Influence of a Large-scale Removal of an Invasive Plant
(Melaleuca quinquenervia) on Home-range Size and Habitat
Selection by Female Florida Panthers (Puma concolor coryi)
within Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida
Paul Julian II, Edwin M. Everham III, and Martin B. Main
Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 11, Issue 2 (2012): 337–348
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2012 SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST 11(2):337–348
Influence of a Large-scale Removal of an Invasive Plant
(Melaleuca quinquenervia) on Home-range Size and Habitat
Selection by Female Florida Panthers (Puma concolor coryi)
within Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida
Paul Julian II1,2,*, Edwin M. Everham III1, and Martin B. Main3
Abstract - The control of invasive exotic plants is often deemed important for managing
native wildlife, but surprisingly little research exists that evaluates benefits to
wildlife, including species of conservation concern. Melaleuca quinquenervia (Melaleuca)
is an invasive, non-native, broad-leaved tree that aggressively displaces native
plant communities in south Florida. We used land-cover maps to document changes
in plant communities and radio-telemetry data to compare habitat selection and mean
home-range size of the endangered Puma concolor coryi (Florida Panther) within Big
Cypress National Preserve (BCNP) during a Melaleuca removal project’s removal
phase (1991–1997) and the ensuing maintenance and habitat recovery phase (1998–
2006). During the removal phase, Panthers incorporated areas infested by Melaleuca
as components of their home range. Following >99.9% removal of Melaleuca, we
documented pronounced increases in total cover of native upland forest (227%),
wetland forest (211%), and prairie (54%) communities. During the habitat recovery
phase, Panther habitat selection in the study area included significantly more upland
forest within home-range core areas, and mean home-range size contracted by 16%.
However, similar reductions in mean home-range size were not observed during the
same time period for the regional population of radio-collared Panthers occupying
contiguous conservation lands in south Florida. Although our findings are correlational
and do not demonstrate cause and effect, the increase in native plant community
cover, the increased use of native plant communities by Panthers, and the reduction in
mean home-range size following the removal of Melaleuca are consistent with what
would be expected if improvements in habitat quality reduced Panther home-range
size requirements. Restoration of native plant communities and particularly native
forest types, therefore, may have improved habitat quality for the Florida Panther
and resulted in smaller home-range sizes and a potential increase in carrying capacity
Puma concolor coryi Bangs (Florida Panther) is listed as endangered under
the United States Endangered Species Act, and population declines have been
attributed to a combination of factors (US Fish and Wildlife Service 2008). Loss
1Florida Gulf Coast University, Department of Marine and Ecological Sciences, 10501
FGCU Boulevard South, Ft. Myers, fl33965. 2Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, Office of Ecosystem Projects, 3900 Commonwealth Boulevard, Tallahassee,
fl32399. 3University of Florida, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation,
2685 SR 29 Nth, Immokalee, fl34142. *Corresponding author - firstname.lastname@example.org.
fl.us , email@example.com.
338 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 11, No. 2
and fragmentation of habitat and unregulated killing over the past two centuries
have reduced and isolated populations to extreme south Florida, where the population
was estimated at 30–50 adults in 1990. More recent estimates indicate an
increase in the Panther population to approximately 117 adults and semi-adults
(McBride et al. 2008).
In addition to habitat loss resulting from anthropogenic land-use changes, invasive
non-native plants may also degrade habitat and reduce habitat availability
(Rayamajhi et al. 2007, Turner et al. 1998, Wilcove et al. 1998). In south Florida,
Melaleuca quinquenervia Blake (Melaleuca) is an invasive, non-native tree of
concern due to dense stand formation, its ability to outcompete native plants, and
its hypothesized impacts upon wildlife habitat (Rayamajhi et al. 2007). The effect
of invasive plants, including Melaleuca, on Panther habitat use is unknown
(US Fish and Wildlife Service 2008), but may be important because poor habitat
quality has been associated with larger home-range sizes and reduced carrying
capacity (Swihart et al. 1988). Additionally, the Florida Panther is a wide-ranging
and territorial predator whose major limitations to recovery include the availability
of suitable habitat (US Fish and Wildlife Service 2008).
Studies documenting use of Melaleuca-infested areas by wildlife in Florida
report that Melaleuca forests create dense canopies with an absent or sparse
herbaceous understudy that provides limited food and habitat value for native
wildlife, and have the potential to reduce indices of native species in Florida
wetlands by as much as 80% (Bodle et al. 1994, Dray et al. 2006, O’Hare and
Dalrymple 1997, Porazinska et al. 2007). Even where Melaleuca invasion of herbaceous
wetlands increased structural diversity and species richness of avifauna,
abundance of many species was lower in Melaleuca than in native wetland forest
communities (O’Hare and Dalrymple 1997). Although the effects of Melaleuca
displacing native vegetation is well documented, information documenting the
response of native wildlife to Melaleuca infestation is scarce, and documentation
of the response of Melaleuca removal and recovery of native plant communities
is non-existent (Craven 2010).
During 1991–2006, the Big Cypress National Preserve undertook a landscape-
scale Melaleuca-removal project that included an active removal phase
(1991–1997) followed by a period of maintenance removal and habitat recovery
(1998–2006) at a cost of approximately $4.5 million (J. Burch, Big Cypress National
Preserve, Ochopee, FL, unpubl. data). The objectives of this study were
to document recovery of native plant communities and subsequent changes in
habitat use patterns and mean home-range size of the Florida Panther following
removal of Melaleuca at BCNP.
The BCNP (Fig. 1) is located in extreme south Florida and covers 2940 km2
of flat, swampy areas that merge into coastal marsh and mangrove swamps. The
ecology of this region is water dependent and is rich in biota (Klein et al. 1970).
The BCNP encompasses almost half of a unique water-dependent ecosystem
2012 P. Julian II, E.M. Everham III, and M.B. Main 339
called the Big Cypress Swamp. Unlike the Everglades, it is still a relatively
pristine wetland system, with little hydrologic modification. Nearly 80% of the
rain normally falls during the six-month wet season of May through October and
averages 135 cm per year (Schneider et al. 1996). Melaleuca was introduced into
BCNP in the mid-1940s and spread unchecked, primarily by wind dispersal, until
the establishment of the invasive plant control program within the preserve in
1984 (Laroche 1999). According to land-use maps produced by the South Florida
Water Management District (SFWMD) in 1990, approximately 57.6% (1700.7
km2) of the preserve was infested with stands of Melaleuca. BCNP has since
instituted an intensive invasive plant removal program (J. Burch, unpubl. data)
targeting priority exotics such as Melaleuca, Lygodium spp. (old-world climbing
fern), Casuarina equisetefolia L. (Australian Pine) , and Schinus terebinthifolius
Raddi (Brazilian Pepper). Melaleuca removal peaked during the mid- to late-
1990s, and the species was reported to be eradicated from BCNP in 2006.
We grouped landscape cover into five habitat classifications based on landcover/
land-use data from the Florida Land Use and Cover Classification System
(FLUCCS) for 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2004 (SFWMD 2010). The five landcover
classifications were upland forest, wetland forest, Melaleuca, prairie, and
anthropogenic land use. Reclassification of similar land-cover types (e.g., Taxodium
spp. [cypress species] and cypress-mixed hardwoods) into five land-cover
Figure 1. The study area at Big Cypress National Preserve, which is located in southwestern
Florida, covers 2940 km2, and encompasses the core of the Florida Panther’s primary
range. Primary range indicated by dark shaded grey, secondary range shown as light
shaded grey (Kautz et al. 2006).
340 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 11, No. 2
categories was based on function and form of these communities and deemed more
ecologically meaningful for a wide-ranging species such as the Florida Panther.
The upland forested habitat classification includes forests dominated by a
mixture of hardwood trees, Pinus elliottii Engelm (Slash Pine), and Sabal palmetto
Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Cabbage Palm) with a Serenoa repens Small
(Saw Palmetto) understory. Wetland forest habitat typically included species
such as cypress and other hardwood species adapted to prolonged hydroperiods.
Prairie habitat was dominated by a diverse herbaceous community of grasses
and sedges, with Cladium jamaicense Cranz (Sawgrass) and Typha spp. (cattail
species) dominating in areas with longer hydroperiods. Anthropogenic habitat
delineated as pastures in private inholdings represented a minor component
(less than 1.0% cover) of the landscape and were grouped as prairie habitat due to similar
habitat structure. All prairie habitat within BCNP is seasonally influenced by
hydrology, particularly during the dry season. Melaleuca cover was specifically
classified in FLUCCS (FLUCCS Code 4240) and included Melaleuca infestation
in both upland and wetland areas. Water classifications contained lakes, natural
drainages, and canals, but for the purpose of analysis were combined with prairie
due to proximity and low percent cover (less than 0.5% cover) in the study area. Anthropogenic
land-use classification included roads, human-built structures, and
non-pasture agriculture such as row crops and citrus, but this classification was
excluded from analysis because this land-use type only occurred on the periphery
of BCNP, was included in the home ranges of only two Panthers during two
separate years (2000 and 2005), and was calculated to represent less than 1% of those
Panther home ranges (0.9% and 0.7%, respectively).
We evaluated changes in percent habitat cover following Melaleuca removal
with a change analysis using the ArcGIS Proximity Analysis Union Tool. To
quantify changes in percent habitat cover we used available land-cover data that
bracketed the study (SFWMD 2010) and were from 1990 (intensive removal
phase, defined as time point one) and 2004 (maintenance removal and habitat
recovery phase, defined as time point two).
Florida Panther habitat use and home range size
We documented Panther habitat use and home-range size during 1991–2006
using radio telemetry data obtained from the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission (FWC) in conjunction with land-use maps reclassified as
described for the purpose of habitat analysis. Telemetry locations used in analyses
were collected in a standardized manner from fixed-wing aircraft by FWC and
National Park staff between the hours of 0600–1000, and telemetry error associated
with Panther locations has been reported to range from 77–230 m (Belden
et al. 1988, Dees et al. 2001, Janis and Clark 2002).
We used telemetry locations from 13 individuals that included 12 female
Florida Panthers, and one intentionally introduced female Puma concolor stanleyana
Goldman (Texas Cougar; Johnson et al. 2010), which we also refer to as
a Panther, during the period 1991–2006 to evaluate changes in habitat use and
home-range size for Panthers within BCNP. We restricted our comparisons of
2012 P. Julian II, E.M. Everham III, and M.B. Main 341
changes in Panther home-range size during the Melaleuca removal and recovery
phases to female Panthers living exclusively within the BCNP study area and did
not include males because of small sample size (n = 1 during removal phase, n = 2
during recovery phase) and the lack of multiyear data on collared males during
the recovery phase.
Our comparison of mean home-range size for the regional Panther population
during Melaleuca removal and recovery included both males and females
and was used to evaluate whether the mean Panther home-range for the regional
population changed over time in response to increasing Panther population density
in south Florida (McBride et al. 2008). We included males in this analysis
because they are an integral part of the home-range processes, with male home
ranges often overlapping multiple female home ranges, and the minimum Panther
count did not distinguish between sexes. Only Panthers (male and female)
with a minimum of 69 locations were included in analyses. Minimum telemetry
data requirements were established due to the natural breaks in the data and the
sufficiency of the lower limit to adequately estimate Panther home ranges (i.e.,
greater than one telemetry point per week for 52 weeks.). Annual home ranges
were determined by the 95% fixed kernel (FK) and 50% FK methods (Seaman
and Powell 1996, Worton 1987) using ArcGIS and Hawth’s Tools (Beyer 2004,
Environmental Science Research Institute 2009). The kernel-smoothing parameter
was selected by using the reference band-width (href) method (Seaman and
We evaluated habitat use versus habitat availability with a Manly selection
index (Manly et al. 2002). The Manly selection index produces a resource
selection function (RSF) proportional to the probability of use and provides
a maximum likelihood estimate based on the proportion of utilized to available
habitat. Although the utility of RSFs in habitat-selection studies has been
questioned (Keating and Cherry 2004), the response by Johnson et al. (2006)
demonstrated that RSFs can provide valid information on habitat selection and
that use versus availability studies are often the most appropriate design for
understanding wildlife-habitat relationships, particularly for mobile species.
For analysis, the chronological time line was divided into two periods. These
included the intensive Melaleuca-removal phase (1991–1997), during which the
majority of Melaleuca was removed from BCNP, and the maintenance removal
and habitat recovery phase (1998–2006) (J. Burch, unpubl. data.). We used analysis
of variance (ANOVA) to compare Manly selection indices for the four habitat
classifications (upland forest, wetland forest, Melaleuca, and prairie) within the
two defined time periods. A square root transformation was applied as Manly
selection indices were non-normally distributed for individual habitat selection
within home ranges (Zar 2008). To detect differences among means, we used
Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference (Tukey HSD).
We compared mean home-range size between the Melaleuca removal and
habitat recovery periods for 95% and 50% FK home range areas with the
342 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 11, No. 2
non-parametric Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis test. We evaluated the effect of population
density on home-range size with linear regression using mean regional
annual home-range size and annual minimum count data (McBride et al. 2008).
Linear regression was also utilized to assess both regional and BCNP mean annual
home ranges between 1991 and 2006. All statistical operations were performed
with JMP® (Ver 7.0.4, SAS, Cary, NC). The critical level of significance was set
at α = 0.05.
Changes in habitat and Florida Panther habitat selection
During the 15-year period of Melaleuca removal and control on BCNP, 1701
km2 of Melaleuca were cleared and >99% of Melaleuca was reported removed
from the preserve (J. Burch, unpubl. data). The removal of Melaleuca enabled
native plant communities to recover, and total cover of native upland forest,
wetland forest, and prairie plant communities increased by nearly 500% between
1990 and 2004. Wetland forest and upland forest types had the greatest increases
(211% and 227%, respectively), and total native prairie cover increased by 54%.
Absolute changes in total cover were greatest for native wetland forest, which
increased by 1295 km2 (41% of BCNP), followed by prairie 380 km2 (13% of
BCNP), and upland forest increased cover by 123 km2 (3% of BCNP). Anthropogenic
land cover represented <1% of total cover on BCNP during 1990 (26 km2),
and that cover declined to less than half that amount by 2004 (11 km2).
Habitat use by Panthers within their 95% FK home-range areas differed
among the different habitat types during both the Melaleuca removal (F = 8.84,
df = 3, P < 0.01) and maintenance removal and habitat recovery period (F =
121.52, df = 2, P < 0.01). During the period of intensive Melaleuca removal,
Panther use of upland forest, wetland forest, and areas infested by Melaleuca
did not differ statistically. Prairie was used significantly less than either upland
Table 1. Habitat selection by female Florida Panthers (n = 13) for 95% and 50% fixed-kernal (FK)
home-range areas as measured by mean Manly selection indices during intensive (1991–1997) and
maintenance (1998–2006) Melaleuca removal periods. Statistical comparisons evaluated using
Tukey-Kramer HSD tests.
Intensive removal (1991–1997) Maintenance removal (1998–2006)
Habitat Mean SE Tukey HSD Mean SE Tukey HSD
95% FK habitat selection
Melaleuca 0.37 0.06 A B 0.00 0.00 -
Prairie 0.20 0.04 B 0.15 0.01 C
Upland forest 0.52 0.04 A 0.54 0.02 A
Wetland forest 0.36 0.04 A 0.32 0.02 B
50% FK habitat selection
Melaleuca 0.37 0.05 AB 0.00 0.00 -
Prairie 0.26 0.04 B 0.26 0.03 B
Upland forest 0.47 0.03 A 0.54 0.04 A
Wetland forest 0.39 0.04 A 0.48 0.04 A
2012 P. Julian II, E.M. Everham III, and M.B. Main 343
or wetland forest, but was similar to the use of Melaleuca (Table 1). During the
maintenance removal and habitat recovery period, habitat selection within 95%
FK home-range areas differed significantly among habitat types, with upland forest
being preferred over wetland forest, which was preferred over prairie habitat.
Melaleuca, which was greatly reduced, was not selected by Panthers during the
maintenance removal and habitat recovery phase (Table 1).
We found similar patterns of habitat use within each time period for the 50%
FK home-range core areas, except Melaleuca was a least preferred habitat type
within Panther home-range core areas. Habitat use by Panthers within 50% FK
core areas differed among the different habitat types during both the intensive
removal period (F = 5.24, df = 3, P < 0.01) and the maintenance removal and
habitat recovery period (F = 18.06, df = 2, P < 0.01). During the intensive removal
period, habitat selection of upland forest and wetland forest were similar
and significantly greater than prairie, and selection for Melaleuca was similar to
prairie (Table 1). During the maintenance removal and habitat recovery period,
habitat selection of upland forest and wetland forest were similar and signifi-
cantly greater than prairie, and Melaleuca was not selected (Table 1).
Florida Panther home-range size
Annual mean home-range (95% FK) size for female Panthers living in the
BCNP study area declined by 16% between the 1991–1997 period of intensive
Melaleuca removal and the 1998–2006 maintenance removal and habitat recovery
period, and this change was statistically significant (χ2 = 17.37, df = 1, P <
0.01). In absolute terms, the 95% FK home-range size for Panthers averaged
115.5 km2 ± 6.6 (n = 13) during the intensive Melaleuca-removal period and 99.5
km2 ± 4.3 (n = 37) during the maintenance removal and habitat recovery period.
Mean core home-range size (50% FK) for female Panthers on BCNP did not differ
significantly (χ2 = 3.09, df = 1, P = 0.08) between the intensive removal (26.1
km2 ± 2.2, n = 13) and maintenance removal and habitat recovery (24.7 km2 ±
1.5, n = 37) phases.
Mean annual home-range size for the regional Panther population did not
undergo the same reductions in size over time as were observed for the female
Panthers on BCNP (BCNP: F=119.5, df = 14, P < 0.01, R2 = 0.46; Regional:
F=1.57, df = 14, P = 0.23, R2 = 0.10; Fig. 2). Instead, the mean annual homerange
size for the regional Panther population changed little during the study time
frame. Although the regional Panther population increased during the time frame
of this study (McBride et al. 2008), we found no significant relationship between
annual Panther population size and mean annual home-range size for the regional
population (F = 3.13, df = 17, P = 0.10, R2 = 0.16).
The removal of Melaleuca infesting approximately 1701 km2 (57.6% of the
land area) on BCNP resulted in the recovery of native plant communities on a
landscape scale, with native plant community cover increasing by approximately
500%. The greatest increase in cover was observed for wetland forest, but large
344 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 11, No. 2
increases in upland forest and prairie cover were also documented, all of which are
used by native wildlife including important prey species for the Florida Panther
such as Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann (White-tailed Deer) and Sus scrofa
L. (Feral Hog) (Maehr et al. 1990). Although there is no published data on the value
of Melaleuca as foraging habitat to White-tailed Deer and Feral Hogs, herbaceous
understory vegetation is typically sparse in stands of Melaleuca, and Melaleuca is
reported to be herbivore adapted and to provide limited food and habitat value for
native wildlife (Craven 2010). Consequently, Melaleuca control efforts on BCNP
were successful in restoring native plant communities and, presumably, improving
habitat for native wildlife, including the Florida Panther, for which these cover
types have been described as critical habitat (Belden et al. 1988, Benson et al.
2008, Cox et al. 2006, Kautz et al. 2006).
Following the intensive Melaleuca-removal phase and during the maintenance
removal and habitat recovery phase on BCNP, changes were documented both in
patterns of habitat use and mean home-range size among radio-collared female
Panthers in the study area. Following Melaleuca removal, Panthers selected
upland forest and wetland forest equally above all other cover types. Melaleuca
was not selected for during the maintenance removal and habitat recovery phase
although it still remained in the system. Interestingly, the changes observed in
habitat use by Panthers on BCNP were only documented in the 95% FK homerange
areas, not in the 50% FK core home-range areas. This result was because
Figure 2. Florida Panther mean annual home-range size (95% fixed kernel) for radio
collared female Florida Panthers on the Big Cypress National Preserve (BCNP) and
for the entire south Florida regional Panther population (males and females) during the
Melaleuca removal phase (1991–1997) and habitat recovery phase (1998–2006). The
average number of radio collared Panthers per year for the BCNP and regional Panther
populations during 1991–1997 and 1998–2006 were 1.9 and 23.9, and 4.1 and 33.4,
2012 P. Julian II, E.M. Everham III, and M.B. Main 345
upland forest and wetland forest were preferred habitat types in Panther core
home-range areas during both the intensive Melaleuca-removal phase and the
habitat recovery phase, whereas Melaleuca was a least preferred habitat type
during both phases. Consequently, Panthers used native habitats to a greater
extent following Melaleuca removal, which is both consistent with the habitat
preferences demonstrated for core home-range areas and intuitive because native
habitats were more available on the landscape and are thought to provide better
habitat for important prey species.
The reduction in mean home-range size observed for Panthers on BCNP
following the intensive Melaleuca-removal period is a correlational result and
does not demonstrate cause and effect as might be provided by an experimental
design. Consequently, it is not possible to rule out other potential causes for the
observed changes in Panther home-range size following Melaleuca removal on
BCNP. Having acknowledged this possibility, circumstantial evidence suggests
that improvements in habitat quality may have resulted in reduced home-range
requirements for the female Panthers living in the study area.
First, the 16% reduction observed in mean home-range size following the Melaleuca-
removal phase was only evident for the 95% FK home-range areas, not the
50% FK core home-range areas. This finding seems logical because core homerange
areas are assumed to represent the highest quality habitat within a
home range and, consistent with this explanation, Panthers selected upland and
wetland forest types significantly more than Melaleuca in core areas during the
Melaleuca-removal phase. Consequently, there would be little reason to anticipate
significant changes in core home-range sizes because Melaleuca removal had little
effect on habitat selection within the Panther core home-range areas.
Secondly, similar reductions in mean home-range size were not observed for
the regional population of radio collared Panthers over the same time period
(Fig. 2). This is an important finding because Panther populations have steadily
increased since the genetic introgression of female pumas from Texas in 1995,
which resulted in a steady increase in the regional Panther population during the
study time frame (Hostetler et al 2010, McBride et al. 2008, Pimm et al. 2006).
Some studies have suggested that home-range dynamics may also be a densitydependent
phenomenon (Clutton-Brock et al. 1987, Saether 1997), which might
explain the reduction in home-range size for the Panthers on BCNP. However,
if increasing Panther density caused home-range size to decrease on BCNP, it
seems reasonable to expect reductions in annual mean home-range size would
also have occurred among Panthers in the regional population, but no reduction
in home-range size in the regional population occurred (Fig. 2). Additionally,
Florida Panther home-range expansion or contraction is not believed to be a density-
dependent process at the current population size (D. Onorato, Florida Fish
and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Naples, FL, upubl. data). Whereas mean
annual home-range size for the regional Panther population changed little over
the study time frame, a distinct reduction in mean annual home-range size for female
Panthers in the study area occurred following the Melaleuca-removal phase.
These findings are correlational but are consistent with what would be expected if
346 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 11, No. 2
improvements in habitat quality reduced home-range size requirements (Fig. 2).
Note that mean annual home-range size for both Panthers on BCNP and in the
regional Panther population decreased dramatically during 1995. Although again
correlational, changes in home-range size during 1995 may have been influenced
by restricted Panther movements in response to extreme flood conditions
in BCNP and the greater Everglades ecosystem that began with Tropical Storm
Gordon (November 1994) and was exacerbated by the highest annual rainfall on
record during 1995 (for the period 1970–2011; R. Sobczak, Big Cypress National
Preserve, Ochopee, FL, unpubl. data.).
Our results quantified an increase in native plant communities in response to
removal of Melaleuca, including wetland forest and upland forest types reported
as critical habitats for the Florida Panther. These habitat types are also important
for native wildlife including White-tailed Deer, which has been reported
to constitute 40–50% of the Panther’s diet (Maehr et al. 1990). Reduced homerange
size has been reported as a response to increased habitat quality for other
species (Braunisch and Suschant 2008, Whitaker et al. 2007), and is often correlated
to time and energy costs involved in securing requisite resources (Powell
2000, Whitaker et al. 2007). Our results, although correlational, are consistent
with these findings and suggest that the recovery of native plant communities
on BCNP following removal of Melaleuca may have improved habitat quality
for the Florida Panther, which resulted in smaller home-range requirements and
increased carrying capacity. These results also illustrate the need to establish
wildlife-monitoring programs at the initiation of exotic-plant control programs
to more effectively document wildlife response to management actions.
We thank Big Cypress National Preserve for assistance with this project, including
providing Melaleuca removal data. We thank Dave Onorato and Darrell Land with
the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission for providing Panther telemetry
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