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One Hundred New Provincial, National, and Continental Lichen and Allied Fungi Records from Parc National de la Gaspésie, Québec, Canada
R. Troy McMullin, Jean Gagnon, Frances Anderson, William R. Buck, Stephen R. Clayden, Briann C. Dorin, Alan Fryday, John G. Guccion, Richard C. Harris, James Hinds, Claude Isabel, Douglas Ladd, Elisabeth Lay, James C. Lendemer, Jose R. Maloles, Claude Roy, and Dennis P. Waters

Northeastern Naturalist, Volume 24, Issue 4 (2017): 446–466

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Northeastern Naturalist 446 R.T. McMullin, et al. 22001177 NORTHEASTERN NATURALIST 2V4(o4l). :2444,6 N–4o6. 64 One Hundred New Provincial, National, and Continental Lichen and Allied Fungi Records from Parc National de la Gaspésie, Québec, Canada R. Troy McMullin1,*, Jean Gagnon2, Frances Anderson3, William R. Buck4, Stephen R. Clayden5, Briann C. Dorin6, Alan Fryday7, John G. Guccion8, Richard C. Harris4, James Hinds9, Claude Isabel10, Douglas Ladd11, Elisabeth Lay12, James C. Lendemer4, Jose R. Maloles6, Claude Roy13, and Dennis P. Waters14 Abstract - We report 100 lichen and allied fungi species for the first time from Québec, Canada. Six of these species are new to North America: Arthonia subastroidea, Biatora mendax, Cornutispora pyramidalis, Gyalecta hypoleuca, Taeniolella pertusariicola, and Varicellaria lactea. Six additional species are new to Canada: Cecidonia xenophana, Lecidea commaculans, L. herteliana, Polycoccum sporastatiae, Scoliciosporum intrusum, and Stereocaulon leucophaeopsis. All collections are from parc national de la Gaspésie on the Gaspé Peninsula in eastern Québec. Our collections were made between 2012 and 2017, primarily during Crum and Tuckerman Workshops. We provide diagnostic descriptions of all species that are new continental or national records. Our results demonstrate the park’s rich and unexplored biodiversity and conservation importance, and contribute to a better understanding of the lichen and allied fungus biota of Canada and North America. Introduction Biodiversity hotspots are important to recognize because of their high conservation value (Mittermeier et al. 1998, Myers 2000). Recognition of hotspots usually requires comprehensive species inventories (Powell et al.1989, Reid and Miller 2000). Inventories provide an understanding of species distribution and frequency, 1Research and Collections, Canadian Museum of Nature, PO Box 3443 Station D, Ottawa, ON, K1P 6P4, Canada. 2Direction des parcs nationaux, Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, Édifice Marie-Guyart, 675 Boulevard René-Lévesque Est, 4e étage, boite 21, Québec, QC, G1R 5V7, Canada. 3273 Crouse’s Settlement Road, Upper LaHave, NS, B4V 0G4, Canada. 4Institute of Systematic Botany, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126. 5Botany and Mycology Section, New Brunswick Museum, Saint John, NB, E2K 1E5, Canada. 6Biodiversity Institute of Ontario Herbarium, Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada. 7Herbarium, Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1312. 810313 Dickens Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814-2131. 9School of Biology and Ecology, University of Maine, 5572 Deering Hall, Orono, ME 04469. 10Parc national de la Gaspésie, 1981, route du Parc, Sainte-Anne-des-Monts, QC, G4V 2E4, Canada. 11Missouri Botanical Garden, PO Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63110. 12239 Marlborough Street, Boston, MA 02116. 13Herbier Louis-Marie, Université Laval, Pavillon Charles-Eugène-Marchand, 1030 avenue de la Médecine, Local 0262, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada. 144 Ivy Glen Lane, Lawrence Township, NJ 08648. *Corresponding author - tmcmullin@mus-nature.ca. Manuscript Editor: David Richardson Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 24, No. 4 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 447 which is critical for developing sound conservation strategies (Environment Canada 1995, Powell et al. 2000, Sutherland et al. 2004) and for monitoring population changes (Powell et al. 2000, Government of Canada 2014, Monastersky 2014). Parc national de la Gaspésie (PNG), in eastern Québec has long been recognized as a hotspot for vascular plant diversity. Many endemic, disjunct, and rare plant species have been reported from the park since early in the 20th century (Fernald 1925, 1951; Rune 1954; Scoggan 1950). Like most hotspots, rich diversity usually extends over a wide range of organismal groups (e.g., the Great Smoky Mountains, see Lendemer et al. 2013). Lichens are an example of another speciose group within PNG. Lichen collections have been made regularly (almost every decade) within the current park boundaries for over a century (Macoun 1902), but the extent of that diversity has not been well understood until recently. Since John Macoun’s first collections in 1882 (Macoun 1902), over 40 individuals have collected lichens in PNG (T. McMullin, unpubl. data). Notable collections include those made by James Collins (1906, 1923) and Carroll Dodge (1923) during 2 expeditions led by Merritt Fernald (Dodge 1926, Riddell 1909); Arthur Allen in 1928 (Allen 1930); Louise Anderson, James Murphy, and Raymond Torrey in 1936 (Torrey 1937); Ernest Lepage in 1939, 1940, 1942 (Lepage 1944, 1945a, 1945b, 1946a–1946d, 1960); Irwin Brodo in 1971 (unpubl. data, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, ON, Canada); and François Lutzoni and/or Luc Sirois from 1980 to 1982 (Sirois et al. 1988). When we began studying the lichens in PNG 7 years ago, ~300 species had been collected in the park. Since 2007, we have increased the number of lichen and allied fungi species known from the park to over 600 (T. McMullin, unpubl. data), which ranks PNG among the parks with the highest lichen diversity in North America (see Lendemer et al. 2013 and Spribille et al. 2010). Our new additions to PNG include new records to Québec, Canada, and North America, which we present here. We also provide diagnostic descriptions of species that are new national and continental records. Methods Study area Québec is Canada’s largest province (1,542,056 km2: 1,365,128 km2 of land and 176,928 km2 of water) and the 2nd most populous (8,263,600) (Statistics Canada 2015). Located in eastern Canada, it borders 3 provinces (New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Ontario), 1 territory (Nunavut), and 4 states (Maine, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont) (Fig. 1). Québec is a large peninsula, bordered on 3 sides by the Atlantic Ocean, the Labrador Sea, and Hudson Bay (Fig. 1). It consists mostly of 3 geological regions: the Canadian Shield, the St. Lawrence Platform, and the Appalachians (Gouvernement du Québec 2017). There are 3 vegetative zones in Québec: the northern temperate zone in the southern part of the province, which is characterized by hardwood and mixed forests; the boreal zone, dominated by coniferous forests; and the Arctic zone in the northern part of the province that is characterized by shrub and herbaceous vegetation (Gouvernement du Québec 2017). Northeastern Naturalist 448 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 Vol. 24, No. 4 The Gaspé Peninsula, in eastern Québec, is located in the boreal zone. In 1937, parc national de la Gaspésie was created in the north-central region of the Gaspé Peninsula (Fig. 1; Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche 1987). The park contains 2 mountain ranges—the ~570–625 million-year-old Chic-Choc (or Shickshock) Mountains (Fig. 2C; Brisebois and Brun 1994, Fernald 1925, Slivitsky et al. 1991), and the ~370–390 million-year-old McGerrigle (or Table Top) Mountains (Fig. 2B, D, F; Fernald 1925, Whalen and Roddick 1987). These ranges are part of the northernmost region of the Appalachian Mountains in continental North America (Commission de Toponymie 2015, Rune 1954,). Parc national de la Gaspésie lies between 48.8274° and 49.1045° latitude and -65.8415° and -66.7059° longitude, and runs parallel to the Saint Lawrence River for 63 km, ~14–29 km south of the shore (Commission de Toponymie 2015). The landcover is dominated by a boreal forest ecosystem mostly composed of mature Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. (Balsam Fir), Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (White Spruce), and P. mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (Black Spruce) (Fig. 2A), and low-elevation forests that have recently been affected by Archips fumiferana Clemens (Spruce Budworm), logging, and fire (Ouellet et al. 1996, Rune 1954, Scoggan 1950, Sirois and Grandtner 1992). Arctic–alpine habitats dominated by herbaceous and lichen communities occur on the mountain peaks above tree-line (above ~1000 m) (Fernald 1925, Payette and Boudreau 1984, Scoggan 1950, Sirois et al. 1988), many of which resemble flat plateaus due to erosion (Fig. 2C, D; Fernald 1925, Matte 2001, Sirois et al. 1988). The summits of 2 mountains, Mont Albert and Mont Jacques Cartier, are the Figure 1. Parc national de la Gaspésie on the Gaspé Peninsula in eastern Québec, Canada. Localities shown correspond with collection data listed in the annotated species list. Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 24, No. 4 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 449 location of the majority of our collections. Among the mountains of parc national de la Gaspésie, Mont Albert (1154 m; Fig. 2C) has the largest plateau (9 km long and 6.5 km wide; Sirois et al. 1988), and Mont Jacques-Cartier (1270 m; Fig. 2D) has the highest summit, which is also the highest in all of southern Québec (Morin and Payette 1988). The summit of Mont Jacques-Cartier has an average temperature of 10.6 °C in July and -15 °C in February, with an average annual precipitation of 163.3 cm (Morin and Payette 1988). Figure 2. Habitat at major collection sites in parc national de la Gaspésie. (A) Forests on the western slope of Mt. Albert. (B) View from the summit of Mt. Albert facing west. (C) Summit of Mt. Albert in the serpentine rock region. (D) Summit of Mt. Jacques-Cartier. (E) Rivière Sainte-Anne at the western base of Mt. Albert. (F) Lac aux Américains. Northeastern Naturalist 450 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 Vol. 24, No. 4 Collections We made all of our collections in parc national de la Gaspésie during the Tuckerman Workshop in 2012, the Crum Workshop in 2013, and during field work carried out by Jean Gagnon in 2014, and Troy McMullin in 2017. We based new provincial reports on an unpublished list maintained by Jean Gagnon; new Canadian records on unpublished lists produced by Irwin Brodo, Chris Deduke, and Janet Marsh; and new North American records on Esslinger (2016). To verify our new reports, we also performed literature and database searches for species that were not on these lists. Database searches included Canadensys, Canadian Museum of Nature, Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria, Global Biodiversity Information Facility, and the New York Botanical Garden. The specimens we collected are housed at a variety of locations, which are indicated in the annotated species list below using acronyms following Index Herbariorum (Thiers 2017): Biodiversity Institute of Ontario Herbarium (OAC), Canadian Museum of Nature (CANL), Duke University Herbarium (DUKE), Farlow Herbarium at Harvard University (FH), Field Museum of Natural History (F), Herbier Louis-Marie at Université Laval (QFA), New Brunswick Museum (NBM), New York Botanical Garden (NY), University of Colorado Museum of Natural History (COLO), University of Maine Herbarium (MAINE), University of New Hampshire (NHA), and in personal herbaria. We identified specimens using standard light microscopy techniques and chemical-spot tests following Brodo et al. (2001). We also used thin-layer chromatography to further examine secondary metabolites following Culberson and Kristinsson (1970) and Lendemer (2011). Results We report 100 lichen and allied fungi species in 76 genera for the first time from Québec, Canada, in the annotated list below. Six species are reported for the first time from North America: Arthonia subastroidea, Biatora mendax, Cornutispora pyramidalis, Gyalecta hypoleuca, Taeniolella pertusariicola, and Varicellaria lactea. Six additional species are new to Canada: Cecidonia xenophana, Lecidea commaculans, L. herteliana, Polycoccum sporastatiae, Scoliciosporum intrusum, and Stereocaulon leucophaeopsis. Seventy-two species are lichenized and 29 are allied fungi, mostly lichen parasites, traditionally treated with lichens. Two species are calicioids, Calicium abietinum and Chaenothecopsis rubescens, and 3 species have cyanobacteria as their primary photobiont, Ephebe hispidula, Polychidium muscicola, and Pseudocyphellaria aff. perpetua. Annotated List of Species New to Québec, Canada, and North America The specimens listed below are sorted alphabetically by genus and species. Nomenclature follows Esslinger (2016). Authorities follow Brummitt and Powell (1992) when possible, and authors not listed in that work follow Esslinger (2016). Species preceded by a dagger (†) are allied fungi traditionally treated with lichens. Species preceded by an asterisk (*) are new to Canada and species preceded by 2 Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 24, No. 4 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 451 asterisks (**) are new to North America. The localities listed for each collection are shown on the map in Figure 1. †Abrothallus cetrariae Kotte – Lichenicolous on Platismatia glauca (L.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. Mont Albert: 2012 − McMullin 9558 (CANL). Mont Olivine: 2012 − Harris 57544 (NY). †Abrothallus parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Arnold – Lichenicolous on Parmelia sulcata Taylor over branch of Abies balsamea. Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Clayden 23172 (NBM). Agonomia tristicula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. – Saxicolous. Mont Albert: 2014 – Gagnon 14- 77.32 (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). †Agyrium rufum (Pers.) Fr. – Lignicolous on a snag and Thuja occidentalis L.. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Buck 59712 (NY), Lay 12-0063 (NY). Mont Jacques- Cartier: 2012 − Buck 59644 (NY). Le Petit Saut: 2013 – Harris 58635 (NY); 2017 – McMullin 17587 (CANL). Anzina carneonivea (Anzi) Scheid. – Corticolous on Betula glandulosa Michx. Mont Albert: 2012 – Clayden 23127 (NBM). Notes: Previously reported in North America only from high-elevation coniferous forests in southern British Columbia (Goward et al. 1996). Unpublished collections were also made by S.R. Clayden and T. Spribille in 2009 (e.g., Clayden 20571 [NBM]) in the Laurentian Highlands northeast of Québec City. †Arthonia intexta Almq. – Lichenicolous in the hymenium of Lecidella stigmatea (Ach.) Hertel, & Leuckert. Mont Albert: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Arthonia mediella Nyl. – Lignicolous on a conifer. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Harris 57698-A (NY). **†Arthonia subastroidea Anzi – Corticolous on Abies balsamea. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Harris 57710 (NY). Notes: Known from northern Italy (Anzi 1864, Sundin 1999). In North America, it is also known from 3 previously unpublished collections in Florida (Rapp s.n. and 2413 [US]) and Massachusetts (Willey 37 [NY]). It is distinguished by the non-lichenized thallus, colonizing smooth bark, and turning the bark paler (no obvious thallus); elongate ascomata (less than 0.7 x less than 0.2 mm) that are semi-sessile; flat discs lacking pruina; a hyaline hymenium and hypothecium; ascospores becoming brown at maturity with 7–9 transverse and 0–4 longitudinal septa, (21–) 23–29 (–35) × (7–) 9–12 (–15) μm, and an epispore that is IKI+ blue or red and KI+ blue; and ascomatal gel that is IKI+ blue-red and KI+ blue (Sundin 1999). Arthonia vinosa Leight. – Lignicolous on a conifer and Thuja occidentalis. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Harris 57704 (NY). Le Petit Saut: 2013 – Harris 58647 (NY); 2017 – McMullin 17588 (CANL). †Arthophacopsis parmeliarum Hafellner – Lichenicolous on Parmelia sulcata. Lac Cascapédia (Cascapédia River Trail): 2013 − Harris 58753 (NY). Biatora chrysantha (Zahlbr.) Printzen – Bryicolous, on root of Abies balsamea. Mont Olivine 2012: Clayden 23170 (NBM). Northeastern Naturalist 452 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 Vol. 24, No. 4 Biatora globulosa (Flörke) Fr. – Lignicolous on a conifer. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Harris 57698 (NY). **Biatora mendax Anzi – Corticolous on Thuja occidentalis. Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 − Harris 57633 (NY). Notes: Previously known from Europe (Printzen 1995, Printzen and Otte 2005) and unpublished North American collections from Prince Edward Island (Clayden 19840, 19845 [NBM]), New Brunswick (numerous specimens from throughout the province, e.g., Clayden 14330, 14736, 14872, 18117, 20024, Driscoll 694 [NBM]), and Maine (Clayden 23027 [NBM]). Characterized by an esorediate PD+ red thallus, 1-celled ascospores that are 2.5–5 μm wide, dark apothecia, and a brown epihymenium (sometimes also the hymenium and subhymenium) that is N- (Printzen 1995, Printzen and Otte 2005). Biatora pallens (Kullh.) Printzen – Corticolous, on fine dead twig of Abies balsamea. Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Clayden 23227 (NBM). Botryolepraria lesdainii (Hue) A. Canals, M. Hern.-M., Gomez-Bolea & Llimona – Saxicolous. Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Lendemer 32717 (NY). Brianaria sylvicola (Flot. ex Körb.) S. Ekman & M. Svensson – Saxicolous. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Lay 12-0068, 12-0069 (NY), Clayden 23312 (NBM). Buellia arnoldii Servίt & Nádv. – Corticolous on Abies balsamea and Thuja occidentalis. Lac Cascapédia (Cascapédia River Trail): 2013 − Harris 58753-A (NY). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 − Harris 57642 (NY). Previous unpublished Québec collections were made by Colette Nuyt 9376, 9961 (QFA) (det. Wong) and Roy C-46-79 (QFA) (det. Wong). Notes: A previously unpublished Québec collection was made by Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Buellia uberior Anzi – Saxicolous. Unnamed peak ~200 m south of Mont Joseph- Fortin: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Calicium abietinum Pers. – Lignicolous on a snag. Wetland along Chemin de Ceinture des Monts McGerrigle ~4.5 km from Gîte du Mont-Albert: 2013 – McMullin 9537 (OAC). Candelariella athallina (Wedd.) Du Rietz – Saxicolous. Mont Albert: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Notes: A previously unpublished Québec collection was made by Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). It is considered a poorly understood species in North America by Westberg et al. (2011). *†Cecidonia xenophana (Körb.) Triebel & Rambold – Lichenicolous on Porpidia sp. (P. cf. contraponenda (Arnold) Knoph & Hertel). Mont les Cônes & Mont Jacques-Cartier. 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Notes: Reported for the first time in North America by Hinds et al. (2002) from Mt. Katahdin, Maine (Coppins and Fryday 2006). A previously unpublished Canadian collection was made in Québec by Lepage 13379 (QFA). It is characterized by: a whitening of the host thallus; black apothecia that are 0.2–0.3 mm in diameter with contorted lecideine rims; paraphyses that are richly branched and anastomosing; a hymenium height of 80–110 um; and 1-celled ascospores that are (9–) 10–12 (–13) × 5–6.5 (–7.5) μm (Hinds et al. 2002, Triebel 1989, Triebel and Rambold 1988). Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 24, No. 4 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 453 †Cercidospora punctillata (Nyl.) R.Sant. – Lichenicolous on Solorina crocea (L.) Ach. Mont Jacques-Cartier: 2012 – Clayden 23269 (NBM). Notes: First reported in North America by Zhurbenko (2013), based on collections from the Northwest Territories. †Chaenothecopsis rubescens Vain. – Lignicolous on a conifer. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Harris 57683 (NY). Clauzadeana macula (Taylor) Coppins & Rambold – Saxicolous. Unnamed plateau ~200 NE of Mont McWhirter, unnamed summit SE of Lac du Veillard, and the unnamed peak ~200 m south of Mont Joseph-Fortin: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. Fryday). Notes: A previously unpublished Québec collection was made by Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Cliostomum leprosum (Räsänen) Holien & Tønsberg – Corticolous on Thuja occidentalis. Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 − Harris 57667 (NY). †Cornutispora lichenicola D.Hawksw. & B.Sutton − Lichenicolous on Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Lecanora filamentosa (Stirt.) Elix & Palice. Mont Jacques-Cartier: 2012 − Harris 57607-A (NY). Mont Logan: 2013 − Harris 58718-A (NY). **†Cornutispora pyramidalis Etayo – Lichenicolous on Parmeliopsis hyperopta (Ach.) Arnold. Mont Olivine: 2012 − Harris 57550 (NY). Notes: Previously known from Europe on species of Hypotrachyna and Parmotrema. This species causes bleaching of the host thallus and the bleached areas often have a dark necrotic margin. It is also distinguished by pycnidial conidiomata that are immersed to partially erumpent, cream-coloured, globose, 50–70 μm in diameter, and opening to the exterior by a wide ostiole. The conidia are pyramid shaped with oil droplets inside (Etayo 2010). †Cyphobasidium hypogymniicola (Diederich & Ahti) Millanes, Diederich & Wedin – Lichenicolous on Hypogymnia incurvoides Rass. and H. physodes. Lac Cascapédia (Cascapédia River Trail): 2013 − Harris 58766 (NY). Mont Albert: 2012 – McMullin 9559 (CANL), Roy 12-5984-C (QFA) (det. S. Clayden and C. Roy). Mont Olivine: 2012 – Harris 57547 (NY), Lendemer 32469 (NY). †Dactylospora parasitica (Flörke ex Spreng.) Zopf − Lichenicolous on Pertusaria sp. and P. panyrga (Ach.) A. Massal. Mt. Albert: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Clayden 23202 (NBM). †Dactylospora suburceolata Coppins & Fryday – Lichenicolous on Mycobilimbia pilularis (Körber) Hafellner & Türk., on Thuja occidentalis. Rivière Saint-Anne: 2012 – Clayden 23245 (NBM). Notes: A previously unpublished Québec collection was made by Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Numerous additional North American collections of this recently described lichenicolous species are known from bryicolous Biatora, Bilimbia, Bryobilimbia, and Mycobilimbia species (K. Driscoll and S. Clayden, New Brunswick Museum , unpubl. data). Dictyocatenulata alba Finley & E.F. Morris – Corticolous (Betula). Highway 299 at kilometer 104: 2012 – Anderson 1590712 (QFA). Mont Albert: 2012 – Mc- Mullin 11997 (OAC). Notes: Previously unpublished Québec collections were made by Lendemer 28307-A, 28317 (NY) and Roy & Ann Delwaide 05-5730-C (QFA) (det. S. Clayden and C. Roy). Northeastern Naturalist 454 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 Vol. 24, No. 4 Ephebe hispidula (Ach.) Horw. – Saxicolous. Lac Fortin: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Notes: Previously unpublished Québec collections were made by Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. I. Brodo and C. Roy) and Roy C-435-83, 94- 2976-C, 97-4021-C (QFA) (ver. I. Brodo). †Epilichen scabrosus (Ach.) Clem. ex Hafellner – Lichenicolous on Baeomyces placophyllus Ach. Mont Jacques-Cartier: 2012 – Ladd 32365b (personal herbarium), Lendemer 32574 (NY). Frutidella caesioatra (Schaer.) Kalb – Muscicolous on saxicolous mosses. Alpine plateau 1.5 km east-southeast of Mont de la Table: 2014 – Gagnon 14-32.10a (QFA) (det. Fryday); Mont de la Passe: 2014 – Gagnon 14-63.7b (QFA) (det. Fryday). Mont Jacques-Cartier: 2012 – Clayden 23283 (NBM), Lay 12-0136 (NY), Lendemer 32603 (NY); 2014 – Gagnon 14-94.23 (QFA) (det. R. Harris). Mont Logan: 2013 – McMullin 12474 (CANL). Fuscidea appalachensis Fryday – Saxicolous. Unnamed summit ~1 km SE of Mont les Cônes: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Fuscidea pusilla Tønsberg – Corticolous on Alnus, Betula, and Betula alleghaniensis (Fernald) Brayshaw, and lignicolous. Lac aux Américains: 2012 – Lay 12-0177 (NY). Mont Xalibu: 2012 – Clayden 23310 (NBM), Lendemer 32738, 32762 (NY). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Lendemer 32711 (NY). Fuscopannaria sorediata P.M. Jørg. – Corticolous on Thuja occidentalis. Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Buck 59700A (NY), Clayden 23203 (NBM). Mont Jacques-Cartier: 2012 − Hinds 5692.00 (MAINE). Gyalideopsis piceicola (Nyl.) Vězda & Poelt – Corticolous on young needle-bearing branches of Abies balsamea. Mont Olivine 2012: Clayden 23166 (NBM). Notes: A previously unpublished collection was made by Buck 32362 (NY) along the Rivière Noire in the Laurentian Highlands northeast of Québec City. This species is also known from several montane and coastal localities in neighbouring New Brunswick (S. Clayden, unpubl. data). **Gyalecta hypoleuca (Ach.) Zahlbr. – Saxicolous. Mont Albert: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. R. Harris). Notes: Previously reported from Europe (Gilbert et al. 2009a). An unpublished Québec collection was also made by Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. Harris). It is characterized by: growing on calcareous rock; a pale yellow to brown-white thallus; a Trentepohlia photobiont; apothecia with pale orange to red-orange disks that are 0.3–0.7 mm in diameter; and 5–9 transversely septate hyaline ascospores that are 20–38 × 4.5–7 μm with constricted septa and lacking perispores (Gilbert et al. 2009a). Gyrographa gyrocarpa (Flot.) Ertz & Tehler (syn. Opegrapha gyrocarpa Flot.) – Saxicolous. Mont Xalibu: 2012 – Lendemer 32728 (NY). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Lendemer 32697 (NY). †Heterocephalacria bachmannii (Diederich & M.S. Christ.) Millanes & Wedin – Lichenicolous on Cladonia merochlorophaea Asahina. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Harris 57707-A (NY). Heterodermia neglecta Lendemer, R.C.Harris, & E.Tripp – Corticolous on Thuja occidentalis. Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Anderson 1590722 (QFA). Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 24, No. 4 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 455 Immersaria athroocarpa (Ach.) Rambold & Pietschm. – Saxicolous. Mont Auclair and Mont de la Table: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). †Intralichen ? christiansenii (D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. & M.S. Cole – Lichenicolous on Lecidea plana (J. Lahm) Nyl. Mont Albert: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. R. Harris). Japewia subaurifera Muhr & Tsubaurif – Lignicolous on heartwood of living Betula cordifolia Regel. Mont Albert: 2012 – Clayden 23083 (NBM). Lambiella gyrizans (Nyl.) M. Westb. & Resl. – Saxicolous. Unnamed peak ~200 m south of Mont Joseph-Fortin 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Notes: A previous unpublished Québec collection was made by Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Lambiella sphacelata (Th. Fr.) M. Westb. & Resl. Saxicolous. Unnamed peak ~1.8 km east of Mont des Cônes: 2014 – Gagnon 14-57.1 (QFA) (det. Fryday). Notes: A previously unpublished Québec collection was made by Gauthier 2063 (QFA). *Lecidea commaculans Nyl. – Saxicolous. Mont Albert: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. R. Harris). Mont de la Table: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. R. Harris). Notes: Distinguished from other species of Lecidea and Micarea by its poorly developed (or absent) thallus, deep-red hypothecium that intensifies with KOH, Catillaria-type asci, and ascospores that are (7–) 9–12 × (2–) 3–3.5 μm and become dumb-bell shaped at maturity (Aptroot et al. 2009). *Lecidea herteliana Fryday & Coppins – Saxicolous. Unnamed summit ~1 km SE of Mont les Cônes: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Notes: In North America, the only other reported locality for this species is Mt. Katahdin in Maine (Fryday and Coppins 2012). It is distinguished by: a grey to pale brown thallus composed of continuous or scattered areoles that are flat to slightly convex, less than 0.4 mm in diameter, and often with paler margins; an IKI+ blue medulla and upper cortex, otherwise C-, KOH-, and PD-; sessile apothecia that are less than 0.6 mm in diameter, slightly convex, and with slight margins; a blue-black epihymenium that is IKI+ blue and N+ red; swollen paraphyses; a dark brown hypothecium; and ascospores that are 12–14 × 5–6 μm (Fryday and Coppins 2012). Lepraria eburnea J.R. Laundon – Corticolous on Thuja occidentalis. Saxicolous on serpentine rock. Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Guccion 1833 & 1834 (personal herbarium) (det. Lendemer), Harris 57659 (NY), Lendemer 32649, 32702 (NY). Notes: A previously unpublished Québec collection was made by Brodo & S.A. O’Neill 16334 (DUKE) (det. J. Lendemer). Lepraria humida Slav.-Bayr. & Orange – Bryicolous and saxicolous. Mont Xalibu: 2012 – Lendemer 32765 (NY). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Lendemer 32677 (NY). Lepraria jackii Tønsberg – Corticolous on Abies balsamea and Picea, lignicolous on Abies balsamea, and terricolous. Mont Jacques-Cartier: 2012 – Lendemer 32580 (NY). Mont Olivine: 2012 – Lendemer 32461, 32507, 32514 (NY). Mont Xalibu: 2012 – Lendemer 32737, 32739 (NY). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Lendemer 32676, 32683, 32695 (NY). Northeastern Naturalist 456 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 Vol. 24, No. 4 Lepraria torii Pérez-Ortega & T. Sprib – Corticolous on Picea and terricolous. Mont Olivine: 2012 – Lendemer 32475 (NY). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Lendemer 32684, 32687 (NY). Lepraria vouauxii (Hue) R.C. Harris − Corticolous on Thuja occidentalis. Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 − Harris 57652 (NY). †Lichenosticta alcicornaria (Lindsay) D. Hawksw. – Lichenicolous on Cladonia cornuta (L.) Hoffm. Mont Olivine: 2012 − Harris 57557 (NY). Lopadium disciforme (Flot.) Kullh. – Corticolous on Abies balsamea, Picea, and Thuja occidentalis, and lignicolous on Thuja occidentalis. Mont Albert: 1971 – Brodo 18591 (CANL); 2012 – Roy 12-5966-C (QFA) (ver. Clayden). Mont Olivine: 2012 – Lendemer 32511 (NY), McMullin 13835 (OAC). Mont Xalibu: 2012 – Lendemer 32751 (NY). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Buck 59667 (NY), Guccion 1806 (personal herbarium), Harris 57665 (NY), Lendemer 32663 (NY), Waters 0964, 0979 (personal herbarium). Thuja occidentalis swamp between Mont Albert and Mont Olivine: 2012 – McMullin 13886 (OAC). Notes: Previously unpublished Québec collections were made by Bastien 838 (QFA) and Roy 15-6070-C (QFA) (det. T. Spribille). Loxospora cismonica (Beltr.) Hafellner – Corticolous on Abies balsamea and lignicolous on a deciduous snag. Mont Olivine: 2012 – Lendemer 32483 (NY). Mont Xalibu: 2012 – Lendemer 32742A (NY). Le Petit Saut: 2013 – McMullin 12109 (CANL). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Guccion 1807 (personal herbarium). Notes: Previously unpublished Québec collections were made by Bastien 835 (QFA), Morin 27 (QFA), Hamel 68 (QFA), and Tremblay 85b (QFA). Menegazzia subsimilis (H. Magn.) R. Sant. – Corticolous on Thuja occidentalis. Mont Albert: 2012 – Roy 12-5935-C (QFA) (ver. S. Clayden). Le Petit Saut: 2013 − Harris 58637 (NY). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Buck 59694 (NY), Guccion 1809 (personal herbarium), Lay 12-0091 (NY); 2013 – McMullin 9530 (CANL). Thuja occidentalis swamp between Mont Albert and Mont Olivine: 2012 – McMullin 13887 (CANL). †Merismatium decolorans (Rehm ex Arnold) Triebel – Lichenicolous on Trapeliopsis granulosa (Hoffm.) Lumbsch. Mont Logan: 2013 − Buck 61344 (NY). Micarea lignaria (Ach.) Hedl. – Lignicolous. Mont de la Table: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Miriquidica garovaglioi (Schaerer) Hertel & Rambold – Saxicolous. Mont Auclair, unnamed peak ~1 km SE of Mont les Cônes, and an unnamed peak ~200 m south of Mont Joseph-Fortin: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Notes: A previously unpublished Québec collection was made by Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday and P.Y. Wong). Miriquidica subplumbea (Anzi) Cl. Roux (syn. M griseoatra auct.) – Saxicolous. Mont Albert: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Muellerella pygmaea (Körb.) D. Hawksw. – Lichenicolous on Lecanora. Mont Albert: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. R. Harris). Mycoblastus caesius (Coppins & P. James) Tønsberg – Lignicolous on Thuja occidentalis. Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 − Harris 57672 (NY). Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 24, No. 4 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 457 Mycoblastus sanguinarioides Kantvilas – Terricolous and corticolous on Abies balsamea and a Picea snag. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Waters 0920 (personal herbarium). Mont Albert: 2012 – Roy 12-5965-C, 12-5968-C (QFA). Mont Albert, Serpentine Trail: 2012 –Waters 0908 (personal herbarium). Mont Jacques- Cartier: 2012 – Hinds 5730.00 (MAINE). Mont Logan: 2013 – McMullin 13763 (CANL), Roy 13-6018-C (QFA). Mont Olivine: 2012 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday), Guccion 1782 (personal herbarium), Harris 57554 (NY), Lay 12- 0145, 12-0146 (NY), McMullin 13837, 13838 (CANL), Roy 12-5991-C (QFA). Notes: Previously unpublished Québec collections were made by Hinds 3910 (MAINE) and Roy 15-6073-C (QFA) (det. T. Spribille). †Naetrocymbe punctiformis (Pers.) R.C. Harris − Corticolous on Acer rubrum L. Mont Olivine: 2012 − Lendemer 32479 (NY). †Nesolechia oxyspora (Tul.) A. Massal. – Lichenicolous on Platismatia glauca. Mont Albert: 2013 – McMullin 11962 (CANL). Ochrolechia mahluensis Räsänen – Corticolous on Abies balsamea, Betula, and Picea. Terricolous and lignicolous on Picea and Thuja occidentalis. Mont Jacques-Cartier: 2012 − Harris 57616 (NY), Lendemer 32587, 32593 (NY). Mont Olivine: 2012 – Lendemer 32499, 32503 (NY). Mont Xalibu: 2012 – Lendemer 32732, 32750 (NY). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 − Harris 57637, 57644 (NY), Lendemer 32688 (NY). Notes: Previously unpublished Québec collections were made by Clayden 23098, 23107, 23155, 23327 (NBM). Palicella filamentosa (Stirt.) Rodr. Flakus & Printzen – Corticolous on Picea. Mont Logan: 2013 − Harris 58718 (NY). †Phaeopyxis punctum (A. Massal.) Rambold − Lichenicolous on Cladonia carneola (Fr.) Fr., C. ochrochlora Flörke, and C. pleurota (Flörke) Schaer. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Harris 57713 (NY). Mont Logan: 2013 – Harris 58715-A (NY). Mont Olivine: 2012 – Harris 57577, 57601 (NY). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Harris 57713 (NY). Polychidium muscicola (Sw.) Gray – Saxicolous. Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Anderson 1590727 (QFA). Notes: Previously unpublished Québec collections were made by Brodo 29436 (CANL), Roy 97-4020-C (QFA) (det. I. Brodo), and Lutzoni & Miadlikowska 07.01.03-10 (DUKE) (det. M. Kukwa). *†Polycoccum sporastatiae (Anzi) Arnold – Lichenicolous on Sporastatia polyspora (Nyl.) Grummann. Unnamed mountain west of Mont de la Table and east of Lac Dugué: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. Harris). Notes: The only known hosts are species of Sporostatia (Calatayud 2004). It occurs in Asia, Europe, and the U.S.A. (Calatayud 2004). This species is characterized by immersed perithecia that usually cause swelling of the host areoles, and by brown 2-celled ascospores that are 16–27 × 6–12 μm with unequal sized cells, lack a gelatinous sheath, and are verruculose (Calatayud 2004). Porpidia cf. contraponenda (Arnold) Hertel & Knoph − Saxicolous. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Buck 59711 (NY). Mont de la Table: 2014 − Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. R. Harris), Mont Olivine: 2012 - Roy-12-5922-C (QFA) (det. Clayden; Stet! Fryday). Notes: Previously unpublished Québec collections were Northeastern Naturalist 458 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 Vol. 24, No. 4 made by Hoy s.n. (NHA) and Shushan s.n. (COLO) (det. J.–G. Knoph). Preliminary molecular work has indicated that, in North America, P. contraponenda occurs only on the west coast and collections from the east are referable to another taxon, for which the correct name may be P. diversa (J. Lowe) Gowan. Protoparmelia cupreobadia (Nyl.) Poelt − Saxicolous. Mont Jacques Cartier: 2012 − Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Mont de la Table: 2014 − Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. Harris). Lac du Vieillard: 2014 − Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. R. Harris). Notes: A previously unpublished Québec collection was made by Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Protothelenella corrosa (Körb.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt − Saxicolous. Lac aux Américains: 2012 – Buck 59714 (NY), Lay 12-0076 (NY). Mont Albert: 2012 − McMullin 11969 (CANL). Mont Jacques-Cartier: 2012 – Buck 59631 (NY). Mont Olivine: 2012 – Gagnon 12-32.3 (QFA) (det. Harris), Lendemer 32525 (NY). Mont Xalibu: 2012 – Lendemer 32729 (NY). Rivière Sainte-Anne: − Lendemer 32716 (NY). Pseudocyphellaria aff. perpetua McCune & Miadl. – Saxicolous and corticolous on Abies balsamea and Thuja occidentalis. Le Petit Saut: 2013 – McMullin 12056 (OAC). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Lendemer 32667 (NY); 2013 – Mc- Mullin 9535 (OAC). Notes: Our nomenclature follows Moncada et al. (2014). They show that specimens collected in northeastern North America may be an undescribed taxon that is closely related to P. perpetua. Psilolechia clavulifera (Nyl.) Coppins – Corticolous on shaded roots. Mont Olivine: 2012 − Buck 59597 (NY). †Pyrenidium actinellum Nyl. – Lichenicolous on Baeomyces rufus (Huds.) Rebent. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Harris 57702 (NY). Rhizocarpon anaperum (Vain.) Vain. – Saxicolous. Mont Auclair: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Rhizocarpon intersitum Arnold – Saxicolous. Mont de la Table: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Rhizocarpon rubescens Th. Fr. – Saxicolous (white quartz). Mont Albert: 1981 – Sirois, Lutzoni 10576-L12 a (QFA) (det. A. Fryday); 2012 – Roy 12-5929-C (QFA) (ver. Clayden). Notes: Previous unpublished Québec collections were made by A. Vogg s.n. (F), Fabius 7802, 7810 (CANL) (det.P.Y. Wong), Roy 83- 391-C (QFA) (det. P.Y. Wong), and Bastien-819 (QFA). Rimularia limborina Nyl. – Saxicolous. Mont de la Table: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Notes: A previously unpublished Québec collection was made by Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Ropalospora viridis (Tønsberg) Tønsberg – Corticolous on Abies balsamea and Alnus. Mont Jacques-Cartier: 2012 – Lendemer 32628 (NY). Mont Olivine: 2012 – Lendemer 32477, 32544, 32547 (NY). Notes: Previously unpublished Québec collections were made by Lendemer 28166 (NY) and Shushan S-23076 (COLO) (det. J. Lendemer). †Sarea difformis (Fr.) Fr. – Resinicolous (Picea). Lac aux Américains: 2012 – Gagnon 12-43.4 (QFA) (det. Buck), Guccion 12-0078 (personal herbarium). Mont Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 24, No. 4 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 459 Olivine: 2012 – Lendemer 32533 (NY). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2017 – McMullin 18801 (CANL). Notes: A previously unpublished Québec collection was made by Buck 32385 (NY). †Sarea resinae (Fr.) Kuntze – Resinicolous on Picea and Pinus. Mont Albert: 2012 – McMullin 12020 (CANL). Mont Olivine: 2012 – Buck 59594 (NY), Lay 12- 0203 (NY), McMullin 13860 (CANL). *Scoliciosporum intrusum (Th. Fr.) Hafellner – Saxicolous. Mont de la Table: 2014. Gagnon s.n. (QFA). (det. A. Fryday). Notes: A previously unpublished Québec collection was made by Sirois & Lutzoni 10568-L6(2/3) (QFA). Scytinium gelatinosum (With.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin (syn. Leptogium gelatinosum (With.) J.R. Laundon) – Bryicolous. Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Anderson 1590700, 1590724 (QFA). Sporastatia polyspora (Nyl.) Grummann – Saxicolous. Unnamed mountain west of Mont de la Table and east of lac Dugué: Gagnon 14-87.31 (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Notes: A previously unpublished Québec collection was made by Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday and P.Y. Wong). Sporodictyon cruentum (Körb.) Körb. (syn. Polyblastia cruenta (Körb.) P. James & Swinscow) – Saxicolous. Lac Charles-Côté: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). *Stereocaulon leucophaeopsis (Nyl.) P. James & Purvis – Saxicolous. Unnamed peak ~1 km E of Mont les Cônes: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. A. Fryday). Notes – The only other report of this species in North America is from Mt. Washington, NH (Fryday 2010). It is a crustose species distinguished by continuous to scattered areoles that have darker centers and marginal soredia (Gilbert et al. 2009b). The thallus also contains atranorin and lobaric acid (K+ yellow, Pd–, UV+ white) and cephalodia and pseudopodetia are absent (Fryday 2010, Gilbert et al. 2009b). **†Taeniolella pertusariicola D.Hawksw. & H.Mayrhofer − Lichenicolous on Varicellaria rhodocarpa. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Harris 57694-A (NY). Notes: Previously known from Greenland and Sweden (Alstrup and Hawksworth 1990, Ihlen and Wedin 2008). Characterised by: dark scattered colonies on the thallus and apothecia of the host; pale brown mycelium with continuous septa; dark brown conidiophores in caespitose tufts that are erect, usually unbranched, distinctly verrucose, and 10–30 × 6–8 μm; and ornamented dark brown conidia that are thick-walled, 2–4-celled, slightly constricted at the septa, and are 11–13 (–16) × 5.5–7(–7.5) um (Alstrup and Hawksworth 1990). Trapeliopsis gelatinosa (Flörke) Coppins & P. James – Terricolous. Mont Olivine: 2012 – Lay 12-0162 (NY) (ver. Lendemer). Notes: A previously unpublished Québec collection was made by Lendemer 28346 (NY). †Tremella cladoniae Diederich & M.S.Christ. – Lichenicolous on Cladonia ochrochlora. Le Petit Saut: 2013 – Harris 58650 (NY). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 – Harris 57650 (NY). **Varicellaria lactea (L.) Schmitt & Lumbsch – Saxicolous. Mont de la Table: 2014 – Gagnon s.n. (QFA) (det. R. Harris, A. Fryday); 2017 – McMullin Northeastern Naturalist 460 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 Vol. 24, No. 4 18800 (CANL). Notes: Previously known from Europe and Asia (Chambers et al. 2009), an unpublished Québec collection made by Nuyt 9369 (QFA) (det. Lutzoni), and unpublished reports from British Columbia by C. Björk (see images on the Ways of Enlichenment Photo Gallery under Pertusaria lactea (L.) Arnold; http://www.waysofenlichenment.net). Characterized by a grey-white areolate thallus (areoles less than 0.8 mm in diam.) on rocks with hemispherical soralia that are C+ red (lecanoric and variolaric acid) and often have a thalline collar (Chambers et al. 2009). Verrucaria denudata Zschacke − Saxicolous on submerged rock in a stream. Mont Jacques-Cartier: 2012 − Buck 59634 (NY). Verrucaria viridula (Schrad.) Ach. – Saxicolous. Mont Albert: Gagnon 14-71.7 (QFA) (det. Fryday). Notes: Previously unpublished Québec collections were made by Sirois & Lutzoni 10563-L3(1/2), 10567-L1(3/3), 10595-L6(1/3), 10613-L18(1/1), 10620 (all are at QFA and were det. by P.Y. Wong). Violella fucata (Stirt.) T. Sprib.− Corticolous on Abies balsamea, Betula alleghaniensis, and Thuja occidentalis. Lignicolous on an Abies balsamea snag. Mont Albert: 2012 – McMullin 12025, 12027 (CANL). Mont Olivine: 2012 − Clayden 23149 (NBM). Rivière Sainte-Anne: 2012 − Lendemer 32657 (NY). Xanthoparmelia hypofusca (Gyeln.) Hodkinson & Lendemer – Saxicolous. Rivière Sainte-Anne: − Harris 57680 (NY). Xylographa soralifera Holien & Tønsberg – Lignicolous on a conifer. Lac aux Américains: 2012 − Harris 57712 (NY). Xylographa trunciseda (Th. Fr.) Minks ex Redinger – Lignicolous on Thuja occidentalis. Mont Olivine: 2012 – Buck 59615, 59616, 59684 (NY), Lendemer 32531 (NY). Discussion Parc national de la Gaspésie is an area of high conservation value because of its rich biota. However, it is also an area of interest because of the large number of rare, endemic, and disjunct populations of vascular plants (Fernald 1925, Rune 1954, Scoggan 1950,), bryophytes (Belland 1987a, 1987b, 2015), and lichens (Buck and Lendemer 2012, Dodge 1926, Macoun 1902, Allen and McMullin 2015, McMullin and Dorin 2016, McMullin et al. 2014, Sirois et al. 1988). In addition to the lichens and allied fungi reported here, other notable species from our field work that have already been reported include: Chaenotheca balsamconensis J.L. Allen & McMullin, a new record for Québec (Allen and McMullin 2015); Hypogymnia pulverata (Nyl. ex Crombie) Elix, a large range extension (~1000 km) for this rare species in North America (McMullin et al. 2014); Puttea margaritella (Hulting) S. Stenroos & Huhtinen, a new record for eastern North America (Buck and Lendemer 2012); and 15 Arctic-alpine species that reach their southern range limit in eastern North America in PNG, many of which are not known to occur for >1000 km north of the park (McMullin and Dorin 2015). The rich and unusual lichen biota in the park is likely due to its wide range of habitats and substrata. Many lichen species are restricted to broad bioclimatic Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 24, No. 4 R.T. McMullin, et al. 2017 461 regions such as arctic and alpine, boreal, and temperate (Brodo et al. 2001; Gowan and Brodo 1988; Thomson 1984, 1997), and all these occur in PNG because of its latitude and range in elevation. More specifically, some species are restricted to different mesohabitats such as bogs, swamps, old-growth forests, waterfalls and spray zones, or close proximity to the ocean (Brodo et al. 2001, Nash, 2008, Smith et al. 2009), all of which also occur in the park. PNG is somewhat of a refuge for old-growth forests. The mountainous terrain and lack of roads historically made many areas of the park inaccessible to industrial timber harvesting, thus some original-growth forests remain. Old-growth forests are particularly well known for being the habitat for rich and unique lichen communities (Lesica et al. 1991, McMullin et al. 2008, Selva 2003). These same variables are also likely responsible for making the Great Smoky Mountains (GSM) rich with lichens, and many other organisms (Lendemer et al. 2013). However, GSM also includes tropical lichens and a much broader range of temperate species, resulting in one of the most species-rich lichen biota in North America (J. Lendemer and E. Tripp, unpubl. data; Lendemer et al. 2013). Conservation of the lichens in PNG appears secure under the protection of the park and Réserve écologique Fernald. Extensive timber harvesting and mining around these protected areas, however, could cause an island effect, leaving the areas that are not disturbed to serve as refugia for biodiversity in the region, which has already happened with Rangifer tarandus caribou Gmelin (Woodland Caribou) in the park (Ouellet et al. 1996). This population, the “Atlantic (Gaspésie) Population”, is federally listed as endangered by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (Thomas and Gray 2002). It is the last remnant of their historical range south of the Saint Lawrence River, which included all the Maritime Provinces, southern Québec, and northern parts of New England (Ouellet et al. 1996, Thomas and Gray 2002). The small population of Woodland Caribou in PNG continues to decline at present (Morin 2016). Detecting declines or other changes in the lichen biota in PNG cannot currently be done because of a lack of baseline data, which we are developing. The large number of new provincial, national, and continental records that we report here are from a small portion of PNG. Many areas and habitats within the park remain unexplored. We suspect that additional records of interest might be discovered with continued search effort. Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge: the staff at parc national de la Gaspésie for providing collection permits and identification space; participants of the Crum and Tuckerman Workshops; herbarium staff at CANL, FH, and QFA for providing access to their collections and sending specimens on loan; Friends of the Farlow for financial support for T. McMullin to visit FH and examine historical collections from the park; the Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec for permitting J. Gagnon to participate in their 2014 rare plant survey; 2 anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on the manuscript; and in-kind support from the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario Herbarium. 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