser Fir and Eastern Hemlock litter except for September 2005, when Fraser Fir (n = 30) had almost twice the species present as Eastern Hemlock (n = 16). In 2006, Eastern Hemlock had significantly greater values in May (n = 41) and July (n = 31) than Fraser Fir, but were similar during July and September. In 2005, American Beech had numerically greater species richness values in May than the other two sampling dates, but for May 2006, the value (n = 45) was significantly greater than July (n = 27) or September (n = 20). Significant values for Fraser Fir and Eastern Hemlock occurred during the different sampling dates, but no trends were observed. No consistent trends in species diversity were observed between sampling dates for specific tree species and between tree species (Figs. 2 and 4). Table 2. Species richness (n) and diversity (H') of fungi isolated from litter of three tree species from Great Smoky Mountains National Park across two years. Species richness MediaA Tree species CYCL DRBC Total taxa Species diversity American Beech 68aB 85a 86a 3.4a Eastern Hemlock 49b 62b 63b 2.9b Fraser Fir 44b 57b 60b 2.8b LSD (P ≤ 0.05) 7.0 8.0 6.0 0.3 ACYCL: Malt extract – yeast extract – cyclosporine, and DRBC: Dichloran – rose bengal – chloramphenicol agar media. BMeans within columns followed by same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 level. 616 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 4 Figure 1. Species richness for litter-associated fungi compared among three tree species by sampling date from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Means within a sampling date and year and followed by same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 level. The LSDs were 5.0, 6.0, 4.0 and 6.0, 9.0, 5.0 for May, July, and September in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Figure 2. Species diversity of litter-associated fungi of three tree species from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Means within a sampling date and year and followed by same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 level. The LSDs were 0.69, 0.41, 0.48 and 0.31, 0.90, 0.62 for May, July, and September in 2005 and 2006, respectively. 2009 R.E. Baird, S. Woolfolk, and C.E. Watson 617 Figure 4. Species diversity of litter-associated fungi of three tree species from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Means within a tree species and year and followed by same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 level. The LSDs were 0.60, 0.35, 0.63 and 0.83, 0.54, 0.56 for May, July, and September in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Figure 3. Species richness for litter-associated fungi of three tree species compared by sampling date from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Means within a tree species and year and followed by same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 level. The LSDs were 7.0, 4.0, 4.0 and 7.0, 6.0, 7.0 for May, July, and September in 2005 and 2006, respectively. 618 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 4 For example, values for American Beech were significantly greater than for Fraser Fir and Eastern Hemlock over all three sampling dates in 2005, but values were similar in 2006. Furthermore, when species diversity was compared in 2005 or 2006 by sampling dates for each tree species, significant differences did occur but no consistent trends could be determined (Fig. 4). Species richness, diversity, and evenness values were also calculated across pooled sampling date data for the taxa isolated (Table 3). Species richness values had similar trends as species diversity between sampling dates and across years. Species richness and diversity were higher in May than July and September. When total taxa were compared between years, results varied with no consistent trends. The values for fungi in 2006 were highest in May (n = 69; H' = 3.2) and lowest in September (n = 24; H' = 2.0), but evenness varied. Total species richness values also showed a significantly decreasing trend over time. May had a greater number of taxa (89) than July (71) and September (58). In addition, significantly greater species diversity occurred for May litter during both years, compared to July and September. Overall, litter samples from May 2006 had significantly greater species richness, diversity, and evenness values than 2005 (Table 3). Furthermore, no additional significant trends were noted for July or September. The high isolation frequencies for species such as T. harzianum, T. koningii, and T. virens contributed to the lower values of evenness for both years of the study (Appendix 1). Evenness values for fungi pooled across both years, three tree species, and sampling dates had moderate to high relative abundance at E = 0.66 (data not shown). Evenness values for fungi ranged from E = 0.63 to 0.68 and were similar between litter samples of three tree species, indicating that the fungal community was generally uniform between the three tree species. Furthermore, when evenness was compared by sampling date per year (Table 3), relative high abundance (0.62–0.77) indicates moderate to high similarity between numbers of individuals isolated per taxa for each year. When evenness values were compared between years, only May 2006 had a significantly greater value than the 2005 results. Coefficient of community values were obtained for fungal taxa by comparing litter data between the sampling dates and pooled tree species data (Table 4). Results indicated that almost 50% or greater of the common fungal Table 3. Species richness (n), diversity (H'), and evenness (E) for fungi identified from litter of American Beech, Eastern Hemlock, and Fraser Fir from Great Smoky Mountains National Park over two years. *Indicates significantly different between years for a sampling date using Jackknifing procedure (P ≤ 0.05). Means within columns followed by same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 level. Richness (n) Diversity (H') Evenness (E) Sample date 2005 2006 Total taxa 2005 2006 Total taxa 2005 2006 Total taxa May 54a* 69a* 89a 2.7a* 3.2a* 3.3a 0.68b* 0.77a* 0.66a July 52a 41b 71b 2.4a 2.7a 2.8b 0.62b 0.73ab 0.63a September 50a* 29c* 58c 2.8a* 2.0b* 2.7b 0.72a 0.63b 0.68a LSD 7 9 8 0.34 0.57 0.3 0.07 0.12 0.19 2009 R.E. Baird, S. Woolfolk, and C.E. Watson 619 taxa could be isolated throughout the growing season and for the total years from the litter of the three tree species. Tree species data pooled across sampling dates ranged from 0.48 to 0.55 in 2005 and 0.56 to 0.65 in 2006. When CC values were determined for total years, ≈60% of taxa were common over the three sampling dates. Furthermore, when comparisons between tree species were analyzed by year and total years, values were similar with high levels of similarity (Table 5). Values from 2005 compared to 2006 showed reverse trends for each tree species litter comparisons. In 2006, CC values were relatively similar regardless of tree species comparisons. Percent nutrient composition of the litter samples were analyzed for ash, organic matter, crude protein, C, N, C:N ratio, and pH. These data were pooled across years since no significant interaction occurred between years. When nutrient composition of the litter samples were compared by sampling dates and between the three tree species, % ash, % crude protein, and pH were significantly lowest for Fraser Fir than for the other tree species (Table 6). Also, % N was significantly lower from Fraser Fir litter than the litter of the other tree species, but highest for % C. In contrast to those results, C:N ratio for Fraser Fir litter was similar to that of the other two species analyzed. Also, % organic matter was significantly greater for Fraser Fir (95.3) than for American Beech (88.6) and Eastern Hemlock (80.0). Table 6. Percent nutrient contents and soil pH from litter samples of three tree species in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Organic Crude C:N Tree species Ash matter protein Nitrogen Carbon ratio pH American Beech 11.4bA 88.6b 11.8a 2.1a 48.8b 23.7b 4.5a Hemlock 20.0a 80.0c 11.8a 2.2a 49.3b 25.8ab 4.5a Fraser Fir 4.8c 95.3a 9.6b 1.9b 53.2a 27.0a 3.8b LSD (P ≤ 0.05) 6 6 0.83 0.2 1.98 2.78 0.17 AMeans within columns followed by same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 level using analysis of variance. Table 5. Coefficient of community values for fungi collected in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Litter 2005 2006 Total years American Beech-Fraser Fir 0.62 0.65 0.70 American Beech-Eastern Hemlock 0.39 0.65 0.62 Fraser Fir-Eastern Hemlock 0.53 0.70 0.70 Table 4. Coefficient of community values for fungi from litter of healthy American Beech, Fraser Fir, and Eastern Hemlock collected from Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Years May–July July–Sept. May–Sept. 2005 0.48 0.49 0.55 2006 0.56 0.65 0.65 Total years 0.59 0.57 0.60 620 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 4 Discussion For the purposes of this study, litter that was collected under a specific tree canopy is referred to as belonging to that species (e.g., American Beech litter). It is important to note that litter samples collected beneath a tree species really represents a compilation of debris from the immediate plant community that would directly infl uence fungal diversity. Also, fungal diversity would be directly infl uenced by the local living plant communities that occur in direct proximity underneath the same forest tree canopy zones. However, no plant data was obtained in this study for those comparisons to be analyzed. The litter study is a continuation of an ongoing ATBI project in GSMNP to determine the mycobiota associated with organic substrates of American Beech, Fraser Fir, and Eastern Hemlock. Over 100 species of fungi were identified, including 55 new records in the Park, during the two-year study. Previously, bark from the same 3 tree species was assayed over 2 years with greater than 94 species collected, representing a diverse assemblage of fungi (Baird et al. 2007). The major assemblage of fungi isolated in the current litter study conforms to results obtained from previous research the mycobiota of bark and litter, with the majority of taxa belonging to the Deuteromycetes (Baird 1991, Baird et al. 2007, Bills and Polishook 1992, Garg and Sharma 1985). In a study evaluating bark tissues, the most common genus, Trichoderma, consisted of 13 species (Baird et al. 2007). Approximately 65% of species identified from litter were different from the bark study, but we had similar common fungal species and isolation frequency levels of Trichoderma spp., including 13 species in the current investigation. These fungi are considered important cellulose-degrading microorganisms that rapidly colonize dying and dead plant tissues until depletion of the nutrients (Harmon 2000). Trichoderma spp. are also known to be antagonistic or biological control agents of bacteria and other fungi (Chaverri and Samuels 2003). A thorough discussion of Trichoderma on plant tissues and their role in forest ecosystems is available in Baird et al. (2007). Bills and Polishook (1994) reported that 300 to 400 species of fungi could be obtained from 1-ml leaf-litter samples collected from the tropics, which suggests greater species richness in warmer climates. In another study, 48 fungal taxa were identified from Tilia cordata Mill. (Littleleaf Linden) litter, with the most common species being Cladosporium herbarum (Pers.:Fr.) Link and Alternaria alternate Keissler (Orazona et al. 2003); only two species of Trichoderma were identified. Virgaria nigra (Link) Nees was commonly isolated from the litter of the three tree species in the current study, and this species had the third highest isolation frequencies of any species observed during the two-year study. This fungal species is reported to occur primarily as a saprophyte (Barron 1972). In the previous ATBI bark tissue study by Baird et al. (2007), other common fungal taxa following Trichoderma spp. were Curvularia lunata (Wakker) Boedijn, two Pestalotiopsis spp., and five Penicillium spp. 2009 R.E. Baird, S. Woolfolk, and C.E. Watson 621 In this study, the isolation medium used influenced species richness levels (Table 2). DRBC had consistently greater isolation frequencies and species richness than CYCL throughout the study. It has been reported that the addition of colony-restricting agents such as rose bengal, Dichloran, or cyclosporine A, could negatively affect growth and sporulation of different fungal species (Collado et al. 2007). However, these growth agents are known for minimizing the impact of fast-growing fungi that prevent overgrowth of taxa that are slow-growing. Many different growth media were previously used for environmental sampling, but DRBC and CYCL were reported to allow greater diversity of fungal species (Bills and Polishook 1994, Bills et al. 2004). As stated previously, total species richness values for fungi pooled across sampling dates and years were significantly greater from American Beech litter than Eastern Hemlock and Fraser Fir litters. When those data were compared by sampling dates, species richness values were also highest from American Beech litter, with few exceptions, both years of the study. Contrary to these results, values were similar between tree species during the bark study (Baird et al. 2007). Species richness values from litter by year varied between sampling dates without any definitive trends. As observed in this study, forest litter has a diverse microbial community similar to what has been shown for soils (Barron 1972, Orazona et al. 2003). Total species diversity showed a trend similar to that observed as species richness for fungi on American Beech and other tree species (Table 2). Diversity of taxa was significantly greater for American Beech across years than for Fraser Fir and Eastern Hemlock. When values were compared by sampling dates and years, American Beech generally had the greatest diversity except for September of both years (Fig. 2), where Fraser Fir had numerically greater values. Furthermore, species diversity compared by sampling dates for each tree species or pooled across species varied with no apparent trends noted (Table 4, Fig. 4). Fraser Fir diversity had a reverse trend when compared between sampling dates for each year. Factors previously stated such as select nutrients and pH levels may have been important soil and environmental conditions affecting diversity values. Also, no apparent trends from CC values were noted by sampling date or between litter types. Litter provides a complex nutrient base enabling a diverse assemblage of fungi to colonize plant tissues during various stages of biodegradation (Ingham et al. 1985, Polishook 1996). The pH levels of forest litter were similar between American Beech and Eastern Hemlock, but lowest for Fraser Fir. The lower pH of the Fraser Fir litter may be responsible, at least in part, for lower species richness, since hydrogen-ion concentrations of the samples affect growth of fungi (Lilly and Barnett 1951). In a previous study, myxomycete richness and diversity compared on various plant substrates were affected by pH levels within those tissues (Stephenson 1989, Stephenson et al. 2004). Conifers generally require more acid conditions for growth, thus limiting species richness. Another chemical property assayed was ash 622 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 4 content of the litter samples. Fraser Fir litter had significantly lower (4.8%) ash content than Eastern Hemlock (20.0%) and American Beech (11.4%) litters. Ash, which consists of inorganic minerals such as silicon (Si), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), sulfur (S), and clorine (Cl) (Bakker and Elbersen 2005), are important in survival and reproduction in different fungi (Lilly and Barnett 1951). These results indicate that percent ash levels in Fraser Fir litter may have been another limiting factor in species richness values from these high-elevation forests. Elevation differences were reported to have an impact on forest soil C and N dynamics in GSMNP by Garten and Van Miegroet (1994). Results from that study showed that ecosystem N increases with elevation in the park. In this study, the litter nutrient levels of N were numerically lower (1.9%) for Fraser Fir litter than for American Beech (2.1%) and Eastern Hemlock (2.2%) litters. Collection site elevations for Fraser Fir were greater than for American Beech, and N was significantly lower for Fraser Fir litter. In addition, C was significantly greater in Fraser Fir litter than for American Beech and Eastern Hemlock litters. When C:N ratio was compared, Eastern Hemlock litter had a significantly higher ratio (27.0%) than American Beech litter (23.7%), but Fraser Fir litter (25.8%) was similar to both tree species. The C:N ratio balance has been shown to be important for successful growth and reproduction of fungi, and most taxa generally require ≈30:1 for vigorous growth (Barron 2003). Organic matter content, which is a source of polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins, was significantly higher for Fraser Fir litter (95.3%) than American Beech litter (88.6%) and Eastern Hemlock litter (80.0%). These components in organic matter are generally unavailable and must be degraded before fungal utilization (Barron 2003). These latter results may be a good indicator that organic matter degradation is slower in Fraser Fir forests, thus making nutrients less available at the higher elevations. Stephenson et al. (2004) reported that a similar trend of decreasing numbers of species of myxomycete occurred with increased elevation. Potentially, differences in elevations, acidic nature of the soils, and other factors affect a microorganism’s ability to grow and process the organic matter. Another limiting factor in low organic matter degradation is that Fraser Fir stands are located in boreal climatic zones in the park. Shanks’ (1954) climate study of the GSMNP reported that growing-season temperatures above 1500 m elevation in the spruce-fir zone averaged 5.5 °C to 8.3 °C lower than at the base of the mountain. Average annual temperatures in Fraser Fir forests can range from 7.5 °C at an altitude of 1920 m in the GSMNP (Shanks 1954) to 6 °C at an altitude of 2037 m on Mount Mitchell in the Black Mountains (Oosting and Billings 1951). In a previous study, organic-matter decomposition was observed to decline with increasing elevation due to colder temperatures (Garten and Van Miegroet 1994). It was reported that 50% higher precipitation occurs at the higher elevations of the spruce-fir zone (Shank 1954). Furthermore, annual precipitation is ≈147 cm at low elevations and ≈222 cm 2009 R.E. Baird, S. Woolfolk, and C.E. Watson 623 at the high elevations, but temperature is the critical factor in organic-matter degradation (Garten and Van Miegroet 1994). Results from this litter study and the previous bark-sampling project (Baird et al. 2007) further confirmed that the Deuteromycota are the most prevalent group of fungi that occur across the three tree species. Most of these anamorphic species have been shown to be members of the Ascomycota. Significantly greater species richness levels were recorded for American Beech litter than for the other two tree species. In addition, over half the taxa present on litter tissues differed from those isolated from bark samples in the previous ATBI study by Baird et al. (2007). Overall, species richness, diversity, and evenness data, when compared separately or pooled across tree species, sampling dates, and years, showed no apparent trends. It was further observed that environmental and site parameters, such as elevation, temperature, pH, or chemical composition of litter tissues, may have affected species richness, diversity, and evenness. Even though the results from cultural media yielded over 100 fungal species, growth inhibitors in the media may have limited the diversity. Therefore, studies using molecular techniques are now underway, evaluating litter and bark samples of these tree species to determine if a more diverse group of fungi can be identified from those same tissues types. Acknowledgments I would like to acknowledge Discover Life in America for providing research support during the second year of the study under Project Number GSM #2006-01. Also, thanks are extended to Emily Tuck for laboratory support during the investigation and to Robyn Hearn, MSU, for graphics support. Literature Cited Baccanti, M., P. Magni, W. Oakes, J. Lake, and T. Szakas. 1993. Application of an organic elemental analyzer for the analysis of nitrogen, carbon and sulfur in soils. American Environmental Laboratory 5:16–17. Baird, R.E. 1986. Studies of the stipitate hydums of the southern Appalachian Mountains: Genera Bankera, Hydnellum, Phellodon, Sarcodon. Bibliotheca Mycologia 182 pp. Baird, R.E., T.B. Brenneman, D.K. Bell, and A.P. Murphy. 1991. Effect of propiconazole (Tilt) on the peanut shell mycobiota. Mycological Research 95:571–576. Baird, R.E., C.E. Watson, and S. Woolfolk. 2007. Microfungi from bark of healthy and damaged American Beech, Fraser Fir, and Eastern Hemlock trees during an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory in forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Southeastern Naturalist 6:67–82. Bakker, R.R., and H.W. Elbersen. 2005. Managing ash content and quality in herbaceous biomass: An analysis from plant to product. Biomass and Bioenergy, Paris, France Conference. Wageningen University and Research Center Publications, Wageningen, UR. 4 pp. Bandoni, R.J. 1981. Aquatic hyphomycetes from terrestial litter. Pp. 693–708, In D.T. Wicklow and G.C. Carroll (Eds.). The Fungal Community. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY. 624 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 4 Barnett, H.L., and B.B. Hunter. 1998. Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi. (4th Edition). American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN. 218 pp. Barron, G.L. 1968. Genera of Hyphomycetes from Soil. Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, FL. Barron, G.L. 1972. Genera of Hyphomycetes from Soil. Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, FL. 364 pp. Barron, G.L. 2003. Predatory fungi, wood decay, and carbon cycle. Biodiversity 4:3–9. Bellomonte, G., A. Costantini, and S. Giammarioli. 1987. Comparison of the modified automatic Dumas method and the traditional Kjeldahl method for nitrogen determination in infant food. Journal Association of Official Analytical Chemists 70:227–229. Bier, J.E. 1963a. Tissue saprophytes and possibility of biological control of some tree diseases. The Forestry Chronicle 39:82–84. Bier, J.E. 1963b. Further effects of bark saprophytes of Hypoxylon canker. Forest Science 9:263–269. Bills, G.F., and J.D. Polishook. 1994. Abundance and diversity of microfungi in leaf litter of a lowland rain forest in Costa Rica. Mycologia 86:187–198. Bills, G.F., M. Christensen, M. Powell, and G. Thorn. 2004. Saprobic soil fungi. Pp. 271–302, In G.M. Mueller, G.F. Bills, and M.S. Foster (Eds.). Biodiversity of Fungi: Inventory and Monitoring Methods. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 777 pp. Collado, J., G. Platas, P. Barbara, and G.F. Bills. 2007. High-throughput culturing of fungi from plant litter by a dilution:extinction technique. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 60:521–533. Cannon, P.F., and B.C. Sutton. 2004. Microfungi on wood and plant debris. Pp. 217– 240, In G.M. Mueller, G.F. Bills, and M.F. Foster (Eds.). Biodiversity of Fungi: Standard Methods for Inventory and Monitoring. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 777 pp. Chaverri, P., and G.J. Samuels. 2003. Hypocrea/Trichoderma (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae): Species with green ascospores. Studies in Mycology 48:1–119. Ellis, M.B. 1971. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonweath Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, UK. 608 pp. Fogel, R. 1980. Mycorrhizae and nutrient cycling in natural forest ecosystems. New Phytologist 86:199–212. Frankland, J.C. 1981. Mechanics in fungal successions. Pp. 403–426, In D.T. Wicklow and G.C. Carroll (Eds.). The Fungal Community. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY. Garg, A.P., and P.D. Sharma. 1985. Ecology of phylloplane and leaf-litter fungi of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. Revue d’Ecologie et de Biologie du Sol 22:35–55. Garten, C.T., and H. Van Miegroet. 1994. Relationships between soil nitrogen dynamics and natural 15N abundance in plant foliage from Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24:1636–1645. Gremmen, J. 1957. Microfungi from Scots Pine litter. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 48:179–185. Harmon, G.E. 2000. The myths and dogmas of biocontrol: Changes in perceptions derived from research on Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22. Plant Disease 84:377–393. 2009 R.E. Baird, S. Woolfolk, and C.E. Watson 625 Hayes, A.J. 1965. Some microfungi from Scots Pine litter. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 48:179–185. Heredia, G. 1993. Mycofl ora associated with green leaves and leaf litter of Quercus germana, Quercus sartorii, and Liquidambar styracifl ua in a Mexican cloud forest. Cryptogamie Mycologie 14:171–183. Hering, T.F. 1965. The succession of fungi in the litter of a Lake District oakwood. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 48:391–408. Hogg, B., and H.J. Hudson. 1966. Microfungi of the leaves of Fagus sylvantica. I. The microfungal succession. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 49:185–192. Horwitz, W. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 17th Edition. Volumes 1–2. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC. 205 pp. Ingham, R.E., J.A. Trofymow, E.R. Ingham, and D.C. Coleman. 1985. Interactions of bacteria, fungi, and their nematode grazers: Effects on nutrient cycling and plant growth. Ecological Monographs 55:119–140. Jones, J.B., and V.W. Case. 1990. Sampling, handling, analyzing plant tissue samples. Pp. 389–427, In R.L. Westerman (Ed.). Soil Testing and Plant Analysis, 3rd Edition. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. Kendrick, B., and A. Burgess. 1962. Biological aspects of the decay of Pinus sylvestris leaf litter. Nova Hedwigia 4:313–342. Kuter, G.A. 1986. Microfungal populations associated with the decomposition of Sugar Maple leaf litter. Mycologia 78:114–126. Lilly, V.G., and H.L. Barnett. 1951. Physiology of the Fungi. McGraw Hill Corp., Inc., New York, NY. 464 pp. Nelson, P.E., T.A. Toussoun, and M. Maraas. 1983. Fusarium Species: An Illustrated Manual for Identification. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA. 193 pp. Oosting, H.J., and Billings, W.D. 1951. A comparison of virgin spruce-fir forest in the northern and southern Appalachian system. Ecology 32:84–103. Orazona, M.K., T.A. Semenova, and A.V. Tiunov. 2003. The microfungal community of Lumbricus terrestries middens in a Linden (Tilia cordata) forest. Pedobiologia 47:27–32. Polishook, J.D., G.F. Bills, and D.J. Lodge. 1996. Microfungi from decaying leaves in two rain forests in Puerto Rico. Journal of Industrial Microbiology 17:284–294. Remacle, J. 1971. Succession in the oak litter microfl ora in forests at Mesnil-Eglise (Ferage), Belgium. Oikos 22:411–413. Rossman A.Y., R.E. Tulloss, T.E. O’Dell, and R.G. Thorn. 1998. Protocols for An All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Fungi in a Costa Rican Conservation Area. Parkway Publishing Inc., Boone, NC. 195 pp. Shanks, R.E. 1954. Climates of the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecology 35:354–361. Sharkey, M.J. 2001. The All Taxa Biological Inventory of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Florida Entomologist 84:556–564. Stephenson, S.L. 1989. Distribution and ecology of myxomycetes in temperate forests. II. Patterns of occurrence on bark surface of living trees, leaf litter, and dung. Mycologia 81:608–621. Stephenson, S.L., M. Schnittler, and C. Lado. 2004. Ecological characterization of tropical myxomycete assemblage-Maquipucuna Cloud Forest Reserve, Ecuador. Mycologia 96:488–497. 626 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 4 Subramanian, C.V., and B.P.R. Vittal. 1979. Studies on litter fungi II. Fungal colonization of Atlantia monophylla Corr. leaves and litter. Nova Hedwigia Beihefte 63:361–369. Subramanian, C.V., and B.P.R. Vittal. 1980. Studies on litter fungi. IV. Fungal colonization of Gymnosporia emarginata leaves and litter. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 21:339–344. Sutton, B.C. 1980. The Coelomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, UK. 696 pp. Tubaki, K., and T. Yokoyama. 1971. Successive fungal fl ora on sterilized leaves in the litter of forests I. Institute for Fermentation Research Communications (Osaka) 5:24–42. Tubaki, K., and T. Yokoyama. 1973. Successive fungal fl ora on sterilized leaves in litter of forests II, III. Institute for Fermentation Research Communications (Osaka) 6:18–49. Visser, S., and D. Parkinson. 1975. Fungal succession on aspen leaf litter. Canadian Journal of Botany 53:1640–1651. Watanabe, T. 1994. Two new species of homothallic Mucor in Japan. Mycologia 86:691–695. Wildman, H.G., and D. Parkinson. 1979. Microfungal succession on living leaves of Populus tremuloides. Canadian Journal of Botany 57:2800–2811. Woolfolk, S.W., and G.D. Inglis. 2004. Microorganisms associated with field-collected Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) adults with emphasis on yeast symbionts. Biological Control 29:155–168. 2009 R.E. Baird, S. Woolfolk, and C.E. Watson 627 Appendix 1. Mean percent occurrence of fungi from ground litter of three tree species from Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Percent isolation frequency based on 3 sampling dates x 4 replicate trees x 2 media x 10 plates/medium x 5 isolates/ plate= 1200/ tree species; sometimes less than 5 isolates/plate were found. A.B. = American Beech, F.F. = Fraser Fir, and E.H. = Eastern Hemlock. 2005 2006 Taxa A.B. F.F. E.H. A.B. F.F. E.H. Fungi Imperfecti Acremonium crotocinigenum <1.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 3.3 (Schol-Schwarz) W. Gams A. hansfordii (Deighton) W. Gams 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Acremonium spp. Link: Fr. <1.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 Acladium conspersum Link: Fr. 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 Alternaria tenuis Nees <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Amblysporium spongiosum (Pers.) S. Hughes <1.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 Aspergillus niger Tiegh. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 Aspergillus spp. <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Aposphaeria pezizoides Ellis & E. <1.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 Aureobasidium pullulans (deBary) G. Arnaud <1.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 Bactodesmium obliquum Sutton <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 Bipolaris sorokinianum (Sacc.) Shoemaker <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Candida guilliermondii (Castellani) <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 Langeron & Guerra Candida spp. Berkhout <1.0 1.9 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 0.0 Cephalosporium sp. Corda <1.0 1.4 <1.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 Chaetomella oblonga Fuckel 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Chaetopsina fulva Rambelli <1.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Chloridium chlamydosporum (Beyma) <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Hughes. Cladosporium herbarum (Pers.: Fr.) Link <1.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 Cladosporium spp. Link <1.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 Curvularia oryzae Bugnicourt <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Dactylella leptospora Drechsler 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 0.0 Diheterospora chlamydosporia (Goddard) <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Barron & Onions Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 F. lateritium Nees.: Fr. <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 F. nivale (Fr.) Ces. 1.2 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 F. oxysporum Schlechtend.: Fr. 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 F. sambucinum Fuckel 0.0 1.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 F. semitectum Berk. & Ravenel <1.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 F. solani (Mart.) Sacc. <1.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 F. verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Fusarium spp. Link:Fr. <1.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 628 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 4 2005 2006 Taxa A.B. F.F. E.H. A.B. F.F. E.H. Geotrichum candidum Link <1.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Gliocladium deliquescens Sopp. 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 Gliomastix murorum (Corda) Hughes 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Gonotobotryum apiculatum (Peck) Hughes <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Hemicorynespora deightonii M.B. Ellis <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Humicola sp. Traaen <1.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 0.0 Idriella sp. Nelson & Wilhelm 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 Ingoldia craginiformis Petersen 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Leptostroma caricinum Fr.:Fr. <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Memnoniella echinata (Rivolta) Galloway Sm. <1.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 Menispora glauca Pers. <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Monascus spp. Zukal 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 Monochoetia concentrica (Berk. & Broom) <1.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 Sacc. & Sacc. Monochaetia sp. (Sacc.) Allesch. 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 Monocillium indicum Saksena 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Nigrospora sphaerica (Sacc.) E. Mason 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Nodulosporium spp. G. Preuss 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Oidiodendron griseum Robak <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) A.H.R. <1.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 Brown & G. Smith Paecilomyces spp. Bainier 1.8 2.1 <1.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 Penicillium arenicola Chalabuda 0.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 1.8 1.2 P. islandicum Sopp. <1.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 1.5 P. lividum Westling <1.0 <1.0 0.0 1.1 1.0 <1.0 P. oxalicum Currie & Thom 1.3 2.3 2.4 1.6 1.0 8.3 P. sclerotiorum Beyma <1.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 Penicillium spp. Link:Fr. 1.2 1.9 1.0 1.2 2.6 7.0 Periconia macrospinosa Lefebvre and 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 A.G. Johnson Pestalotia clavispora Atk. 1.2 1.8 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 3.6 Pestalotiopsis guepini (Desm.) Steyaert 7.3 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 Phialophora verrucosa Medlar <1.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 Phoma dura Sacc. <1.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 Phymatotrichum omnivorum Duggar 1.1 9.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Pithomyces atro-olivaceous <1.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 (Cooke & Harkin.) M.B. Ellis Rhinocladiella atrovirens Nannf. 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (AG-3) 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Rhizosphaera pini (Corda) Maubl. <1.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 Rhynchophoma sp. P. Karst. 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Sarocladium sp. Gams & Hawksworth 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 Seiridium sp. A. Nees <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Seiridium sp. B. Nees <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2009 R.E. Baird, S. Woolfolk, and C.E. Watson 629 2005 2006 Taxa A.B. F.F. E.H. A.B. F.F. E.H. Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Stilbum sp. Tode 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Thysanophora canadensis Stolk & Hennebert 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 Trichoderma aggressivum Samuels & W. Gams 0.0 <1.0 0.0 4.6 0.0 0.0 T. atroviride P. Karst. 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 T. aureoviride Rifai <1.0 0.0 8.2 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 T. cremeum Chaverri & Samuels 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 T. ghanense Y. Doi, Y. Abe & J. Sugiyama 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.4 0.0 <1.0 T. hamatum (Bonord.) Bainier 0.0 <1.0 1.7 15.2 8.0 3.5 T. harzianum Rifai 15.9 15.5 27.7 16.9 16.8 17.3 T. koningii Oudem. 6.4 8.0 8.9 1.6 <1.0 4.1 T. stromaticum Samuels & Pardo – Schulth. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 T. virens (J. Miller et al.) Arx 5.4 2.4 8.8 8.4 16.2 9.1 T. viride Pers.:Fr. 3.9 1.1 0.0 12.3 <1.0 1.3 Trichoderma spp. Pers. 3.0 2.4 4.4 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 Trichosporiella cerebriformis 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 (G.A. de Vries & Kleine-Natrop) W. Gams Trichosporon sp. Behrend <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Truncatella angustata (Pers.) S. Hughes <1.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 Ulocladium spp. Preuss <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 Verticillium sp. Nees <1.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 1.0 Virgaria nigra (Link) Nees 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 Unknown spp. 9.0 6.7 2.6 5.3 8.8 3.5 Yeasts Unknown spp. 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 Ascomycota Eupenicillium cinnamopurpurem 1.1 0.0 <1.0 1.5 <1.0 <1.0 D.B. Scott & Stolk Eurotium amstelodami L. Mangin 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 Eurotium rubrum W. Bremer 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 Sordaria sp. Ces. & De Not. 0.0 <1.0 2.5 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 Basidiomycota Unknown spp. <1.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Zygomycota Absidia spp. Tiegh. <1.0 0.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 Mortierella sp. Coem. 0.0 0.0 1.6 1.8 <1.0 <1.0 Mucor microsporus Naumov. <1.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 Rhizopus arrhizus A. Fisher 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 R. monosporus Tiegh. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 R. niger (Ciagl. & Hewelke) Gedoelst 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 630 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 8, No. 4 2005 2006 Taxa A.B. F.F. E.H. A.B. F.F. E.H. Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb.:Fr.) Vuill. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 Rhizopus spp. Ehrenb. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <1.0 Rhopalomyces elegans Corda <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Oomycota (Straminipila) Phytophthora spp. deBary <1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Pythium spp. Pringsh. 1.0 <1.0 0.0 <1.0 0.0 0.0