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Survey of Moth Diversity in Congaree National Park
Joseph D. Culin, Brian G. Scholtens, and John A. Snyder

Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 17, Monograph Number 11 (2018): 1–78

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1 2018 SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST 17(Monograph 11):1–78 Survey of Moth Diversity in Congaree National Park Joseph D. Culin1,*, Brian G. Scholtens2, and John A. Snyder3 Abstract - We surveyed moth populations in Congaree NP (Richland County, SC) between November 2009 and October 2010. We conducted primary sampling for 2 nights per month using ultraviolet bucket-traps and mercury-vapor lamps with sheets in accessible areas of the park. We also collected specimens near building lights throughout the study and conducted bait sampling during cold-weather months. We curated 10,950 specimens. Of these, we have identified 10,524 to species and 134 to genus, with 15 of those being as yet unnamed new species. There are 295 specimens that remain unidentified. Our survey yielded 1002 species in 547 genera and 49 families, raising the confirmed moth data from the park to 1005 species, 549 genera, and 49 families. Our data included 161 species previously unreported from SC. Of those, 55 species have not been reported to occur in the adjacent states of GA or NC. We recorded only 3 non-native species that collectively totaled 6 individuals. Introduction Congaree National Park encompasses ~10,725 ha (26,500 ac) varying in elevation from 27.4 m (90 ft) to 61.0 m (200 ft) in the southern portion of Richland County, SC (Fig. 1C). It was established to protect the largest contiguous tract of old-growth bottomland hardwood forest (~4452 ha [11,000 ac]) remaining in the US. The park encompasses a relatively intact and unspoiled floodplain ecosystem renowned for its biodiversity. A unique aspect of the park is the significant flooding that occurs an average of 10 times per year when the Congaree River overflows its banks along the southern border of the park, which presents special challenges to species that occur there (Doyle 2009). Designated as an International Biosphere Reserve in 1983, Wilderness Area in 1988, Important Bird Area in 2001, and Ramsar Convention Wetland of International Importance in 2012, the park serves as a baseline site for environmental research and monitoring. A long-term goal of the park is to provide essential habitat for species dependent on this old-growth bottomland hardwood ecosystem, with particular emphasis on endangered or threatened species, or species uncommon elsewhere (NPS 2004, 2014). As part of the effort to maintain this unique ecosystem, the majority of Congaree NP is maintained in an unimproved state with areas accessible through roads or trails concentrated in the western third of the park (Fig. 1A). Knowledge of the biological diversity of all taxa occurring within the park is a critical component in assuring long-term preservation of this unique habitat. 1Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634. 2Department of Biology, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424. 3Department of Biology, Furman University, Greenville, SC 29613. *Corresponding author - jculin@clemson.edu. Manuscript Editor:James Adams Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 2 2018 Both adult moths, as a major group of pollinators, and their larvae, as important herbivores, can have significant impacts upon plant populations and communities. Moth species, in both the adult and larval stages, are important food sources for many species of vertebrate and invertebrate predators. Moths are the predominant food source for Corynorhinus rafinesquii (Lesson) (Rafinesque’s Big-eared Bat) (Hurst and Lacki 1997, Lacki and Ladeur 2001), a resident of the park that is considered imperiled in SC (state rank S2), and is included as a rare species in the Park’s Foundation Document (NPS 2014). Moth species play a significant role in the ecosystems in which they occur; thus, they can serve as indicators of current ecosystem health and can be used to monitor environmental change. This project provides a year-long assessment of the composition, seasonal trends, and distribution of the moth fauna within accessible areas of Congaree NP. This nearly comprehensive inventory of documented species provides a framework for identifying species that might serve as indicators for long-term health of the bottomland hardwood floodplain ecosystem, and provides a baseline from which to measure long-term change. The overall objectives of this project were to document moth diversity within Congaree NP and to develop a baseline inventory of moth species. This study documented moth diversity within Congaree NP through a year-long survey of adult moths in a variety of accessible habitats within the park, which we integrated with previously collected verifiable data; documented the occurrence of species of special concern, such as rare, threatened, endangered, non-native, or invasive species; and provided baseline information to help park managers to develop a monitoring strategy tailored to assess the status of species of special concern that occur within the park. Materials and Methods We conducted surveys from November 2009 through October 2010. We performed the majority of sampling using 12-V battery-powered ultraviolet buckettraps and mercury-vapor (MV) lamps with sheets. Due to the need for a vehicle or service cart to transport traps, batteries, generator, etc. to sample sites, we concentrated our survey along trails and roads. Survey sites included areas near the Harry Hampton Visitor Center and Old-Growth Bottomland Forest Research and Education Center; along the Boardwalk Loop Trail, Sims Trail, National Park Road, West Boundary Road, US 601; and where both Garrick Road and South Cedar Creek Road terminate at the northern park boundary (Fig. 1A, B). We conducted supplemental sampling by hand-collecting near exterior building lights throughout the study, and baiting in November, December, January, February, March, April, and October. In addition, park staff deployed UV traps, collected near building lights, or baited on several dates during the survey. We were unable to sample portions of the West Boundary Road and much of the non-elevated west and south sections of the Boardwalk Loop Trail between December 2009 and March 2010 due to flooding. Survey-site locations are shown in Figure 1; collection sites and their GPS coordinates, collection methods, months sampled, total specimens, and total species collected for each site are presented in Table 1. Habitat types and plant data from 3 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 the Congaree NP GIS vegetation layer for each collection site are presented in Appendix 1. Renovation of the Boardwalk Loop Trail, completed after this study, has resulted in minor differences between our site nomenclature and the current boardwalk layout. On each primary sampling night, we deployed at dusk and retrieved shortly after sunrise multiple UV traps. We placed a container equipped with a wick and holding ethyl acetate (C4H8O2, BioQuip Products, Inc., Rancho Dominguez, CA) within each trap as a killing source. We hand-collected moths observed on the outside of traps at retrieval and added them to the sample. We returned traps to the Old-Growth Bottomland Forest Research and Education Center, where collected materials were sorted and by-catch removed. On all primary sampling nights, except during July and August, we employed 1 or 2 MV lamps with sheets. We placed 1 of these near either the Old-Growth Bottomland Forest Research and Education Center or the Harry Hampton Visitor Center to allow use of drop cords from electrical outlets. The other trap was powered using a small generator, which allowed us to place the trap on the Boardwalk Figure 1. Sites surveyed for moths in Congaree NP between November 2009 and October 2010. (A) All sites included in the survey except for 1 site on the Cedar Creek canoe trail. (B) Detailed location of sites located near the Harry Hampton Visitor Center, Research and Education Center and along the Boardwalk Loop Trail. (C) Location of Congaree NP in South Carolina. Data from Congaree NP (park boundary, park roads and trails), ESRI (railroads, major highways, rivers), and SC Department of Transportation (Garrick Road). Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 4 2018 Table 1. Sites surveyed between November 2009 and October 2010 in Congaree NP. Boardwalk pullouts are numbered starting with the pullout closest to the Harry Hampton Visitor Center. Renovation of the Boardwalk Loop Trail has slightly changed its configuration since the completion of this study. Collection method: UV = ultraviolet lamp bucket trap, MV = mercury-vapor lamp with sheet, BL = building lights, and B = bait. Total # = number of specimens collected; numbers in parentheses are the count of specimens id entified only to genus. [Table continued on following page.] Collection 2009 2010 Total Total Collection sites GPS °N GPS °W method Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct # species Harry Hampton Visitor Center 33.8296 80.8237 BL x x x x x x x x x x x x 210 (2) 120 Research and Education Center (REC) 33.8310 80.8190 MV, BL, B x x x x x x x x x x x x 1446 (38) 523 REC at Bluff Trail 33.8232 80.8183 UV x x x x x x x x 279 161 REC bathhouse 33.8310 80.8192 BL x x x 20 17 National Park Road at powerline cut 33.8392 80.8277 UV x x x x x x x x x x x x 674 (7) 304 National Park Road at trail 33.8318 80.8261 UV x x 228 (5) 141 National Park Road in oak woods 33.8330 80.8277 UV x x x x 197 (5) 120 Trail from picnic area to boardwalk 33.8300 80.8243 MV x x 184 (8) 117 Elevated boardwalk, NW cornerA 33.8285 80.8243 UV x x x 18 17 Elevated boardwalk, 3rd pullout 33.8281 80.8232 UV x x x x x 50 39 Elevated boardwalk, 5th pullout 33.8282 80.8213 UV x x 105 (1) 69 Elevated boardwalk, 7th pullout 33.8292 80.8199 UV x 59 36 Elevated boardwalk, 8th pullout 33.8299 80.8182 MV, UV x x x x x x x x x x x 1258 (17) 435 Elevated boardwalk, 13th pullout 33.8274 80.8179 UV x 159 95 Elevated boardwalk, 14th pullout 33.8270 80.8178 UV x 12 12 Elevated boardwalk, 17th pullout 33.8259 80.8186 UV x x 331 (2) 138 Elevated boardwalk, 18th pullout 33.8256 80.8187 UV x 2 1 Elevated boardwalk, 19th pullout 33.8251 80.8188 UV x x x x x 42 34 Elevated boardwalk, 24th pullout 33.8218 80.8178 UV x x x x x x 270 158 Low boardwalk, 1st pullout 33.8279 80.8246 UV x x x 158 93 Low boardwalk, 2nd pullout 33.8272 80.8251 UV x x x 39 26 Low boardwalk, 3rd pullout 33.8262 80.8252 UV x x 56 45 5 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Table 1, continued. Collection 2009 2010 Total Total Collection sites GPS °N GPS °W method Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct # species Low boardwalk, 4th pullout 33.8253 80.8254 UV x x 119 69 Low boardwalk, 5th pullout 33.8246 80.8254 UV x 9 6 Low boardwalk, 6th pullout 33.8237 80.8254 UV x 3 3 Low boardwalk, #7 (SW corner) 33.8221 80.8256 UV x x 133 69 Low boardwalk, #8 (end of spur) 33.8206 80.8254 UV x 92 54 Low boardwalk, 9th pullout 33.8220 80.8249 UV x 123 (2) 76 Low boardwalk, 11th pullout 33.8221 80.8229 UV x x 122 83 Low boardwalk, 12th pullout 33.8224 80.8221 UV x x x x 212 (2) 129 Sims Trail (gate near REC) 33.8290 80.8194 UV x x 11 6 Sims Trail at bridge 33.8229 80.8213 MV, UV x x x x x x x 581 (8) 213 Sims Trail in oak woods 33.8190 80.8240 UV x x 66 48 Garrick Road 33.8335 80.8033 UV x x x x x x x x x 1224 (12) 445 Cedar Creek Road at canoe landing 33.8186 80.7880 UV x x x x 157 102 US 601 at north bridge 33.7840 80.6360 UV x 6 5 US 601, West Road (hillside) 33.7627 80.6421 UV x x 118 (2) 92 US 601, West Road (woods) 33.7639 80.6411 UV x x x x x 345 (14) 189 West Boundary Road at clearing with 33.8229 80.8637 UV x x x x x x x 573 (1) 219 cut logs West Boundary Road at River Trail 33.8090 80.8658 UV x x x x x x x x 687 (6) 243 West BoundaryRoad 0.16 km inside 33.8329 80.8635 UV x x 143 (2) 88 gate Cedar Creek site via canoeB n/a n/a UV x 3 2 ACorner of elevated boardwalk between 1st and 2nd pullouts. BApproximatly mid-way between Old Bluff Road and South Cedar Creek Road canoe-launch sites. Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 6 2018 Loop Trail or Sims Trail. We placed moths that landed on the sheet, ground, or foliage either in killing jars containing ethyl acetate (Macrolepidoptera) or alive in individual vials (Microlepidoptera). We turned on the lamps shortly after dusk and they remained on until shortly after sunrise, with most collecting taking place between dusk and midnight, followed by a final check when we turned the light off in the morning. With the exception of the Old Growth Bottomland Research and Education Center location, all UV- and MV-lamp trapping sites were situated well away from any artificial light sources. When trapping occurred at the Research and Education Center, all exterior building lights were off and traps were placed at least 30 m (100 ft) from the building. For all UV trap and MV lamp collections, the approximate duration for each trapping session is presented in Appendix 2 as hours of darkness. We calculated hours of darkness based on the time between end of civil twilight (approximate sunset day 1) to beginning of civil twilight (approximate sunrise day 2). Other lunar and sky data used in this study include time of moon rise and set, percentage of moon disk visible, hours of moonlight during dark, and average percent cloud cover during dark (Appendix 2). Weather data include rainfall, and minimum and maximum values for temperature, relative humidity (RH), and wind speed for the time between the end and beginning of civil twilight (Appendix 3). Civil twilight and lunar data were obtained from the US Naval Observatory (website http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/RS_OneYear.php) for Columbia, SC. We obtained cloud-cover data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) cell (Mesinger et al. 2006) most closely aligned with the geographic center of Congaree NP. Rainfall, temperature, RH, and wind-speed data were provided by Congaree NP from an on-site weather station. Selection of sample dates depended on the authors’ schedules, availability of housing, and access to laboratory space at the Old-Growth Bottomland Research and Education Center; thus, we were unable to schedule sampling to consistently coincide with weekends nearest a new moon. From November 2009 through April 2010 and in October 2010, we applied a molasses and beer bait on 15–20 individual trees located along the road between the Research and Education Center and Sims Trail gate. We checked bait locations several times between dusk and midnight and again shortly after sunrise. All moths observed at bait locations were hand-collected and placed in killing jars. Following collection, we returned specimens to the Old-Growth Bottomland Research and Education Center where trap catches were sorted. Our goal was to survey the composition of the moth population; thus, we retained for identification only 3–5 specimens of each morphospecies from each collection site. We placed specimens on spreading boards shortly after collection until available space was filled. The number of moths greatly exceeded the availability of preparation space on most collection dates, so we placed remaining moths in plastic snap-lid containers and returned them to either Clemson University, College of Charleston, or Furman University, where they were stored frozen until prepared for identification. We collected many Microlepidoptera in individual vials, to be stored alive in a refrigerator and, over the course of several days, killed and prepared. 7 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 We completed the majority of specimen preparations and identifications by September 2013, but identification of some Microlepidoptera continued through 2017. For several difficult-to-identify genera, B.G. Scholtens dissected specimens to confirm identifications. In total, Scholtens completed 300 dissections (1 Gelechiidae; 37 Tortricidae; 59 Crambidae; 115 Pyralidae; 88 Geometridae). All Pterophoridae were identified by D. Matthews Lott (McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL). Species identifications in this report follow the taxonomic status and P3 numbering system in Pohl et al. (2016). We use Henricus edwardsiana (Walsingham), rather than H. contrastana (Kearfott), based on a recent report by J. Brown (US Dept. of Agriculture, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC) posted at http://mothphotographersgroup. msstate.edu/species.php?hodges=3797. Sources used in confirming identifications include Covell (2005), Ferguson (1978, 1985, 2008), Gilligan and Wright (2013), Gilligan et al. (2008), Handfield (1999), Heinrich (1923, 1926, 1956), Heppner (2003), Hodges (1974, 1978, 1986, 1999), Lafontaine (1987, 1998, 2004), Lafontaine and Poole (1991), Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010), Lee et al. (2009), Martinez (2010), Mikkola et al. (2009), Miller (1987), Munroe (1972–1973, 1976), Neunzig (1986, 1990, 1997, 2003), Poole (1995), Powell and Brown (2012), Regier et al. (2014), Regier et al. (2015), Rings et al. (1992), Scholtens and Solis (2015), Sohn et al. (2013), Sohn et al. (2015), and Wright and Gilligan (2015). The list of species that we report as new records for South Carolina is based on the South Carolina Moth Searchable Checklist (http://insect.furman.edu/ sc-moths/) maintained by J.A. Snyder. Information on the development of that database can be found on that website under Important Information, with data sources listed at http://insect.furman.edu/sc-moths/collection-legend.htm. We determined the occurrence of new SC record species in nearby states based on North American Moth Photographers Group (http://mothphotographersgroup.msstate. edu/) distribution maps. We feel that this site maintains the most readily available, and current, synopsis of moth species distributions. We used the first 3 Hill numbers (Hill 1973)—species richness (0D), the Shannon exponential index (1D), and the inverse Simpson index (2D)—to assess diversity. We calculated these values using EstimateS (Colwell 2013). Chao et al. (2014) noted that because richness is based simply on species presence, it is most sensitive to changes in rare species, while the Shannon exponential index weights all species in relation to their abundance, and the inverse Simpson index emphasizes the most abundant species. Morris et al. (2014) found that using multiple diversity measures provided a better understanding of how both rare and abundant species affect community structure. We employed the number of shared species and the Chao–Sorenson similarity index to compare moth communities among 8 major plant communities found within Congaree NP. We chose the Chao–Sorenson index because it reduces the negative bias inherent to some traditional similarity indices (Chao et al. 2005). We assigned plant communities based on the GIS vegetation layer provided by Congaree NP staff (Thompson 1998), mapped sample sites onto the vegetation Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 8 2018 layer, and determined the plant community for each sampling site to include all plant species listed for individual vegetation types within 30 m (100 ft) of the site (Appendix 1). This analysis resulted in 8 plant communities: upland mixed hardwoods and pines, upland pines, vine shrubland, mixed bottomland hardwoods, Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich (Bald Cypress) dominant, Nyssa aquatica L. (Water Tupelo) dominant, swamp forest, and wet Pinus palustris Mill. (Longleaf Pine) savannah. We employed the Chao–Sorenson similarity index to compare plant species composition among the 8 major plant communities in which we surveyed moths. It should be noted that 2 habitat types do not have detailed plant data in the GIS vegetation layer (Appendix 1). First, the GIS vegetation layer labels sites along the National Park Road and near the Harry Hampton Visitor Center simply as successional Pinus (pine) and mixed hardwoods, and does not include a list of the most common species. Second, the area along US 601 is a relatively new addition to Congaree NP and was not included in the existing GIS vegetation layer. This area is designated as a wet Longleaf Pine savannah habitat with Longleaf Pine as the only listed species. Comparisons that include these 2 habitat types are biased due to a lack of detailed plant data. The primary repository of specimens from this survey is the Clemson University Arthropod Collection (CUAC; https://sites.google.com/site/ clemsonarthropodcollection/) with duplicate material housed at the College of Charleston Department of Biology and at the Furman University Zoological Collection (http://insect.furman.edu/collection/; search under Richland County, SC). The database for all species recorded from this survey is maintained by B.G. Scholtens at College of Charleston (Filemaker Pro® format), and Congaree NP (Microsoft Excel® format). Persons interested in these data should contact cong_information@ NPS.gov or B.G. Scholtens for additional information. We took photographs of all species using a Canon EOS 30D camera with macro Twin Lite MT-24EX flash system. Based on size of the specimen, we used one of the following Canon lenses: EF 180mm (f/3.5 Macro USM), EF 100 mm (f/2.8 Macro USM), MP-E 65 mm (f/2.8 1–5x Macro Photo), or EF-S 17–85 mm (f/4–5.6 IS USM). We archived a single photograph for each monomorphic species and archived photographs of each morph for polymorphic species. Photographs are archived on the Open Parks Network© (https://openparksnetwork.org/explore/collections/ cong-moths/) and at Congaree NP. Results and Discussion During our year-long survey, we archived 10,950 specimens. Of these, 10,524 have been identified to species (Appendix 4A). Of the remainder, we identified 134 to genus, with 15 being unnamed new species (Appendix 4B). There are 295 as-yet-unidentified specimens. Our survey included 1002 species, 547 genera, and 49 families of moths (Appendix 4A, B). There were 4 families and 20 genera that did not contain any specimens identified to species (Appendix 4A , B). Prior to our survey, there were records of 40 moth species in 40 genera and 12 families from Congaree NP. With the exception of Acoloithus falsarius Clemens (Zygaenidae), 9 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Citheronia regalis (Fabricius) (Saturniidae), and Schizura concinna (J.E. Smith) (Notodontidae), we collected all previously reported species during our survey (Appendix 4A). Our survey did not contain specimens in the genera Acoloithus or Citheronia. With the completion of our survey, there are now 1005 species, 549 genera, and 49 families of moths documented from Congaree NP. We note that there was a prior record of Arctia caja (L.) (Eribidae) from Congaree NP, but we strongly suspect that this species was recorded in error—it is not known to occur in the Southeastern US, so we have not included it in the totals above. Our data include 161 species previously unrecorded in SC (Appendix 4A). Of those, 30 (18.6%) have not been reported from the nearby states of AL, FL, GA, NC, TN, or VA. An additional 25 (15.5%) of those 161 species have not been reported from GA or NC, contiguous to SC, but are known from AL, FL, TN, or VA (Appendix 4A). The majority of the new SC records are Microlepidoptera, and their apparent absence across much of the Southeast likely reflects a lack of collection rather than disjunct populations. Our survey recorded 3 non-native moth species in Congaree NP: Noctua pronuba, Ostrinia nubilalis and Plutella xylostella (Appendix 4A). Collectively, these taxa represented only 6 of the 10,524 specimens identified to species during this survey. Our data suggest that few introduced moth species have become established in Congaree NP’s intact native ecosystems. It would be valuable to compare these data with the surrounding disturbed areas. Abundance of both specimens (Fig. 2) and species (Fig. 3) exhibited similar seasonal trends with low numbers from November through February, then increasing through March and April. The number of specimens exhibited a 3-month peak Figure 2. Seasonal trend in the number of moth specimens collected in Congaree NP from November 2009 through October 2010. Data presented include all specimens with an assigned P3 number (Appendix 4A, B). Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 10 2018 from May through July, while the number of species peaked during May and June. Numbers of both specimens and species declined slightly through August followed by a dramatic increase in September before declining sharply in October. In our survey, 3 species are represented by >100 individuals, 26 between 51 and 100 individuals, 81 between 26 and 50 individuals, and 892 with ≤25 individuals (Fig. 4, Appendix 4A). We observed a similar distribution pattern among families, with 4 families represented by >1000 individuals, 8 with between 101 and 999 Figure 3. Seasonal trend in the number of moth species collected in Congaree NP from November 2009 through October 2010. Data presented include only those specimens identified to species (Appendix 4A). Figure 4. Rank abundance curve for moth species collected in Congaree NP from November 2009 through October 2010. Data presented include only those specimens identified to species (Appendix 4A). 11 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 individuals, 17 between 11 and 100 individuals, and 20 families having ≤10 individuals (Fig. 5, Appendix 4A, B). Of the 1002 species recorded, 396 (39.5%) were collected only during a single month and 219 (21.9%) were recorded during only 2 Figure 5. Relative abundance of moth families collected in Congaree NP between November 2009 and October 2010. (A) Families with >1000 individuals. (B) Families with 101–999 individuals. (C) Families with 11–100 individuals. (D) Families with 1–10 individuals. Data presented include all specimens with an assigned P3 number (Appendix 4A, B). Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 12 2018 months (Fig. 6, Appendix 4A). Conversely, both Iridopsis defectaria and Macaria aequiferaria were present in collections during 9 months and Nemoria lixaria during 10 months (Fig. 6, Appendix 4A). Overall moth diversity in Congaree NP was relatively high (0D = 1002, 1D = 505.01, and 2D = 316.01), while Simpson’s evenness (E = 0.32) was low (Fig. 7). The low evenness-value was expected based on the distribution of individuals Figure 7. Diversity indices, number of specimens, and number of times habitat was sampled between November 2009 and October 2010. Data are presented for the whole park and for subsets from 8 habitat types sampled. Indices include species richness (0D), Shannon exponential (1D), inverse Simpson (2D), and Simpson’s evenness (E; multiplied by 1000 to adjust scale). Data presented include only those specimens identified t o species (Appendix 4A). Figure 6. Number of months during which each species was collected in Congaree NP between November 2009 and October 2010. Data presented include only those specimens identified to species (Appendix 4A). 13 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 among species described previously (Fig. 4, Appendix 4A). We also found that both the number of specimens and number of species recorded per site had strong positive linear relationships with sampling intensity (Fig. 8). Despite our inability to survey all habitat types equally, we observed some trends in diversity. In each of the 8 habitat types, 0D > 1D > 2D, indicating that the surveyed moth communities had similar structures of rare to abundant species (Fig. 7). The primary difference across the 8 habitats examined was that for habitats sampled more than 20 times, 0D was much greater than 1D or 2D indicating that increased sampling yielded more rare species (Fig. 7). In the 3 habitats sampled fewer than 10 times the species were more evenly abundant as indicated by 0D being similar to both 1D and 2D (Fig. 7). Evenness values support the Hill number trends, with the mixed bottomland hardwoods habitat having the lowest evenness (E = 0.36) and the greatest difference between 0D and 2D, indicating there were considerably more rare than abundant species in samples from this habitat (Fig. 7). Likewise, the vine shrubland habitat had the highest evenness (E = 0.74) and the least difference between 0D and 2D, indicating that most species in this habitat were collected at similar abundances, likely an artifact of the low sampling frequency (Fig. 7). Moth species diversity and evenness in the 8 habitat types fell into 3 general groups. The upland mixed hardwoods and pines habitat had the highest values for all diversity indices with an evenness value of 0.47. Despite variability in the number of times sampled, the swamp forest (n = 64), mixed bottomland hardwoods (n = 41), and upland pines (n = 23) had similar 0D, 1D, and 2D values, and evenness values of 0.46, 0.36, and 0.52, respectively (Fig. 7). Although it was sampled 21 times, the Bald Cypress-dominant habitat had lower 0D, 1D, and 2D values than the previous habitat grouping, but was similar to them in evenness (0.42). The 3 Figure 8. Relationship between the number of times a habitat was sampled and both total number of specimens and total number of species recorded. Data presented for specimens is from Appendix 4A and 4B, and for species from Appendix 4A. Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 14 2018 habitat types sampled fewer than 10 times had the lowest 0D, 1D, and 2D values but relatively high evenness values of 0.53, 0.65, and 0.74, respec tively. The number of shared species among habitat pairs was relatively high; most habitat pairs had >50% of the species collected in common with each other (Table 2). The high number of shared species is reflected in the Chao–Sorenson similarity values of >0.5 for the majority of paired habitat comparisons (Table 2). There were 3 habitat similarity groupings that stand out. The first included the Bald Cypress dominant, swamp forest, and mixed bottomland hardwoods habitats, all of which had similarity index values that were high for both moths (≥0.776) and plants (≥0.621) (Table 2). The second included the mixed bottomland hardwoods, swamp forest, and upland mixed hardwoods and pines, which had moth similarity values that were high (≥0.746) (Table 2). Within this group, plant similarity was high between the swamp forest and mixed bottomland hardwoods (0.621) but low between those and the upland mixed hardwoods and pines habitat (0.200, 0.286, respectively) (Table 2). The low similarity was most likely caused by the reporting format in the GIS vegetation layer for the upland hardwoods and pines sites. The third group included the upland mixed hardwoods and pines and upland pines habitats. These had a moth similarity index value that was high (0.781) but a plant similarity value that was low (0.143). The similarity in moth populations is probably due to the upland locations of these sites, while the lack of detail in the GIS vegetation layer for the upland hardwoods and pines habitat is causing the low level of similarity among plants. Two habitats, the wet Longleaf Pine savannah habitat and vine shrubland, differed the most in similarity values from the other 6 habitat types in both moth and plant compositions (Table 2). The wet Longleaf Pine savannah area is located along US 601 where it crosses the eastern edge of the park and is widely separated from the other sampling areas, which were primarily in the western portion of the park. Also, as a relatively new addition to the park, it was not included in the GIS vegetation layer so does not have detailed plant composition information. The vineshrubland habitat was only sampled twice and so the moth diversity is probably underestimated compared to the other habitats. It would be beneficial for both of these habitats to be more intensively sampled in future studies. Environmental factors are known to impact moth behavior and their susceptibility to trapping (Jonason et al. 2014, White et al. 2016, Yela and Holyoak 1997). To determine how these factors may have impacted our survey, we examined correlations between the number of moths per trap and total number of species captured for all collection sessions when either UV or MV light trapping was used (Figs. 9, 10). Moonlight interference is a major concern when collecting moths using light traps (McGeachie 1989, Yela and Holyoak 1997). Although most trapping sessions occurred at least 5 d before or after a full moon, one 2-night session (25–27 June) occurred during a full moon, and 2 single-night sessions (21–22 September, 20–21 October) occurred the night prior to a full moon (Appendix 2). During our survey we found no correlation between the percentage of the moon’s disk that was visible 15 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Table 2. Number of shared moth species by habitat type. Values in parentheses indicate Chao–Sorenson similarity index for moth species and those in brackets indicate Chao–Sorenson similarity index for plant composition based on Congaree NP GIS vegetation layer. Bald Mixed Upland Water Wet Cypress Vine bottomland Swamp mixed hardwoods Upland Tupelo Longleaf Pine dominant shrubland hardwoods forest and pines pines dominant savannah Bald Cypress dominant (313 spp.) 80 238 232 264 171 101 110 (0.620) (0.830) (0.776) (0.659) (0.527) (0.615) (0.505) {0.333} {0.882} {0.640} {0.154} {0.000} {0.316} {0.000} Vine shrubland (102 spp.) 87 83 85 65 43 40 (0.555) (0.504) (0.365) (0.291) (0.432) (0.265) {0.273} {0.000} {0.000} {0.000} {0.000} {0.000} Mixed bottomland hardwoods (462 spp.) 292 347 224 131 154 (0.811) (0.746) (0.590) (0.622) (0.580) {0.621} {0.200} {0.000} {0.261} {0.000} Swamp forest (471 spp.) 379 254 111 136 (0.816) (0.687) (0.534) (0.510) {0.286} {0.000} {0.143} {0.000} Upland mixed hardwoods and pines (723 spp.) 362 132 185 (0.781) (0.433) (0.480) {0.143} {0.000} {0.167} Upland pines (445 spp.) 91 139 (0.358) (0.449) {0.000} {0.500} Water Tupelo dominant (160 spp.) 69 (0.365) {0.000} Wet Longleaf Pine savannah (237 spp.) Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 16 2018 and either the number of moths per trap or number of species collected (Fig. 9A). This result could be due to the fact that 58% of all sampling sessions occurred with <50% of the moon’s disk visible (Appendix 2). Of the 8 sampling sessions when we captured >200 specimens per trap, 5 had less than 30% of the moon visible and 3 had more than 60% visible. The relatively low impact of moonlight in our survey could be due in part to the dense tree canopy at most survey sites. Figure 9. (A) Correlations between percentage of moon illuminated and both number of specimens per site and number of species collected. (B) Correlations between hours of moonlight during dark and both number of specimens per site and number of species collected. (C) Correlations between average percent cloud cover during dark and both number of specimens per site and number of species collected. Data for specimens from Appendix 4A and 4B, and for species from Appendix 4A. 17 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Figure 10. Correlations between both number of specimens per site and number of species collected with (A) minimum and (B) maximum temperature (°C), (C) minimum and (D) maximum wind speed (kph), and (E) minimum and (F) maximum relative humidity during dark. Data for specimens from Appendix 4A and 4B, and for species from Appendix 4A. Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 18 2018 Although the correlations were not very strong, we did observe a general trend of higher numbers of both specimens per trap and species captured when there were fewer hours of moonlight (Fig. 9B) and increased cloud cover (Fig. 9C) when sampling. McGeachie (1989) also reported lower captures of moths in light traps as moonlight increased, and Yela and Holyoak (1997) reported increased numbers of moths in light traps when cloud cover was higher. We also examined the relationships of overnight temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity with the number of specimens per trap and species captured (Fig. 10). Increases in both minimum (Fig. 10A) and maximum (Fig. 10B) overnight temperatures had strong positive correlations with capture data. This finding is expected for ectothermic species, and corresponds to the highest captures occurring during summer months (Figs. 2, 3). Similar temperature impacts have been reported by Jonason et al. (2014), McGeachie (1989), and Yela and Holyoak (1997). Although there was no clear correlation between either minimum or maximum wind speed with the number of specimens captured per trap, there was a slight positive increase in the number of species captured as either minimum or maximum wind speed increased (Fig. 10C, D). Jonason et al. (2014) reported that wind speed did not impact either moth abundance or species richness. We did not find any correlation between minimum relative humidity and either the number of specimens per trap or number of species collected (Fig. 10E). Maximum relative humidity when sampling was almost always >90%; thus, we did not attempt any correlation for this parameter (Fig. 10F). Prior data on the impact of relative humidity are unclear as to its impact; Jonason et al. (2016) reported lower numbers of macro moth species when humidity was higher, and van Langevelde et al. (2011) reported higher numbers of moth species when humidity was high. There have been 2 other comprehensive moth surveys conducted in the Southeastern US. R.B. Dominick conducted a 10-y (1965 to 1975) survey on The Wedge Plantation (McClellenville, SC) during which he collected 1069 moth species (Wallace 1987). At the time of that survey, The Wedge Plantation property consisted of 607 ha (1500 ac) at elevations from approximately 2 m (7 ft) to 6 m (20 ft), with habitats consisting mainly of marsh along the South Santee River and coastal forest with several embedded small open fields. The Wedge Plantation is ~145 km SE of Congaree NP. Scholtens and Wagner (2007) reported 1732 moth species from the Great Smoky Mountains NP; that total was updated in 2011 to 1881 species by J. Adams (Dalton State College, Dalton, GA, pers. comm.) and includes species collected during an intensive 6-y (2000 to 2006) All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) as well as those from prior and subsequent collections. The Great Smoky Mountains NP encompasses 211,426 ha (522,427 ac) with elevations from 267 m (875 ft) to 2024.8 m (6643 ft). The park contains 5 major forest types as well as both grassy and heath balds (https://www.nps.gov/grsm/index.htm), and is located ~320 km NW of Congaree NP. The 1005 species now reported for Congaree NP is only slightly lower than the number recorded from the Dominick collection. The similarity in species richness between these collections would be expected in that Congaree NP and The Wedge Plantation are located in the Inner and Outer SC Coastal Plain, respectively, and 19 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 both contain bottomland forest habitats. The higher moth species richness reported from the Great Smoky Mountains NP is also expected due to the significantly greater size and habitat diversity of the Great Smoky Mountain NP compared to Congaree NP. Our survey provides valuable information on the composition of moth populations and their seasonal trends in Congaree NP. Within the constraints of our survey techniques, it also provides some indication of the relative abundance of the species collected. Based on the number of new SC records of Microlepidoptera in our survey, further studies focusing on this group would be valuable. Also, because our survey was limited to accessible areas, we were unable to survey much of the park east of the Boardwalk Loop Trail. Future studies could involve deployment of traps by boat along the north shore of the Congaree River between the West Boundary Road landing and US 601, and by canoe along the Cedar Creek Canoe Trail. Additionally, habitat types where we had low numbers of samples should be resurveyed. Acknowledgments We thank Congaree National Park staff Theresa Thom, David Shelley, and Miriam Oudejans, and interns Heather Otte and Ricker Snow for assistance in sampling and support. Ricker Snow recorded the GIS coordinates for all sampling sites. David Shelley provided both Congaree NP GIS data layers (boundary, trails, roads, vegetation) and weather data. Students who assisted with sampling and sorting trap-catches included Tom Smith (College of Charleston), Jessica Grant (Clemson University), Melissa Strickland (College of Charleston), Carrie Umberger (College of Charleston), and Bobby Reynolds (College of Charleston). Volunteers who helped with sorting trap-catches included Hilda Flamholtz, Lynn Smith, Amber Leonard, John Galbary, Mark Huguley, Ann Jennings, Richard Kindler, Barbara Soblo, and Isaac Soblo. Willem Hillenius and Brenda Hillenius sampled 1 weekend by placing a UV trap at a site along the Cedar Creek Canoe Trail. Debbie Matthews Lott, McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, identified all specimens of the Pterophoridae. Brook Russell, Department of Mathematics, Clemson University, provided the NARR cloud-cover data. Rachel Wittmann, National Parks Metadata Specialist, Clemson University Libraries, uploaded the moth photographs and metadata presented on the Open Parks Network website. Elham Masoomkhah and Blake Lytle, Clemson University Center for Geospatial Technologies, assisted by preparing Figure 1. Walker Massey, Graphics Designer, Public Service and Agriculture, Clemson University, prepared Figures 2 through 10. We appreciate reviews by James Adams, Michael Caterino, Tomas Mustelin, and 2 anonymous reviewers. Their input strengthened this manuscript. Dana Anderson reviewed the manuscript and Appendix 4 for formatting. Clemson University, College of Charleston, and Furman University provided support and laboratory space. Funding for this project was provided by Congaree NP under National Park Service Contract H5000085050 / J5430090058 . 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Effects of moonlight and meteorological factors on light and bait trap catches of noctuid moths. Environmental Entomolog y 26:1283–1290. Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 24 2018 Appendix 1. Habitat types and associated plant species for all sample sites. Plant data are from the Congaree NP GIS vegetation layer. Habitat type Sample sites Associated plant species Bald Cypress dominant Low boardwalk, 3rd pullout Nyssa biflora Walter (Swamp Tupelo), Acer rubrum L. (Red Maple), Ilex opaca Aiton. (American Holly), Leucothoe axillaris (Lam. D. Don) (Coastal Doghobble), Carex atlantica ssp. capillacea (L.H. Bailey) Reznicek (Prickly Bog Sedge), Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. (Bald Cypress), Nyssa aquatica L. (Water Tupelo), Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. (Carolina Ash) Low boardwalk, 4th pullout Swamp Tupelo, Red Maple, American Holly, Coastal Doghobble, Prickly Bog Sedge, Bald Cypress, Water Tupelo, Carolina Ash Low boardwalk, 5th pullout Swamp Tupelo, Red Maple, American Holly, Coastal Doghobble, Prickly Bog Sedge, Bald Cypress, Water Tupelo, Carolina Ash Elevated boardwalk, 17th pullout Quercus laurifolia Michx. (Swamp Laurel Oak), Red Maple, Bald Cypress, Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (Muscadine Grape), Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne (Pepper Vine), Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. ex Bureau (Trumpet Vine), Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. (Green Ash) Elevated boardwalk, 18th pullout Swamp Laurel Oak, Red Maple, Bald Cypress, Muscadine Grape, Pepper Vine, Trumpet Vine, Green Ash Elevated boardwalk, 19th pullout Swamp Laurel Oak, Red Maple, Bald Cypress, Muscadine Grape, Pepper Vine, Trumpet Vine, Green Ash Sims Trail at bridge Liquidambar styraciflua L. (Sweetgum), Swamp Laurel Oak, Bald Cypress, Water Tupelo, Carolina Ash, Celtis laevigata Willd. (Sugarberry) Vine shrubland Elevated boardwalk, 13th pullout Muscadine Grape, Pepper Vine, Trumpet Vine Elevated boardwalk, 14th pullout Muscadine Grape, Pepper Vine, Trumpet Vine 25 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Habitat type Sample sites Associated plant species Mixed bottomland hardwoods Low boardwalk, #8 (end of spur) Sweetgum, Swamp Laurel Oak, Sugarberry Low boardwalk, 11th pullout Sweetgum, Swamp Laurel Oak, Sugarberry Low boardwalk, 12th pullout Sweetgum, Swamp Laurel Oak, Sugarberry West boundary road at clearing Sweetgum, Swamp Laurel Oak, Sugarwith cut logs berry West boundary road at River Trail Sweetgum, Swamp Laurel Oak, Sugarberry, Platanus occidentalis L. (American Sycamore), Green Ash West boundary road 0.16 km Sweetgum, Swamp Laurel Oak, Sugar- (0.1 mi) inside gate berry, Quercus nigra L. (Water Oak), Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl. (Giant Cane), Carex abscondita Mack. (Thicket Sedge) Elevated boardwalk, 3rd pullout Sweetgum, Swamp Laurel Oak, Water Oak, Giant Cane, Thicket Sedge Low boardwalk, #7 (SW corner) Sweetgum, Swamp Laurel Oak, Bald Cypress, Water Tupelo, Carolina Ash, Sugarberry Low boardwalk, 9th pullout Sweetgum, Swamp Laurel Oak, Bald Cypress, Water Tupelo, Carolina Ash, Sugarberry Cedar Creek Road at canoe Sweetgum, Swamp Laurel Oak, Bald landing Cypress, Water Tupelo, Carolina Ash, Sugarberry Sims Trail in oak woods Sweetgum, Swamp Laurel Oak, Muscadine Grape, Pepper Vine, Trumpet Vine, Sugarberry Sims Trail (gate near Research Swamp Tupelo, Red Maple, American and Education Center [REC]) Holly, Coastal Doghobble, Sweetgum, Swamp Laurel Oak, Prickly Bog Sedge, Water Oak, Giant Cane, Thicket Sedge Swamp forest Elevated boardwalk, NW corner Swamp Tupelo, Red Maple, American Holly, Coastal Doghobble, Prickly Bog Sedge Elevated boardwalk, 5th pullout Swamp Tupelo, Red Maple, American Holly, Coastal Doghobble, Prickly Bog Sedge Elevated boardwalk, 8th pullout Swamp Tupelo, Red Maple, American Holly, Coastal Doghobble, Prickly Bog Sedge Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 26 2018 Habitat type Sample sites Associated plant species Low boardwalk, 1st pullout Swamp Tupelo, Red Maple, American Holly, Coastal Doghobble, Prickly Bog Sedge Elevated boardwalk, 7th pullout Swamp Tupelo, Red Maple, American Holly, Coastal Doghobble, Prickly Bog Sedge, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (American Beech), Water Oak Low boardwalk, 2nd pullout Swamp Tupelo, Red Maple, American Holly, Coastal Doghobble, Prickly Bog Sedge, Swamp Laurel Oak, Bald Cypress, Green Ash Upland mixed hardwoods and pines Research and Education Center at Sweetgum, Swamp Laurel Oak, succes- Bluff Trail sional pine + mixed hardwoods, Carex folliculata L. (Northern Long Sedge), Magnolia virginiana L. (Sweetbay) REC bathhouse Sweetgum, Water Oak, Quercus phellos L. (Willow Oak), Pinus taeda L. (Loblolly Pine), open field REC Sweetgum, Water Oak, Willow Oak, Loblolly Pine, successional pine + mixed hardwoods, open field National park road at trail Water Oak, American Beech, Pinus palustrus Miller (Longleaf Pine) National park road in oak woods Successional pine + mixed hardwoods National park road at powerline cut Successional pine + mixed hardwoods, open field Harry Hampton Visitor Center Successional pine + mixed hardwoods, Water Oak, American Beech Trail from picnic area to boardwalk Successional pine + mixed hardwoods, Water Oak, American Beech Upland pines Garrick Road Loblolly Pine, Longleaf Pine, Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash (Little Bluestem) Water Tupelo dominant Low boardwalk, 6th pullout Bald Cypress, Water Tupelo, Carolina Ash Elevated boardwalk, 24th pullout Bald Cypress, Water Tupelo, Carolina Ash, lake 27 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Habitat type Sample sites Associated plant species Wet Longleaf Pine savannah US 601 at N bridge Longleaf Pine US 601, West Road (hillside) Longleaf Pine US 601, West Road (woods) Longleaf Pine Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 28 2018 Appendix 2. Times for end and beginning of civil twilight, hours of darkness, moon rise and set, percentage of moon illuminated, hours of moonlight during dark, and overnight percent cloud cover for all moth collecting nights between Nov. 2009 and Oct. 2010. Two-day dates indicate UV or MV lamp traps were used. Single-day dates indicate collecting at building lights. Full-moon dates: 2 Nov, 2 Dec, and 31 Dec in 2009; 30 Jan, 28 Feb, 29 Mar, 28 Apr, 27 May, 26 Jun, 25 Jul, 24 Aug, 23 Sep, and 22 Oct in 2010. Hours of moonlight during darkness and % cloud cover are calculated from end to beginning of civil twilight for 2-day dates, and end of civil twilight to midnight for single-day dates. Average % cloud cover between 7 pm and 7 am for overnight UV or MV trapping, and between 7 pm and 1 am for building-light sampling. Civil twilight % End Begin Hours Moon Moon % Collection (pm (am of Moon rise Moon set disk light cloud date day 1) day 2) darkness (date) (date) visible (h) cover 6–7 Nov 5:53 6:23 12:30 8:56 pm (6th) 11:45 am (7th) 81 9:27 0.2 7–8 Nov 5:52 6:24 12:32 10:06 pm (7th) 12:28 pm (8th) 72 8:18 0.0 13–14 Dec 5:44 6:54 13:10 4:44 am (13th) 2:58 pm (13th) 11 0:00 45.2 14–15 Dec 5:44 6:54 13:10 5:45 am (14th) 3:43 pm (14th) 5 0:00 73.4 15–16 Dec 5:44 6:55 13:11 6:44 am (15th) 4:32 pm (15th) 1 0:00 46.2 17 Dec 5:45 6:55 13:10 8:24 am (17th) 6:23 pm (17th) 1 0:38 94.5 15 Jan 6:05 7:02 12:57 7:41 am (15th) 6:10 pm (15th) 0 0:05 20.0 16–17 Jan 6:06 7:02 12:56 8:13 am (16th) 7:07 pm (16th) 2 1:01 94.2 22–23 Jan 6:11 7:00 12:49 10:57 am (22nd) 12:46 am (23rd) 43 6:35 15.6 23–24 Jan 6:12 6:59 12:47 11:30 am (23rd) 1:49 am (24th) 50 7:38 94.4 19–20 Feb 6:36 6:38 12:02 9:31 am (19th) 11:39 pm (19th) 27 5:03 2.2 20–21 Feb 6:38 6:37 11:59 10:07 am (20th) 12:42 am (21st) 36 6:04 5.4 8–9 Mar 6:51 6:18 11:27 3:00 am (9th) 1:00 pm (9th) 40 3:18 28.6 9–10 Mar 6:52 6:16 11:24 3:41 am (10th) 1:57 pm (10th) 31 2:35 69.0 17–18 Mar 7:58 7:06 11:08 8:04 am (17th) 9:32 pm (17th) 14 1:26 87.8 18 Mar 7:59 7:04 11:05 8:34 am (18th) 10:33 pm (18th) 8 2:34 65.5 20–21 Mar 8:01 7:01 11:00 9:50 am (20th) 12:37 am (21st) 22 4:36 40.8 25 Mar 8:05 6:55 10:50 2:54 pm (25th) 4:52 am (26th) 74 3:55 35.5 30 Mar 8:08 6:48 10:40 8:46 pm (30th) 7:46 am (31st) 99 3:14 0.0 2 Apr 8:11 6:44 10:33 12:06 am (3rd) 10:01 am (3rd) 84 0:00 8.0 6 Apr 8:13 6:39 10:26 2:38 am (6th) 12:49 pm (6th) 57 0:00 1.0 16–17 Apr 8:22 6:25 10:03 7:50 am (16th) 10:30 pm (16th) 5 2:08 1.8 17–18 Apr 8:23 6:24 10:01 8:36 am (17th) 11:32 pm (17th) 11 3:09 6.6 23–24 Apr 8:28 6:16 9:48 3:01 pm (23rd) 4:00 am (24th) 71 7:32 60.4 24–25 Apr 8:29 6:15 9:46 4:09 pm (24th) 4:33 am (25th) 81 8:04 78.0 14–15 May 8:45 5:55 9:10 6:30 am (14th) 9:22 pm (14th) 1 0:37 82.2 15–16 May 8:46 5:54 9:08 7:22 am (15th) 10:23 pm (15th) 3 1:37 66.6 11–12 Jun 9:04 5:43 8:39 5:10 am (11th) 8:09 pm (11th) 1 0:00 20.0 12–13 Jun 9:05 5:43 8:38 6:08 am (12th) 9:08 pm (12th) 0 0:03 32.4 25–26 Jun 9:08 5:45 8:37 8:16 pm (25th) 6:13 am (26th) 99 8:37 50.0 26–27 Jun 9:08 5:46 8:38 9:02 pm (26th) 7:12 am (27th) 100 8:38 68.0 15–16 Jul 9:04 5:56 8:52 10:48 am (15th) 11:10 pm (15th) 20 2:06 76.4 29 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Civil twilight % End Begin Hours Moon Moon % Collection (pm (am of Moon rise Moon set disk light cloud date day 1) day 2) darkness (date) (date) visible (h) cover 16–17 Jul 9:04 5:57 8:53 11:56 am (16th) 11:43 pm (16th) 31 2:39 65.6 13–14 Aug 8:40 6:18 9:38 10:49 am (13th) 10:16 pm (13th) 18 1:36 77.0 14–15 Aug 8:38 6:19 9:41 11:58 am (14th) 10:54 pm (14th) 28 2:16 35.6 30 Aug 8:18 6:31 10:13 10:47 pm (30th) 1:22 pm (31st) 71 0:13 11.0 6–7 Sep 8:08 6:36 10:28 6:01 am (7th) 6:25 pm (6th) 5 0:35 13.8 8–9 Sep 8:06 6:38 10:32 8:26 am (9th) 7:36 pm (8th) 0 0:00 54.6 16–17 Sep 7:54 6:44 10:50 3:39 pm (16th) 1:51 am (17th) 64 5:57 21.6 17–18 Sep 7:53 6:44 10:51 4:19 pm (17th) 2:49 am (18th) 73 6:56 70.8 21–22 Sep 7:47 6:47 11:00 6:19 pm (21st) 6:31 am (22nd) 97 10:44 27.2 29–30 Sep 7:36 6:53 11:17 11:13 pm (29th) 2:06 pm (30th) 66 7:40 64.2 7–8 Oct 7:25 6:59 11:44 7:11 am (7th) 8:41 pm (7th) 0 1:46 0.0 12–13 Oct 7:19 7:02 11:43 12:44 pm (12th) 10:43 pm (12th) 28 3:24 33.8 15–16 Oct 7:15 7:05 11:50 2:53 pm (15th) 1:38 am (16th) 58 6:23 0.0 16–17 Oct 7:14 7:05 11:51 3:25 pm (16th) 2:34 am (17th) 67 7:20 0.0 20–21 Oct 7:09 7:09 12:00 5:15 pm (20th) 6:14 am (21st) 94 11:05 1.4 25–26 Oct 7:04 7:13 12:09 8:16 pm (25th) 11:07 am (26th) 93 11:57 68.6 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 30 2018 Appendix 3. Times for end and beginning of civil twilight, total rainfall, min/max temperature, min/max relative humidity, and min/max wind speed during darkness for all moth collecting nights between November 2009 and October 2010. Two-day dates indicate UV or MV lamp traps were used. Single-day dates indicate collecting at building lights. Rainfall, temperature, RH, and wind speed are calculated from end to beginning of civil twilight for 2-day dates, and end of civil twilight to midnight for single-day dates. Civil twilight End Begin Temperature RH Wind speed Collection (pm (am Rain min max min max min max date day 1) day 2) (cm) (°C) (°C) (%) (%) (kph) (kph) 6–7 Nov 5:53 6:23 0.00 1.8 20.9 30 100 0.0 6.1 7–8 Nov 5:52 6:24 0.00 3.7 22.9 32 100 0.0 6.0 13–14 Dec 5:44 6:54 0.00 5.6 8.1 100 100 0.0 7.1 14–15 Dec 5:44 6:54 0.00 10.1 12.5 95 100 0.0 7.1 15–16 Dec 5:44 6:55 0.00 10.8 19.6 76 100 4.8 11.9 17 Dec 5:45 6:55 0.00 4.2 12.0 26 69 5.8 9.8 15 Jan 6:05 7:02 0.00 5.9 20.6 24 71 4.0 7.4 16–17 Jan 6:06 7:02 2.29 9.7 12.9 64 100 2.4 14.8 22–23 Jan 6:11 7:00 0.00 6.3 9.3 82 96 1.8 10.0 23–24 Jan 6:12 6:59 0.00 7.3 11.9 70 98 1.6 12.9 19–20 Feb 6:36 6:38 0.00 -1.6 17.7 27 99 2.3 10.5 20–21 Feb 6:38 6:37 0.00 -0.1 20.7 22 98 1.8 7.4 8–9 Mar 6:51 6:18 0.00 3.9 23.7 20 93 1.9 10.3 9–10 Mar 6:52 6:16 0.00 12.6 27.0 23 60 6.4 13.2 17–18 Mar 7:58 7:06 0.25 7.6 13.1 58 100 2.9 6.4 18 Mar 7:59 7:04 0.25 8.8 13.1 58 100 3.1 5.8 20–21 Mar 8:01 7:01 0.00 8.0 27.4 26 92 3.9 14.8 25 Mar 8:05 6:55 0.00 19.8 25.3 38 50 12.2 16.1 30 Mar 8:08 6:48 0.00 16.2 24.2 33 55 5.8 15.6 2 Apr 8:11 6:44 0.00 23.3 33.9 20 52 7.7 12.1 6 Apr 8:13 6:39 0.00 18.5 34.5 24 81 8.5 11.7 16–17 Apr 8:22 6:25 0.00 18.2 31.1 36 81 8.2 15.1 17–18 Apr 8:23 6:24 0.00 16.9 30.9 27 88 4.7 15.8 23–24 Apr 8:28 6:16 0.00 17.6 30.6 38 95 5.0 12.9 24–25 Apr 8:29 6:15 0.25 17.1 23.6 89 100 3.2 14.0 14–15 May 8:45 5:55 0.00 18.9 32.6 54 100 4.2 8.9 15–16 May 8:46 5:54 0.00 20.4 34.4 41 99 6.8 9.3 11–12 Jun 9:04 5:43 0.00 21.4 34.7 61 100 0.0 6.6 12–13 Jun 9:05 5:43 0.00 25.0 36.0 62 100 4.8 11.3 25–26 Jun 9:08 5:45 0.00 22.9 33.1 84 100 0.0 12.6 26–27 Jun 9:08 5:46 0.00 24.1 33.9 79 100 0.0 7.1 15–16 Jul 9:04 5:56 0.00 23.1 33.2 90 100 2.6 7.4 16–17 Jul 9:04 5:57 0.00 25.7 33.9 69 100 4.0 11.7 13–14 Aug 8:40 6:18 0.76 23.8 35.8 74 100 3.1 16.7 14–15 Aug 8:38 6:19 0.03 24.8 30.4 91 100 0.0 10.3 30 Aug 8:18 6:31 0.00 23.6 32.6 53 100 4.5 9.0 6–7 Sep 8:08 6:36 0.00 19.8 33.7 47 100 2.3 9.3 31 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Civil twilight End Begin Temperature RH Wind speed Collection (pm (am Rain min max min max min max date day 1) day 2) (cm) (°C) (°C) (%) (%) (kph) (kph) 8–9 Sep 8:06 6:38 0.00 22.7 34.5 66 100 2.6 7.6 16–17 Sep 7:54 6:44 0.00 20.1 32.9 42 97 6.8 11.7 17–18 Sep 7:53 6:44 0.00 20.7 35.0 55 100 2.3 13.0 21–22 Sep 7:47 6:47 0.00 20.3 35.4 43 100 2.4 11.9 29–30 Sep 7:36 6:53 0.51 19.9 21.5 98 100 7.7 13.0 7–8 Oct 7:25 6:59 0.00 10.6 28.2 29 100 0.0 9.7 12–13 Oct 7:19 7:02 0.00 15.9 30.5 49 100 3.5 12.4 15–16 Oct 7:15 7:05 0.00 6.4 24.9 30 100 3.2 14.2 16–17 Oct 7:14 7:05 0.00 4.8 24.1 36 100 0.0 8.2 20–21 Oct 7:09 7:09 0.00 10.1 24.3 62 100 2.3 6.0 25–26 Oct 7:04 7:13 0.25 16.1 18.8 100 100 2.9 9.8 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 32 2018 Appendix 4. Moths collected from Congaree NP from November 2009 through October 2010. Number of individuals collected in each month is shown for each taxon as is the total number collected. A. All specimens identified to species. Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Eriocraniidae Eriocraniinae Dyseriocrania griseocapitella (Walsingham) 070001 3 3 Heliozelidae Heliozelinae Antispila nysaefoliella ClemensA, D 210078 1 1 Adelidae Adelinae Adela caeruleella WalkerA 210117 3 1 4 Psychidae Psychinae Cryptothelea gloverii (Packard) 300012 9 11 20 Basicladus tracyi (Jones) 300020 1 1 2 Tineidae Acrolophinae Amydria effrentella Clemens 300046 1 2 1 4 Acrolophus propinquus (Walsingham) 300063 4 9 13 mycetophagus Davis 300100 1 1 2 Nemapogoninae Nemapogon angulifasciella (Dietz)A 300106 2 2 granella (L.) 300112 1 2 3 variatella (Clemens)A 300121 1 1 33 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Isocorypha mediostriatella (Clemens) 300140 1 1 Tineinae Tinea apicimaculella Chambers 300144 2 1 3 pellionella (L.) 300157 1 1 Niditinea fuscella (L.) 300164 1 1 Monopis dorsistrigella (Clemens) 300171 1 1 Clade A Hybroma servulella Clemens 300182 1 1 Mea bipunctella (Dietz)A 300186 2 1 3 skinnerella (Dietz)A 300187 2 2 Scardiinae Scardia anatomella (Grote) 300203 1 1 Unplaced Pelecystola nearctica Davis & DavisA 300217 2 1 2 5 Philonome clemensella ChambersA 300220 3 3 Xylesthia pruniramiella Clemens 300223 7 1 8 Bucculatricidae Bucculatriginae Bucculatrix coronatella ClemensA 330079 4 4 Gracillariidae Gracillariinae Caloptilia belfragella (Chambers)A 330115 2 2 bimaculatella (Ely) 330117 1 1 hypericella (Braun)A, D 330130 3 1 4 packardella (Chambers)A, E 330142 1 1 rhoifoliella (Chambers)A 330152 4 4 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 34 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total stigmatella (Fabricius) 330161 3 3 superbifrontella (Clemens) 330164 4 4 Povolnya quercinigrella (Ely) 330170 1 1 Micrurapteryx salicifoliella (Chambers)A, E 330172 1 1 Neurobathra strigifinitella (Clemens) 330187 2 2 Acrocercops astericola (Frey & Boll)A 330218 1 1 Lithocolletinae Cameraria conglomeratella (Zeller)A 330353 9 9 guttifinitella (Clemens)A, D 330360 1 1 quercivorella (Chambers) 330378 1 6 1 8 Yponomeutidae Yponomeutinae Yponomeuta multipunctella Clemens 360017 1 1 Zelleria retiniella Forbes 360026 5 1 6 Plutellidae Plutellinae Plutella xylostella (L.)C 360083 3 1 4 Glyphipterigidae Glyphipteriginae Drymoana blanchardi Heppner 360093 3 3 Attevidae Attevinae Atteva aurea (Fitch) 360211 1 2 2 1 1 4 2 13 Autostichidae Symmocinae Spinitibia hodgesi Lee & BrownA 420007 1 1 35 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Gerdana caritella Busck 420008 1 1 4 6 Glyphidocerinae Glyphidocera juniperella AdamskiA 420020 1 1 7 1 10 lactiflosella (Chambers) 420021 2 10 12 septentrionella Busck 420024 1 1 Oecophoridae Oecophorinae Inga sparsiciliella (Clemens) 420029 15 8 23 Decantha boreasella (Chambers) 420037 8 8 Epicallima argenticinctella (Clemens) 420041 3 4 7 Depressariidae Peleopodinae Pseuderotis obiterella (Busck) 420222 1 1 Antaeotricha schlaegeri (Zeller) 420224 10 2 4 1 17 leucillana Zeller 420227 2 1 1 4 osseella (Walsingham) 420228 2 4 2 8 humilis (Zeller) 420232 1 2 4 11 1 19 albulella (Walker) 420237 5 6 10 5 9 35 Menesta melanella Murtfeldt 420250 1 1 Unplaced Eupragia hospita Hodges 420255 2 4 14 4 24 Psilocorsis quercicella Clemens 420259 1 2 2 3 8 reflexella Clemens 420261 1 4 2 16 2 25 Cosmopterigidae Chrysopeleiinae Walshia miscecolorella (Chambers)A 420321 10 2 12 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 36 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Cosmopteriginae Cosmopterix nitens (Walsingham) 420352 1 1 gemmiferella (Clemens) 420370 1 1 teligera Meyrick 420381 7 1 8 Melanocinclis lineigera Hodges 420387 1 1 2 sparsa HodgesA, E 420389 3 3 Stagmatophora wyattella Barnes & BusckA, E 420393 1 1 Pyroderces badia (Hodges) 420399 1 1 Limnaecia phragmitella StaintonA, D 420401 1 1 Teladoma helianthi BusckA 420402 2 2 Triclonella pergandeella Busck 420410 1 1 1 3 Gelechiidae Anacampsinae Untomia albistrigella (Chambers) 420464 1 1 1 3 Battaristis concinnusella (Chambers)A, E 420466 1 1 nigratomella (Clemens)A 420468 2 2 vittella (Busck) 420470 2 5 7 Anacampsis agrimoniella (Clemens)A 420471 1 1 1 3 coverdalella Kearfott 420476 3 3 Holophysis emblemella (Clemens)A 420499 3 3 Dichomeridinae Dichomeris ligulella Hübner 420510 5 2 2 9 punctipennella (Clemens) 420520 6 1 1 2 10 punctidiscella (Clemens) 420521 3 3 siren HodgesA 420528 1 1 kimballi Hodges 420532 1 1 ventrella (Fitch)A 420533 6 2 8 37 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total georgiella (Walker) 420534 1 1 2 bipunctella (Walsingham) 420536 3 3 aglaia Hodges 420541 1 1 laetitia HodgesA 420545 3 3 inserrata (Walsingham) 420556 2 2 bolize Hodges 420558 1 1 agonia Hodges 420579 1 1 Thiotrichinae Polyhymno luteostrigella Chambers 420594 1 4 5 Anomologinae Monochroa quinquepunctella (Busck)A 420631 3 3 Theisoa constrictella (Zeller)A, D 420635 2 1 3 Stereomita andropogonis Braun 420638 3 3 Aristotelia pudibundella (Zeller)A. D 420667 3 1 4 roseosuffusella (Clemens) 420670 5 6 4 15 rubidella (Clemens) 420671 5 1 1 7 Gelechiinae Agnippe prunifoliella (Chambers) 420698 1 1 Coleotechnites canusella (Freeman)A, D 420716 1 1 condignella (Busck)A 420720 2 2 quercivorella (Chambers)A, D 420747 1 9 10 variiella (Chambers)A 420753 4 4 Sinoe robiniella (Fitch) 420754 5 5 Exoteleia chillcotti FreemanA, D 420759 4 4 Arogalea cristifasciella (Chambers) 420765 5 3 1 2 11 Pseudotelphusa quercinigracella (Chambers)A 420787 1 1 Pseudochelaria walsinghami DietzA 420805 4 4 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 38 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Chionodes formosella (Murtfeldt)A 420887 1 1 fuscomaculella (Chambers) 420889 2 2 rabula Hodges 420898 1 1 1 1 4 thoraceochrella (Chambers) 420959 2 8 1 11 obscurusella (Chambers)A 420964 9 4 13 mediofuscella (Clemens) 420971 2 4 4 10 sevir Hodges 420976 5 5 discoocellella (Chambers) 421006 3 3 Filatima serotinella (Busck)A, D 421125 5 2 1 8 Aroga argutiola HodgesA, D 421137 3 4 1 2 10 compositella (Walker) 421140 2 1 3 Stegasta bosqueella (Chambers) 421168 3 3 Coleophoridae Coleophorinae Coleophora cratipennella ClemensA 421622 6 6 Batrachedridae Batrachedrinae Homaledra sabalella (Chambers)A 421687 1 1 Blastobasidae Holcocerinae Calosima dianella DietzA 421758 1 1 2 Blastobasinae Blastobasis glandulella (Riley) 421766 3 3 Momphidae Momphinae Mompha circumscriptella (Zeller) 421823 1 1 2 39 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total eloisella (Clemens) 421833 1 1 passerella (Busck) 421844 1 1 Pterophoridae Pterophorinae Stenoptilodes brevipennis (Zeller) 460016 1 2 3 taprobanes (Felder & 460018 1 1 Rogenhofer) Geina sheppardi Landry 460063 3 3 Hellinsia balanotes (Meyrick) 460110 1 1 2 kellicotti (Fish) 460112 1 1 2 glenni (Cashatt) 460115 1 1 habecki MatthewsA 460132 3 1 4 Emmelina monodactyla (L.) 460150 2 2 Adaina ambrosiae (Murtfeldt) 460157 1 1 Carposinidae Carposinae Carposina sasakii Matsumura 480006 1 3 1 5 biloba DavisA 480009 2 1 3 Urodidae Urodinae Urodus parvula (Edwards) 540001 2 2 5 4 5 14 4 36 Tortricidae Tortricinae Acleris subnivana (Walker)A 620016 1 1 semiannula (Robinson)A, E 620020 1 1 schalleriana (L.)A 620027 2 2 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 40 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total chalybeana (Fernald)A 620039 3 3 maculidorsana (Clemens) 620044 1 1 2 4 Carolella sartana (Hübner) 620152 1 3 7 1 12 Henricus edwardsiana (Walsingham) 620158 6 6 Phtheochroa modestana (Busck)A, E 620183 1 1 Pandemis lamprosana (Robinson) 620248 4 11 15 limitata (Robinson) 620249 1 1 Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker) 620255 1 8 2 2 13 hodgesi Heppner 620257 6 1 7 kimballi Obraztsov 620259 4 1 1 1 7 tabulana Freeman 620262 2 2 2 1 4 11 quercifoliana (Fitch) 620282 2 5 7 Choristoneura obsoletana (Walker) 620296 2 2 fractivittana (Clemens)B 620297 9 9 parallela (Robinson) 620298 1 1 rosaceana (Harris) 620300 2 13 18 16 11 15 4 79 pinus Freeman 620308 9 9 Archips argyrospila (Walker) 620323 1 1 georgiana (Walker)A 620331 1 1 grisea (Robinson) 620333 5 5 Clepsis peritana (Clemens) 620364 1 2 1 2 4 10 Coelostathma discopunctana Clemens 620379 4 3 1 8 Sparganothis sulfureana (Clemens) 620390 1 1 bistriata Kearfott 620393 5 2 7 umbrana Barnes & BusckA, E 620410 1 1 distincta (Walsingham) 620412 1 2 3 Cenopis pettitana (Robinson) 620417 4 4 niveana WalsinghamA 620418 13 1 14 41 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total reticulatana (Clemens) 620419 1 1 2 diluticostana Walsingham 620423 1 1 directana (Walker) 620425 1 2 3 chambersana Kearfott 620432 1 1 Platynota idaeusalis (Walker)B 620433 3 2 9 7 4 2 1 28 exasperatana (Zeller) 620434 5 3 1 9 semiustana Walsingham 620435 1 2 3 rostrana (Walker) 620436 3 3 flavedana Clemens 620443 3 3 4 6 2 9 2 29 stultana WalsinghamA 620449 6 6 Olethreutinae Endothenia hebesana (Walker) 620466 3 3 Bactra verutana Zeller 620478 1 6 7 14 Episimus argutana (Clemens)B 620485 1 2 3 3 9 Paralobesia sambuci (Clarke)A, E 620496 1 1 cyclopiana (Heinrich)A 620509 2 2 Eumarozia malachitana (Zeller) 620517 2 3 5 Zomaria interruptolineana (Fernald) 620518 5 4 9 Phaecasiophora confixana (Walker)A 620540 1 1 2 niveiguttana Grote 620541 1 1 Olethreutes furfuranum (McDunnough)A 620545 1 2 1 1 9 14 atrodentana (Fernald)A, D 620554 1 1 brunneopurpurata (Heinrich)A 620575 1 1 permundana (Clemens)A 620585 1 1 2 fasciatana (Clemens) 620591 4 4 exaeresimum (Heinrich)A, E 620593 1 1 2 lacunanum (Freeman) 620594 5 4 2 4 1 16 griseoalbana (Walsingham) 620596 1 1 1 3 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 42 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total osmundana (Fernald) 620597 1 2 3 auricapitana (Walsingham)A,D 620598 1 1 Celypha cespitana (Hübner) 620629 2 3 1 6 Pristerognatha fuligana (Denis & 620630 1 1 Schiffermüller)A Hedya separatana (Kearfott)A 620634 1 1 Ancylis spiraeifoliana (Clemens) 620653 6 6 platanana (Clemens) 620658 2 2 floridana (Zeller) 620662 5 1 7 13 divisana (Walker) 620663 2 1 3 Rhyacionia rigidana (Fernald) 620695 11 11 frustrana (Comstock) 620710 2 2 4 aktita MillerA 620713 6 5 11 Retinia albicapitana (Busck)A, E 620722 2 2 gemistrigulana (Kearfott) 620727 4 7 11 Eucosma floridana KearfottA 620743 1 1 sombreana Kearfott 620752 4 4 umbrastriana (Kearfott) 620764 4 1 5 ambodaidaleia (Miller) 620790 2 2 argutipunctana (Blanchard 620795 1 1 & Knudson)A parmatana (Clemens) 620832 2 2 raracana (Kearfott)A 620837 1 6 7 Unplaced gomonana KearfottA 620880 2 2 Pelochrista cataclystiana (Walker) 620909 4 3 7 derelicta (Heinrich) 620926 12 12 quinquemaculana (Robinson) 621015 2 2 robinsonana (Grote) 621021 3 3 6 43 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total womonana (Kearfott)A 621050 1 1 2 Eucopina cocana (Kearfott) 621059 1 1 Epiblema strenuana (Walker) 621065 2 2 abruptana (Walsingham)A 621066 2 7 2 11 luctuosissima BlanchardA, E 621068 3 1 4 tripartitana (Zeller) 621078 1 3 4 scudderiana (Clemens) 621082 5 5 discretivana (Heinrich)A 621083 1 1 desertana (Zeller) 621085 1 1 carolinana (Walsingham)A 621087 2 2 otiosana (Clemens) 621098 1 5 4 10 Notocelia illotana (Walsingham)A, E 621108 1 1 Sonia constrictana (Zeller) 621116 1 2 3 paraplesiana Blanchard 621117 1 3 4 & KnudsonA divaricata MillerA, E 621122 1 1 Proteoteras aesculana Riley 621133 2 4 1 3 10 Pseudexentera faracana (Kearfott)A, D 621151 7 7 hodsoni MillerA, D 621153 4 4 spoliana (Clemens) 621157 7 7 vaccinii MillerA, E 621162 3 3 costomaculana (Clemens)A 621165 1 1 Gretchena concubitana HeinrichA 621168 1 1 bolliana (Slingerland) 621171 1 1 delicatana HeinrichA, D 621173 2 2 concitatricana (Heinrich)A 621177 2 2 Chimoptesis gerulae (Heinrich) 621180 3 3 pennsylvaniana (Kearfott) 621181 7 7 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 44 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Rhopobota dietziana (Kearfott) 621189 4 4 3 11 finitimana (Heinrich)A, D 621190 1 1 Epinotia celtisana (Riley)A 621201 6 6 xandana (Kearfott)A, E 621207 2 2 nonana (Kearfott)A, E 621243 1 1 Larisa subsolana MillerA 621302 6 6 Sereda tautana (Clemens)A 621304 4 4 Grapholita packardi (Zeller) 621307 1 1 2 prunivora (Walsh)A, E 621308 1 1 fana (Kearfott)A, E 621313 1 1 Cydia laricana (Busck)A, D 621337 1 1 rana (Forbes) 621338 1 1 candana (Forbes)A, E 621355 1 1 2 caryana (Fitch) 621357 1 1 toreuta (Grote) 621372 1 1 latiferreana (Walsingham) 621383 1 12 13 Gymnandrosoma punctidiscanum Dyar 621385 1 1 2 Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller 621387 1 1 2 mana (Kearfott)A, D 621388 4 1 1 2 2 10 Pseudogalleria inimicella (Zeller) 621391 1 1 2 1 5 Cossidae Hypoptinae Givira anna (Dyar) 640016 2 1 3 francesca (Dyar) 640019 1 1 Cossinae Prionoxystus robiniae (Peck)B 640029 2 6 1 9 45 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Dudgeoneidae Cossulinae Cossula magnifica (Strecker)B 640047 4 4 Sesiidae Sesiinae Synanthedon acerni (Clemens) 640095 1 1 2 rubrofascia (Edwards) 640109 1 1 Limacodidae Limacodinae Tortricidia testacea Packard 660010 7 7 pallida (Herrich-Schäffer) 660011 2 2 Heterogenea shurtleffi Packard 660015 1 1 2 1 3 8 Lithacodes fasciola (Herrich-Schäffer)B 660023 9 5 12 11 6 43 Apoda y-inversum (Packard) 660025 2 2 biguttata (Packard)B 660027 1 6 3 1 11 Prolimacodes badia (Hübner)B 660029 3 3 1 1 8 Isochaetes beutenmuelleri (Edwards) 660033 7 24 5 8 44 Phobetron pithecium (Smith) 660035 1 1 2 Natada nasoni (Grote)B 660037 15 1 2 18 Isa textula (Herrich-Schäffer) 660039 8 4 2 2 16 Adoneta spinuloides (Herrich-Schäffer) 660043 6 3 8 17 Euclea semifascia (Walker) 660047 2 2 delphinii (Boisduval)B 660051 1 5 2 2 10 nanina Dyar 660052 1 1 Parasa chloris (Herrich-Schäffer) 660053 2 3 5 indetermina (Boisduval) 660054 1 1 Acharia stimulea (Clemens) 660055 3 1 4 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 46 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Megalopygidae Megalopyginae Megalopyge lacyi (Barnes & 660060 1 1 McDunnough)A crispata (Packard) 660061 1 5 3 9 opercularis (Smith)B 660063 19 8 1 28 Zygaenidae Procridinae Harrisina americana (Guérin- 660092 1 1 2 Méneville) Pyralidae Galleriinae Galleria mellonella (L.) 800001 2 2 Omphalocera cariosa Lederer 800004 3 1 4 Aphomia terrenella Zeller 800009 4 3 2 1 10 fulminalis (Zeller)A,D 800010 1 1 1 1 4 Cacotherapia unicoloralis (Barnes & 800019 1 1 McDunnough)A unipuncta (Dyar) 800020 4 4 Chrysauginae Parachma ochracealis Walker 800033 14 1 15 Basacallis tarachodes (Dyar) 800034 3 1 4 Galasa nigrinodis (Zeller) 800048 2 2 5 9 Tosale oviplagalis (Walker) 800052 4 1 5 2 12 Clydonopteron sacculana (Bosc) 800059 6 1 4 3 1 5 2 22 Arta statalis Grote 800062 2 16 1 1 20 47 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total olivalis Grote 800064 8 4 12 Pyralinae Aglossa costiferalis (Walker) 800074 1 1 disciferalis (Dyar) 800075 5 7 1 3 1 17 cuprina Zeller 800080 4 13 6 2 3 28 oculalis HampsonA, D 800085 1 1 Hypsopygia intermedialis (Walker) 800088 4 2 6 binodulalis (Zeller) 800092 1 1 6 8 olinalis (Guenée) 800094 7 9 2 6 24 Epipaschiinae Macalla zelleri (Grote) 800100 1 1 Epipaschia superatalis Clemens 800102 4 7 5 8 4 28 Oneida lunulalis (Hulst) 800112 3 2 1 3 9 Tallula atrifascialis (Hulst) 800116 1 1 11 13 Pococera robustella (Zeller) 800122 8 5 5 11 29 scortealis (Lederer) 800123 7 1 8 melanogrammos (Zeller) 800124 1 3 3 1 11 19 militella (Zeller) 800131 4 1 5 aplastella (Hulst) 800132 2 1 3 asperatella (Clemens) 800133 1 5 4 1 11 Phycitinae Acrobasis vaccinii Riley 800150 2 4 3 9 indigenella (Zeller) 800152 8 8 caryae Grote 800156 1 1 nuxvorella NeunzigA 800160 1 1 stigmella Dyar 800163 3 1 4 exsulella (Zeller) 800165 1 1 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 48 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total caryivorella Ragonot 800173 3 3 cirroferella Hulst 800176 1 1 minimella Ragonot 800177 3 3 rubrifasciella PackardA 800178 2 2 carpinivorella NeunzigA 800182 1 1 Euzophera semifuneralis (Walker) 800215 10 1 22 13 4 13 63 ostricolorella Hulst 800220 2 6 4 12 Eulogia ochrifrontella (Zeller) 800222 3 2 6 11 Ephestiodes infimella Ragonot 800225 4 1 3 1 9 Moodna ostrinella (Clemens) 800232 1 1 1 3 pallidostrinella Neunzig 800233 1 1 Caudellia apyrella DyarA 800235 7 12 19 Vitula edmandsii (Packard) 800239 1 2 4 3 10 Ephestia columbiella Neunzig 800261 4 1 1 6 Wakulla carneella (Barnes & 800268 1 1 McDunnough) Tampa dimediatella Ragonot 800269 1 2 2 5 1 11 Varneria postremella Dyar 800270 4 4 atrifasciella Barnes & 800271 5 1 6 McDunnough Oreana unicolorella (Hulst) A 800301 3 3 Salebriaria turpidella (Ragonot) 800306 6 2 8 engeli (Dyar) 800310 1 1 1 3 rufimaculatella NeunzigA 800313 1 1 squamopalpiella Neunzig 800321 3 5 1 3 12 floridana NeunzigA, E 800322 1 1 bella NeunzigA, E 800326 1 1 fergusonella (Blanchard & 800327 2 2 Knudson) A, E 49 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Quasisalebria atratella (Blanchard & 800333 1 1 2 Knudson) Sciota crassifasciella (Ragonot)A 800350 4 1 2 7 quasisubfuscella NeunzigA, E 800352 1 1 celtidella (Hulst) A 800370 13 17 13 18 1 6 68 subfuscella (Ragonot) 800371 2 2 2 6 uvinella (Ragonot) 800372 1 9 2 2 17 31 Tulsa finitella (Walker) A 800375 3 3 Actrix nyssaecolella (Dyar) 800383 1 2 1 4 dissimulatrix HeinrichA, E 800384 3 4 34 41 Dioryctria clarioralis (Walker) 800428 1 1 2 taedivorella Neunzig & 800434 13 13 Leidy amatella (Hulst) 800435 3 2 3 1 7 3 19 pygmaeella Ragonot 800447 4 1 1 6 Canarsia ulmiarrosorella (Clemens) 800479 5 2 1 8 Adelphia petrella (Zeller) 800482 1 1 1 3 Macrorrhinia endonephele (Hampson) 800506 1 7 8 Ulophora groteii Ragonot 800528 1 1 Tacoma feriella HulstA, E 800529 2 2 Honora mellinella GroteA, D 800545 1 1 Laetilia coccidivora (Comstock)A 800557 1 1 myersella Dyar 800562 5 2 7 fiskella Dyar 800563 3 12 15 Baphala pallida (Comstock) 800577 1 1 2 Homoeosoma electella (Hulst) 800626 1 2 3 deceptorium HeinrichA 800641 4 4 Phycitodes reliquellum (Dyar) 800651 2 6 6 1 19 6 40 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 50 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Cabnia myronella Dyar 800652 3 3 6 Peoria bipartitella Ragonot 800659 5 4 9 roseotinctella (Ragonot) 800666 7 4 2 8 21 approximella (Walker)A 800670 2 3 1 1 7 Atascosa glareosella (Zeller) 800685 7 7 Homosassa ella (Hulst) 800687 2 1 3 Reynosa floscella (Hulst)A, E 800691 2 1 3 Crambidae Schoenobiinae Donacaula sordidellus (Zincken) 800707 3 3 melinellus (Clemens) 800710 1 1 aquilellus (Clemens) 800713 1 1 2 longirostrallus (Clemens)A 800715 5 1 6 maximellus (Fernald) 800719 1 1 Acentropinae Elophila icciusalis (Walker) 800724 1 3 2 2 8 faulalis (Walker) 800725 2 2 nebulosalis (Fernald) 800726 2 2 gyralis (Hulst) 800727 1 11 7 3 4 19 1 46 tinealis (Munroe) 800728 2 1 3 obliteralis (Walker) 800729 1 3 7 2 1 13 1 28 Parapoynx maculalis (Clemens) 800734 3 3 12 2 1 21 obscuralis (Grote) 800735 2 2 seminealis (Walker) 800738 1 2 1 4 allionealis (Walker) 800739 10 3 3 2 18 Chrysendeton kimballi Lange 800743 1 1 2 imitabilis (Dyar) 800744 1 1 2 51 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Eoparargyractis irroratalis (Dyar) 800766 1 5 6 plevie (Dyar)A 800768 5 1 1 7 14 Crambinae Xubida panalope (Dyar) 800788 11 8 6 9 34 relovae KlotsA, D 800789 1 1 Haimbachia squamulella (Zeller) 800795 1 2 3 placidella (Haimbach) 800802 1 1 Eoreuma densella (Zeller) 800805 13 1 3 17 Argyria lacteella (Fabricius) 800815 1 1 1 1 2 6 auratella (Clemens) 800819 1 1 critica Forbes 800820 2 1 3 Urola nivalis (Drury) 800821 5 1 4 10 Chilo erianthalis Capps 800832 1 1 Diatraea evanescens Dyar 800838 2 2 4 lisetta (Dyar) 800841 1 1 Fissicrambus mutabilis (Clemens) 800870 1 2 3 Microcrambus biguttellus (Forbes) 800874 8 7 15 elegans (Clemens) 800875 7 3 1 5 1 17 kimballi Klots 800879 1 2 3 Neodactria luteolellus (Clemens) 800887 2 2 caliginosellus (Clemens) 800889 4 1 2 7 Parapediasia decorellus (Zincken) 800906 1 1 teterrellus (Zincken) 800907 1 1 2 Raphiptera argillaceellus (Packard) 800913 2 2 1 1 8 1 15 Agriphila vulgivagellus (Clemens) 800922 2 2 Crambus praefectellus (Zincken) 800943 1 1 2 agitatellus Clemens 800950 15 25 7 47 multilinellus Fernald 800952 7 2 9 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 52 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total satrapellus (Zincken) 800960 3 1 2 3 9 laqueatellus Clemens 800966 4 4 Scopariinae Scoparia dominicki Munroe 800986 3 1 4 Eudonia strigalis (Dyar) 801004 5 4 1 5 4 19 heterosalis (McDunnough) 801005 1 2 1 7 1 12 Glaphyriinae Glaphyria glaphyralis (Guenée) 801023 1 1 sequistrialis Hübner 801024 1 1 Aethiophysa invisalis (Guenée) 801032 1 1 Xanthophysa psychialis (Hulst) 801035 1 1 Stegea eripalis (Grote) 801044 1 1 Lipocosma adelalis (Kearfott) A 801057 6 6 Lipocosmodes fuliginosalis (Fernald) 801062 6 6 Dicymolomia julianalis (Walker) 801063 1 2 3 Spilomelinae Framinghamia helvalis (Walker) 801173 1 1 Lygropia tripunctata (Fabricius) 801174 1 1 rivulalis Hampson 801177 1 1 Pleuroptya silicalis (Guenée) 801188 1 1 14 7 1 24 Herpetogramma aeglealis (Walker) 801191 2 1 1 6 10 bipunctalis (Fabricius) 801193 1 1 centrostrigalis (Stephens)A, E 801194 1 1 fluctuosalis (Lederer) 801195 5 2 14 2 23 phaeopteralis (Guenée) 801196 1 1 2 pertextalis (Lederer) 801197 4 4 11 6 10 35 thestealis (Walker) 801199 1 2 3 53 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Udea rubigalis (Guenée)B 801230 2 1 3 5 1 4 15 13 44 Anageshna primordialis (Dyar) 801254 6 7 3 19 9 6 5 55 Apogeshna stenialis (Guenée) 801255 13 1 8 1 2 25 Blepharomastix ranalis (Guenée) 801256 7 7 Desmia funeralis (Hübner)B 801262 9 12 4 21 15 7 68 maculalis Westwood 801263 6 10 3 5 6 4 34 subdivisalis GroteA,D 801264 1 1 Diasemiodes janassialis (Walker) 801272 1 7 8 4 4 14 38 nigralis (Fernald) 801273 1 1 Diathrausta reconditalis (Walker) 801276 1 2 3 Hymenia perspectalis (Hübner) 801279 7 1 8 Spoladea recurvalis (Fabricius) 801280 2 2 Colomychus talis (Grote) 801292 1 2 3 1 5 7 19 Diaphania costata (Fabricius) 801302 1 1 Palpita freemanalis MunroeA 801324 1 1 2 magniferalis (Walker) 801325 11 1 21 15 26 15 89 Eulepte anticostalis (Grote) 801344 1 1 Diacme adipaloides (Grote & 801350 1 1 10 3 1 1 15 6 38 Robinson) Epipagis fenestralis (Hübner) 801354 2 1 3 Nomophila nearctica Munroe 801365 1 12 1 14 Psara obscuralis (Lederer) 801373 1 1 Cnaphalocrocis cochrusalis (Walker) 801381 2 2 Pyraustinae Saucrobotys futilalis (Lederer) 801407 1 1 Nascia acutellus (Walker) 801409 2 1 3 1 3 10 Crocidophora pustuliferalis Lederer 801417 8 10 10 28 serratissimalis Zeller 801418 1 2 3 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 54 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total tuberculalis Lederer 801419 11 16 8 24 15 1 75 Ostrinia penitalis (Grote) 801420 4 4 obumbratalis (Lederer) 801421 1 1 nubilalis (Hübner)C 801423 1 1 Fumibotys fumalis (Guenée) 801424 6 6 Perispasta caeculalis Zeller 801425 1 1 1 2 5 Anania plectilis (Grote & 801428 2 2 Robinson) A, E Hahncappsia marculenta (Grote & 801439 1 1 Robinson) neomarculenta (Capps) A 801440 1 1 mancalis (Lederer) 801444 1 1 Achyra rantalis (Guenée) 801452 3 2 5 Pyrausta bicoloralis (Guenée) 801519 1 1 2 1 4 9 phoenicealis (Hübner) 801529 1 1 insequalis insequalis 801540 1 2 3 (Guenée) acrionalis (Walker) 801552 1 1 Mimallonidae Mimalloninae Lacosoma chiridota Grote 830001 2 6 1 9 Drepanidae Thyatirinae Pseudothyatira cymatophoroides (Guenée) 850005 1 2 3 Drepaninae Drepana arcuata Walker 850019 1 1 Oreta rosea (Walker) 850023 1 1 3 5 55 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Lasiocampidae Lasiocampinae Phyllodesma americana (Harris) 870003 1 1 Malacosoma disstria HübnerC 870014 11 11 americana (Fabricius) 870017 5 5 Macromphaliinae Tolype velleda (Stoll) 870021 1 1 notialis Franclemont 870025 1 1 Artace cribrarius (Ljungh) 870036 1 3 4 Apatelodidae Apatelodinae Apatelodes torrefacta (Smith) 890001 3 1 4 3 11 Saturniidae Ceratocampinae Eacles imperialis (Drury)B 890012 4 4 1 9 Anisota stigma (Fabricius) 890014 1 3 4 8 virginiensis (Drury)B 890017 2 1 2 5 Dryocampa rubicunda (Fabricius)B 890022 5 6 6 8 6 3 34 Hemileucinae Automeris io (Fabricius) 890055 7 1 5 13 Saturniinae Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer) 890070 4 2 1 1 4 12 Actias luna (L.)B 890072 9 1 7 17 Callosamia angulifera (Walker) 890080 1 2 1 1 5 Hyalophora cecropia (L.) 890082 5 5 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 56 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Sphingidae Sphinginae Manduca jasminearum (Guérin- 890096 1 1 Méneville) Dolba hyloeus (Drury) 890100 2 1 1 1 5 Ceratomia amyntor (Geyer) 890102 2 2 undulosa (Walker) 890103 1 4 2 7 Isoparce cupressi (Boisduval) 890108 1 8 9 Paratrea plebeja (Fabricius) 890110 1 1 Sphinx kalmiae Smith 890118 1 1 2 Lapara coniferarum (Smith) 890135 1 7 2 1 9 20 Smerinthinae Paonias excaecatus (Smith) 890144 1 1 1 5 7 15 myops (Smith) 890145 1 1 Macroglossinae Deidamia inscripta (Harris) 890193 1 3 4 Darapsa myron (Cramer) 890207 7 1 2 1 11 Uraniidae Epipleminae Calledapteryx dryopterata Grote 910006 1 1 Geometridae Larentiinae Eulithis diversilineata (Hübner) 910031 23 23 gracilineata (Guenée) 910032 11 1 11 2 6 4 35 Gandaritis atricolorata (Grote & 910050 8 8 Robinson) 57 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Hydriomena pluviata (Guenée) 910077 8 1 9 Xanthorhoe lacustrata (Guenée) 910234 1 1 2 Orthonama obstipata (Fabricius) 910258 3 2 6 5 6 1 5 28 Costaconvexa centrostrigaria (Wollaston)B 910260 2 4 4 10 3 1 5 3 32 Disclisioprocta stellata (Guenée) 910261 1 4 1 6 Eubaphe mendica (Walker) 910286 1 4 1 3 2 5 2 18 meridiana (Slosson) 910287 1 1 Horisme intestinata (Guenée) 910292 1 2 2 2 1 8 Eupithecia matheri Rindge 910307 1 1 miserulata Grote 910324 1 1 6 20 10 3 9 3 53 jejunata McDunnoughA 910334 4 4 swettii Grossbeck 910371 1 1 Cladara limitaria (Walker) 910478 3 13 16 Heterophleps triguttaria Herrich-Schäffer 910488 3 7 2 6 9 11 38 Dyspteris abortivaria (Herrich-Schäffer) 910489 10 8 3 1 2 24 Sterrhinae Lobocleta ossularia (Geyer) 910500 2 2 4 Idaea scintillularia (Hulst) 910511 7 5 5 3 20 productata (Packard) A 910521 1 1 demissaria (Hübner) 910523 2 3 1 6 eremiata (Hulst) 910524 5 1 6 violacearia (Walker) 910529 1 1 tacturata (Walker) 910531 1 5 6 obfusaria (Walker) 910532 5 5 retractaria (Walker)A 910533 1 1 Pleuroprucha insulsaria (Guenée) 910540 4 1 5 Cyclophora packardi (Prout) 910544 3 1 2 2 3 12 3 26 Scopula limboundata (Haworth) 910567 1 7 1 1 4 4 5 23 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 58 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total inductata (Guenée) 910578 2 2 Leptostales pannaria (Guenée) 910583 1 1 Lophosis labeculata (Hulst) 910591 8 9 1 17 1 36 Geometrinae Nemoria elfa Ferguson 910609 4 13 5 2 3 4 11 42 lixaria (Guenée) 910613 2 1 1 4 4 3 3 1 2 7 28 saturiba Ferguson 910614 10 10 1 3 2 4 14 44 bistriaria Hübner 910627 1 1 2 Dichorda iridaria (Guenée) 910634 8 1 1 1 11 Synchlora frondaria Guenée 910640 1 3 2 6 Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria (Guenée) 910654 3 2 5 Chloropteryx tepperaria (Hulst) 910658 2 2 3 2 9 Hethemia pistasciaria (Guenée) 910667 4 4 Ennominae Alsophila pometaria (Harris) 910672 5 3 8 Nematocampa resistaria (Herrich-Schäffer) 910676 13 9 22 Mellilla xanthometata (Walker) 910691 3 3 Macaria pustularia (Guenée) 910735 13 1 14 aemulataria Walker 910750 15 4 5 15 6 37 3 85 aequiferaria Walker 910755 1 13 7 4 12 5 22 34 8 106 bicolorata (Fabricius) 910758 4 13 6 12 3 5 43 transitaria Walker 910761 6 4 3 2 1 6 1 23 distribuaria (Hübner) 910762 4 1 1 6 Digrammia gnophosaria (Guenée) 910822 1 2 4 2 3 10 22 Hypomecis umbrosaria (Hübner) 910853 4 3 3 6 16 gnopharia (Guenée) 910854 2 2 1 5 Glenoides texanaria (Hulst) 910858 3 1 13 1 10 12 33 73 59 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Glena cribrataria (Guenée) 910864 10 1 2 13 Exelis pyrolaria Guenée 910893 4 4 8 Tornos scolopacinaria (Guenée) 910898 1 1 Iridopsis pergracilis (Hulst) 910998 17 2 3 4 10 10 1 47 vellivolata (Hulst) 911000 1 9 6 1 4 1 22 humaria (Guenée) 911002 1 1 2 defectaria (Guenée) 911004 2 5 1 4 4 8 7 25 11 67 Anavitrinella pampinaria (Guenée) 911009 17 2 23 5 6 19 72 Cleora sublunaria (Guenée) 911013 11 11 Ectropis crepuscularia (Denis & 911016 1 9 3 3 9 9 18 52 Shiffermüller) Protoboarmia porcelaria (Guenée) 911017 5 4 3 8 20 Epimecis hortaria (Fabricius)B 911018 3 2 5 9 1 20 Melanolophia canadaria (Guenée)B 911059 3 28 6 15 13 23 27 2 117 Lycia ypsilon (Forbes) 911073 2 2 Hypagyrtis unipunctata (Haworth)B 911075 30 9 11 55 23 57 185 esther (Barnes) 911076 3 12 2 8 4 14 43 Phigalia titea (Cramer) 911079 1 1 denticulata Hulst 911080 4 32 2 5 43 strigataria (Minot) 911081 1 11 12 Paleacrita vernata (Peck)A 911083 1 3 4 merriccata Dyar 911084 13 2 1 4 20 Erannis tiliaria (Harris) 911086 1 1 Lomographa vestaliata (Guenée) 911089 13 2 3 18 Cabera quadrifasciaria (Packard) 911101 1 1 Erastria cruentaria (Hübner) 911126 1 8 2 11 Ilexia intractata (Walker) 911132 2 2 8 1 2 1 15 9 40 Episemasia solitaria (Walker) 911137 3 3 Lytrosis unitaria (Herrich-Schäffer) 911145 9 9 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 60 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total sinuosa Rindge 911146 1 1 Euchlaena muzaria (Walker)A 911150 1 1 1 3 deplanaria (Walker) 911157 1 1 amoenaria (Guenée) 911158 7 10 2 7 9 19 3 57 marginaria (Minot) 911159 8 8 Xanthotype sospeta (Drury) 911168 2 2 attenuaria SwettA 911169 1 1 3 2 5 4 16 Cymatophora approximaria Hübner 911170 7 14 21 Pero ancetaria (Hübner) 911179 7 1 8 Phaeoura quernaria (Smith) 911191 1 1 2 Ennomos subsignaria (Hübner) 911229 3 3 Petrophora divisata Hübner 911235 2 2 Tacparia zalissaria Walker 911237 1 2 3 Metarranthis duaria (Guenée) 911254 1 1 2 homuraria (Grote & 911261 9 8 1 7 9 34 Robinson) obfirmaria (Hübner) 911265 3 3 Cepphis armataria (Herrich- 911268 3 1 4 Schäffer)A Probole alienaria Herrich-Schäffer 911269 1 1 amicaria (Herrich-Schäffer) 911270 1 3 1 1 6 Plagodis fervidaria (Herrich-Schäffer) 911276 1 1 1 4 7 Besma quercivoraria (Guenée) 911324 1 3 2 3 9 Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée) 911327 1 1 pellucidaria (Grote & 911331 20 20 Robinson) fervidaria athasaria 911333 3 2 5 (Walker) 61 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Eusarca confusaria Hübner 911384 1 1 5 3 10 Tetracis crocallata Guenée 911400 1 3 4 Eutrapela clemataria (Smith)B 911414 9 10 11 5 15 50 Prochoerodes lineola (Goeze) 911432 19 6 25 4 18 9 81 Notodontidae Pygaerinae Clostera inclusa (Hübner) 930004 7 3 1 11 Notodontinae Hyperaeschra georgica (Herrich-Schäffer) 930010 1 1 Nerice bidentata Walker 930018 3 1 2 6 Gluphisia septentrionis Walker 930019 2 1 1 2 6 Furcula cinerea (Walker) 930025 2 1 3 Phalerinae Datana ministra (Drury) 930033 3 1 4 drexelii Edwards 930035 1 4 1 4 1 11 major Grote & Robinson 930036 3 5 5 13 contracta Walker 930037 1 1 integerrima Grote & 930038 2 3 7 12 Robinson robusta Strecker 930040 1 1 Nadata gibbosa (Smith) 930046 1 1 6 7 12 20 47 Peridea angulosa (Smith) 930049 2 1 21 1 25 Heterocampinae Misogada unicolor (Packard) 930066 2 1 2 2 7 Macrurocampa marthesia (Cramer) 930067 1 1 Heterocampa varia Walker 930074 1 1 obliqua Packard 930075 15 11 16 10 1 53 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 62 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total subrotata Harvey 930077 1 2 3 4 7 17 umbrata Walker 930082 2 5 1 7 15 guttivitta (Walker) 930086 17 1 4 3 7 8 1 41 biundata Walker 930087 4 1 4 2 7 2 20 Lochmaeus manteo Doubleday 930090 2 10 12 bilineata (Packard) 930091 4 6 9 13 23 28 83 Schizura ipomaeae Doubleday 930098 4 2 4 9 1 20 unicornis (Smith) 930100 3 2 1 1 4 11 leptinoides (Grote) 930104 1 3 4 Oligocentria semirufescens (Walker) 930105 1 4 5 lignicolor (Walker) 930110 1 1 3 5 Hyparpax aurora (Smith) 930115 2 2 Nystaleinae Symmerista albifrons (Smith) 930127 4 4 Erebidae Lymantriinae Dasychira tephra Hübner 930144 10 3 2 14 8 37 basiflava (Packard) 930148 13 7 3 9 5 37 atrivenosa (Palm) 930151 1 1 4 6 dominickaria Ferguson 930155 3 3 manto (Strecker) 930159 1 1 Orgyia definita Packard 930166 2 5 7 leucostigma (Smith) 930168 1 1 6 7 16 16 47 Arctiinae Cisthene kentuckiensis (Dyar) 930178 2 2 plumbea Stretch 930184 8 1 5 1 4 4 23 packardii (Grote) 930189 7 5 7 19 63 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Hypoprepia miniata (Kirby) 930204 2 8 15 25 fucosa Hübner 930205 10 10 13 22 55 Clemensia albata PackardB 930215 3 8 9 8 10 6 24 9 77 Crambidia lithosioides Dyar 930218 12 1 3 10 7 33 pallida Packard 930219 1 7 1 3 8 10 30 uniformis Dyar 930220 2 2 Grammia parthenice (Kirby) 930246 1 3 4 Apantesis vittata (Fabricius) 930279 3 2 5 1 3 4 1 19 nais (Drury) 930280 2 3 1 1 1 4 4 16 Virbia laeta (Guérin-Méneville) 930294 1 2 1 8 12 opella (Grote) 930297 3 8 5 1 24 6 47 aurantiaca (Hübner) 930299 1 1 immaculata (Reakirt)A 930307 5 2 7 Spilosoma congrua Walker 930309 1 11 3 4 2 6 2 29 virginica (Fabricius) 930316 3 4 2 3 2 14 Hyphantria cunea (Drury)B 930319 1 20 2 1 8 5 37 Hypercompe scribonia (Stoll)B 930323 1 1 1 3 Pyrrharctia isabella (Smith) 930335 1 1 Haploa clymene (Brown) 930341 2 2 Halysidota tessellaris (Smith)B 930360 3 6 7 6 19 11 52 Leucanopsis longa (Grote) 930376 1 4 4 9 Euchaetes egle (Drury) 930412 1 1 Cisseps fulvicollis (Hübner) 930440 1 3 1 1 2 8 Herminiinae Idia americalis (Guenée) 930469 9 5 13 6 17 36 5 91 majoralis (Smith) 930470 1 1 aemula HübnerB 930471 1 4 2 7 4 5 1 24 rotundalis (Walker) 930474 2 8 8 8 21 5 52 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 64 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total julia (Barnes & 930476 6 1 3 1 11 McDunnough) diminuendis (Barnes & 930477 3 3 McDunnough) lubricalis (Geyer) 930482 1 6 1 1 1 10 Phalaenophana pyramusalis (Walker) 930487 1 1 2 Zanclognatha lituralis (Hübner) 930489 5 2 2 1 2 12 theralis (Walker) 930490 15 1 12 1 7 36 atrilineella (Grote) 930493 2 1 1 6 2 12 obscuripennis (Grote) 930494 8 4 7 1 9 29 protumnusalis (Walker)B 930496 1 5 3 9 cruralis (Guenée) 930498 5 2 7 Chytolita morbidalis (Guenée) 930502 1 3 2 16 3 7 2 34 Macrochilo absorptalis (Walker)A 930508 3 3 hypocritalis Ferguson 930509 5 4 3 7 19 litophora (Grote) 930510 17 22 1 5 45 orciferalis (Walker) 930511 1 1 Phalaenostola eumelusalis (Walker)A 930513 7 3 18 2 30 larentioides Grote 930514 3 3 1 5 12 Tetanolita mynesalis (Walker) 930516 5 7 1 1 4 2 20 floridana Smith 930518 5 1 6 2 3 4 1 22 Bleptina caradrinalis Guenée 930520 1 1 2 inferior Grote 930522 6 1 4 1 12 Renia factiosalis (Walker) 930530 1 1 nemoralis Barnes & 930531 1 1 2 McDunnough discoloralis Guenée 930532 1 1 flavipunctalis (Geyer) 930536 1 1 2 65 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total fraternalis Smith 930537 2 2 adspergillus (Bosc) 930538 3 2 11 1 1 2 20 sobrialis (Walker) 930539 3 2 5 Lascoria ambigualis (Walker) 930547 4 1 3 12 5 1 26 Palthis angulalis (Hübner)B 930551 6 2 1 1 4 14 asopialis (Guenée) 930552 1 3 5 9 5 7 4 34 Redectis pygmaea (Grote) 930554 2 2 8 4 16 vitrea (Grote) 930555 3 1 4 1 9 Pangraptinae Pangrapta decoralis Hübner 930559 2 7 5 9 8 4 35 Ledaea perditalis (Walker) 930560 7 1 2 1 12 3 26 Hypeninae Hypena manalis Walker 930561 3 6 1 11 4 2 27 baltimoralis Guenée 930562 3 1 1 16 2 23 bijugalis Walker 930564 4 1 5 palparia Walker 930565 2 1 4 2 9 abalienalis Walker 930566 1 3 4 madefactalis Guenée 930568 1 1 scabra (Fabricius) 930588 3 6 6 2 2 2 12 2 35 eductalis Walker 930589 1 1 Colobochyla interpuncta (Grote) 930590 4 3 1 8 Melanomma auricinctaria Grote 930591 2 2 Rivulinae Rivula propinqualis Guenée 930592 2 6 10 3 3 24 stepheni SullivanA 930593 1 2 3 Calpinae Plusiodonta compressipalpis Guenée 930622 2 3 1 3 9 1 19 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 66 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Hypocalinae Hypsoropha monilis (Fabricius) 930628 9 9 hormos HübnerB 930629 6 2 4 1 13 Scolecocampinae Arugisa lutea (Smith) 930634 2 2 3 1 8 latiorella (Walker) 930635 4 8 1 5 18 Scolecocampa liburna (Geyer) 930637 5 4 3 18 5 35 Abablemma brimleyana (Dyar) 930651 2 2 Nigetia formosalis Walker 930655 2 7 1 1 2 8 21 Sigela brauneata (Swett) 930657 5 3 8 4 20 penumbrata Hulst 930658 1 1 Hypenodinae Hypenodes caducus (Dyar)A 930661 2 1 3 6 franclemonti FergusonA 930665 2 2 Schrankia macula (Druce) 930668 1 4 17 2 16 6 46 Dyspyralis puncticosta (Smith)A 930670 1 1 3 2 1 8 Boletobiinae Metalectra discalis (Grote) 930679 3 2 3 8 quadrisignata (Walker) 930680 1 5 2 8 tantillus (Grote) 930682 1 1 2 richardsi Brower 930685 6 2 4 12 Oruza albocostaliata (Packard) 930692.5 1 1 Eublemma minima (Guenée) 930693 2 3 1 5 4 15 Hemeroplanis scopulepes (Haworth) 930700 10 4 14 habitalis (Walker) 930704 1 1 Phytometra rhodarialis (Walker) 930717 5 6 6 1 4 1 23 Hormoschista latipalpis (Walker) 930724 1 1 2 67 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Hyperstrotia nana (Hübner) 930727 1 10 4 13 4 10 42 aetheria (Grote) 930728 1 1 2 flaviguttata (Grote) 930731 1 3 7 4 3 18 secta (Grote) 930732 4 1 1 6 Isogona tenuis (Grote) 930734 2 2 2 2 6 14 Erebinae Catocala piatrix Grote 930762 2 2 epione (Drury) 930764 1 1 ilia (Cramer) 930792 2 1 3 marmorata Edwards 930796 1 1 gracilis Edwards 930833 2 2 andromedae (Guenée) 930835 2 2 ultronia (Hübner) 930841 3 3 miranda Edwards 930842 1 1 mira Grote 930844 7 5 12 grynea (Cramer) 930845 9 9 crataegi Saunders 930846 1 1 lincolnana Brower 930850 6 1 7 clintonii Grote 930853 1 1 amica (Hübner) 930859 8 6 1 15 Phoberia atomaris Hübner 930862 2 7 2 11 Cissusa spadix (Cramer) 930864 1 1 Ptichodis herbarum (Guenée) 930932 11 9 5 16 1 42 bistrigata Hübner 930934 1 1 Caenurgia chloropha (Hübner) 930938 1 6 1 10 5 4 4 5 36 Celiptera frustulum Guenée 930940 2 1 8 1 12 Mocis texana (Morrison) 930944 3 3 3 1 5 1 16 disseverans (Walker) 930945 1 1 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 68 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Argyrostrotis flavistriaria (Hübner) 930951 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 8 sylvarum (Guenée) 930952 1 1 1 2 5 erasa (Guenée) 930953 1 1 anilis (Drury) 930956 2 2 4 Gondysia smithii (Guenée) 930959 1 1 Parallelia bistriaris Hübner 930961 1 3 1 4 7 10 26 Allotria elonympha (Hübner)B 930962 2 6 5 7 11 8 39 Cutina albopunctella Walker 930963 7 2 2 11 distincta (Grote) 930964 5 6 4 5 2 22 aluticolor Pogue & Ferguson 930965 10 1 5 6 12 34 arcuata Pogue & Ferguson 930966 6 2 9 3 10 30 Lesmone detrahens (Walker) 930970 12 10 4 2 2 4 34 Metria amella (Guenée) 930992 2 2 Zale lunata (Drury)B 931023 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 14 galbanata (Morrison) 931026 3 2 4 3 5 24 41 aeruginosa (Guenée) 931029 5 2 1 8 minerea (Guenée) 931032 6 2 8 obliqua (Guenée) 931034 8 3 8 19 squamularis (Drury) 931035 6 6 submediana Strand 931037 2 2 4 curema (Smith) 931044 3 3 lunifera (Hübner) 931048 14 14 horrida Hübner 931053 1 1 2 Amolita fessa Grote 931060 1 1 obliqua Smith 931061 3 2 5 Eulepidotinae Panopoda rufimargo (Hübner) 931089 5 9 2 3 1 20 carneicosta Guenée 931090 1 2 1 2 6 69 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Phyprosopus callitrichoides Grote 931101 3 3 1 6 13 Euteliidae Euteliinae Marathyssa inficita (Walker) 931103 2 4 3 1 10 basalis Walker 931104 2 6 8 Paectes oculatrix (Guenée) 931106 2 2 1 1 1 7 abrostoloides (Guenée)B 931111 4 6 12 7 29 Eutelia pulcherrimus (Grote) 931118 1 1 Nolidae Diphtherinae Diphthera festiva (Fabricius) 931120.5 2 2 Nolinae Meganola phylla (Dyar) 931122 5 2 4 2 13 spodia Franclemont 931123 5 7 12 Nola pustulata (Walker) 931129 1 1 2 cereella (Bosc) 931131 1 3 1 1 6 ovilla Grote 931135 1 1 2 Chloephorinae Nycteola metaspilella (Walker)A 931145 1 1 Risobinae Baileya ophthalmica (Guenée)B 931149 1 12 7 18 4 13 55 dormitans (Guenée) 931150 4 2 9 3 1 19 levitans (Smith) 931152 1 1 australis (Grote) 931154 3 1 4 8 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 70 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Noctuidae Plusiinae Ctenoplusia oxygramma (Geyer) 931169 1 1 Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) 931170 2 1 3 Rachiplusia ou (Guenée) 931176 1 1 Allagrapha aerea (Hübner) 931177 1 1 Eustrotiinae Tripudia rectangula Pogue 931261 1 1 balteata SmithA, D 931264 2 2 4 8 versutus (Edwards)A, E 931269 1 1 2 Marimatha nigrofimbria (Guenée)B 931284 2 8 8 15 10 12 55 Protodeltote muscosula (Guenée)B 931290 1 12 7 21 6 13 60 Lithacodia musta (Grote & Robinson) 931292 1 2 2 5 Argillophora furcilla GroteA 931299 8 6 9 9 2 34 Ozarba aeria (Grote) 931302 1 3 6 8 1 1 20 Acontiinae Ponometia semiflava (Guenée) 931308 3 3 1 7 candefacta (Hübner) 931314 1 2 3 Spragueia dama (Guenée) 931382 3 3 leo (Guenée) 931387 1 6 7 Pantheinae Panthea furcilla (Packard) 931396 2 2 1 5 Charadra deridens (Guenée) 931406 1 1 2 Raphiinae Raphia frater abrupta Grote 931412 6 2 8 Balsinae Balsa malana (Fitch) 931417 6 1 1 8 71 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total tristrigella (Walker) 931418 10 3 13 labecula (Grote) 931419 3 3 6 Acronictinae Acronicta americana (Harris) 931421 1 6 7 tritona (Hübner) 931432 1 1 2 1 5 connecta (Grote) 931436 1 1 vinnula (Grote) 931442 3 5 1 2 1 20 32 laetifica (Smith) 931444 4 4 hasta (Guenée) 931445 3 1 2 7 13 spinigera (Guenée) 931452 1 1 2 morula (Grote & Robinson)A 931453 5 1 7 13 interrupta (Guenée) 931454 1 9 10 lobeliae (Guenée) 931455 1 1 2 clarescens (Guenée) 931460 1 1 ovata (Grote)A 931463 2 1 2 2 3 10 exilis (Grote) 931464 2 7 3 1 15 28 modica (Walker) 931465 1 1 1 2 5 inclara (Smith)B 931468 5 6 1 2 3 3 20 retardata (Walker) 931470 2 1 11 14 afflicta (Grote) 931471 1 2 1 2 6 impleta (Walker) 931474 1 1 4 3 9 noctivaga (Grote)A 931476 1 2 3 longa (Guenée) 931478 2 2 Polygrammate hebraeicum HübnerB 931497 8 10 4 15 10 13 60 Harrisimemna trisignata (Walker) 931498 1 1 2 Comachara cadburyi Franclemont 931499 13 2 4 1 4 24 Cerma cora HübnerA 931500 1 1 cerintha (Treitschke) 931501 1 1 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 72 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Amphipyrinae Amphipyra pyramidoides Guenée 931544 16 2 1 3 22 Psaphida resumens Walker 931548 1 1 rolandi (Grote) 931550 1 2 3 Copivaleria grotei (Morrison) 931557 8 4 12 Feralia major Smith 931563 2 8 10 Emarginea percara (Morrison) 931606 1 1 Basilodes pepita Guenée 931676 1 1 Azenia obtusa (Herrich-Schäffer) 931724 6 4 3 2 15 Agaristinae Eudryas unio (Hübner) 931964 1 1 1 3 grata (Fabricius) 931966 2 1 2 5 Condicinae Perigea xanthioides Guenée 931986 1 2 3 Condica videns (Guenée) 931989 5 2 6 3 3 10 29 mobilis (Walker) 931992 1 1 vecors (Guenée) 931995 1 2 2 5 sutor (Guenée) 931998 2 2 4 confederata (Grote) 932015 1 1 Ogdoconta cinereola (Guenée)B 932018 3 3 2 8 Homophoberia apicosa (Haworth) 932025 1 4 2 3 1 11 Heliothinae Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) 932045 1 1 11 5 2 20 Chloridea virescens (Fabricius) 932054 1 1 Schinia rivulosa (Guenée) 932091 2 2 trifascia Hübner 932096 4 1 5 sordidus Smith 932116 1 1 nubila (Strecker) 932117 1 1 73 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total lynx (Guenée) 932120 2 2 arcigera (Guenée) 932134 5 5 saturata (Grote) 932135 3 3 nundina (Drury) 932156 1 1 Eriopinae Callopistria mollissima (Guenée) 932192 1 1 2 4 1 9 granitosa (Guenée) 932193 1 1 cordata (Ljungh) 932194 3 1 4 Noctuinae Phosphila turbulenta Hübner 932208 6 1 7 miselioides (Guenée) 932209 2 1 2 4 9 Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) 932216 3 28 6 37 ornithogalli (Guenée) 932219 1 5 6 1 13 latifascia (Walker) 932220 1 2 2 5 eridania (Stoll) 932223 1 1 Elaphria versicolor (Grote)B 932228 3 1 3 4 11 chalcedonia (Hübner) 932230 2 2 georgei (Moore & Rawson) 932232 5 5 festivoides (Guenée) 932233 1 1 2 grata Hübner 932238 1 2 1 4 Galgula partita Guenée 932249 2 1 4 2 2 7 18 Chytonix palliatricula (Guenée) 932249.5 14 4 2 2 1 17 1 41 sensilis Grote 932249.6 1 1 Athetis tarda (Guenée) 932269 11 1 12 Nedra ramosula (Guenée) 932284 2 1 3 Iodopepla u-album (Guenée) 932287 1 1 1 1 2 2 8 Apamea quinteri Mikkola & 932301 1 1 LafontaineA Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 74 2018 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total indocilis (Walker)A 932310 1 1 Oligia modica (Guenée) 932378 2 2 Acrapex relicta (Ferguson) 932431 7 7 Parapamea buffaloensis (Grote) 932464 1 1 5 1 8 Papaipema furcata (Smith) 932468 3 3 marginidens (Guenée) 932472 1 1 inquaesita (Grote & 932476 2 2 Robinson) lysimachiae BirdA 932487 2 2 polymniae Bird 932490 1 1 Lithophane patefacta (Walker) 932532 2 2 signosa (Walker) 932542 1 1 viridipallens Grote 932552 1 1 2 unimoda (Lintner) 932582 1 1 Eupsilia sidus (Guenée)A 932588 2 2 cirripalea FranclemontA 932589 1 1 tristigmata (Grote)A 932590 1 1 2 Sericaglaea signata (French) 932595 3 8 18 29 Xystopeplus rufago (Hübner) 932596 1 1 Metaxaglaea viatica (Grote) 932598 2 1 6 2 1 1 13 semitaria Franclemont 932599 1 1 violacea Schweitzer 932601 5 10 7 2 24 Chaetaglaea sericea (Morrison) 932607 1 9 1 11 Sunira bicolorago (Guenée) 932616 5 7 5 17 Orthosia alurina (Smith) 932774 1 12 13 hibisci (Guenée) 932778 1 6 7 Himella fidelis Grote 932785 1 1 Egira alternans (Walker) 932799 1 23 24 Achatia distincta Hübner 932800 1 1 75 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus SpeciesA, B, C, D, E P3 No. Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Morrisonia confusa (Hübner) 932803 4 4 triangula Sullivan & Adams 932804 1 1 Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth)C 932935 1 1 1 3 3 4 13 Leucania extincta GuenéeA 932937 1 1 linda Franclemont 932944 2 2 scirpicola Guenée 932957 1 1 adjuta (Grote) 932960 3 2 6 2 11 5 29 calidior (Forbes) 932964 10 10 ursula (Forbes) 932965 3 1 4 Ulolonche culea (Guenée) 933118 1 1 Orthodes majuscula Herrich-Schäffer 933136 1 1 2 1 2 7 Anicla infecta (Ochsenheimer) 933212 1 1 2 10 14 lubricans (Guenée) 933214 3 1 1 5 Eucoptocnemis fimbriaris (Guenée) 933257 2 2 Agrotis venerabilis Walker 933516 1 1 ipsilon (Hufnagel) 933528 2 1 3 1 1 6 10 24 Cerastis tenebrifera (Walker) 933536 2 7 9 Choephora fungorum Grote & Robinson 933543 1 1 Noctua pronuba (L.)C 933551 1 1 Xestia elimata (Guenée) 933583 5 6 11 dilucida (Morrison) 933586 1 17 18 Abagrotis alternata (Grote) 933680 3 1 1 5 Totals 49 64 81 48 447 1240 1483 1479 1455 1153 2536 489 10,524 ASpecies not previously reported from SC. BSpecies recorded in Congaree NP prior to November 2009. CNon-native species. DSpecies has not been reported to occur in the adjacent states of GA or NC. ESpecies has not been reported to occur in GA, NC, AL, FL, TN, or VA. Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 76 2018 B. All specimens identified only to genus. Family Subfamily Genus P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Nepticulidae Nepticulinae Stigmella sp. 160003.1 2 3 5 Ectoedemia sp. 160060.1 3 3 Tischeriidae Tischeriinae Coptotriche sp. 230018.1 1 1 Tineidae Clade B Homosetia sp. 300125.1 1 1 2 Gracillariidae Gracillariinae Parornix sp. 330190.1 1 1 Marmara sp. 330230.1 1 1 2 Lithocolletinae Phyllonorycter sp. 330256.1 1 1 Phyllocnistinae Phyllocnistis sp. 330394.1 1 1 2 Argyresthiidae Argyresthiinae Argyresthia sp. 360139.1 1 8 9 Cosmopterigidae Chrysopeleiinae Perimede sp. 420329.1 2 2 1 5 77 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder 2018 Vol. 17, Monograph 11 Family Subfamily Genus P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Gelechiidae Anacampsinae Battaristis new sp. 420470.1 2 4 4 10 Gelechiinae Recurvaria sp. 420711.1 1 1 Chionodes sp. 420887.1 1 2 3 Filatima sp. 421076.1 1 1 Elachistidae Elachistinae Elachista sp. 421362.1 1 1 Coleophoridae Coleophorinae Coleophora sp. 421509.1 8 8 6 16 2 40 Blastobasidae Holcocerinae Holcocera/Asaphocrita sp. 421757.1 1 1 Calosima/Hypatopa sp. 421757.2 4 4 Blastobasinae Blastobasis sp. 421763.1 1 2 4 2 9 Pigritia sp. 421801.1 1 2 1 4 Momphidae Momphinae Mompha sp. 421812.1 1 1 Tortricidae Tortricinae Aethes sp. 620089.1 2 1 2 1 4 10 Southeastern Naturalist J.D. Culin, B.G. Scholtens and J.A. Snyder Vol. 17, Monograph 11 78 2018 Family Subfamily Genus P3 number Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Total Cochylis sp. 620124.1 2 2 Thyraylia sp. 620206.1 5 5 Olethreutinae Notocelia sp. 621109.1 1 1 Epinotia sp. 621191.1 1 1 2 Dichrorampha sp. 621275.1 1 1 Crambidae Schoenobiinae Donacaula new sp. 800707.1 1 1 Notodontidae Heterocampinae Litodonta new sp. 930060.1 1 1 Erebidae Hypenodinae Dyspyralis sp. 930669.1 1 1 2 Noctuidae Noctuinae Parapamea new sp. 932511.1 2 2 new sp. 932511.2 1 1 Totals 0 0 0 0 2 23 30 13 3 1 51 11 134 Grand totals 49 64 81 48 449 1263 1513 1492 1458 1154 2587 500 10,658