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2006 SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST 5(3):499–514
Vegetative Survey of Wetland Habitats at
Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve in
Lauren E. Nolfo-Clements*
Abstract - I conducted a vegetative survey of the wetland habitats at Jean Lafitte
National Historical Park and Preserve (JLNHPP) - Barataria Unit. Although wetland
habitats make up over 65% of the total park area, there has never been a thorough
vegetative survey of this portion of the preserve. Three main habitats were identified:
freshwater floating marsh, spoil banks, and waterways. The floating-marsh habitat
was further divided into three different community types: thick mat, thin mat, and
wax-myrtle thicket. The thick-mat community encompasses four vegetative associations
characterized by their dominant species. These are the Sagittaria lancifolia,
Typha spp., Schoenoplectus americanus, and Spartina spp. associations. Overall, I
identified 168 species in 113 genera in 60 families. Of these, 47 species had never
been recorded in the area now encompassed by JLNHPP, and 27 species had not
previously been recorded in Jefferson Parish, LA. The three most prevalent families
were Cyperaceae (29 species), Poaceae (24 species) and Asteraceae (16 species).
This plant survey was conducted as part of a larger project aimed at
characterizing the habitat selection of Myocastor coypus (Molina) (nutria).
Since those aquatic mammals are found in nearly all marshy areas of Jean
Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve - Barataria Unit (JLNHPP), an
effort was made to become familiar with the wetland plants of the marsh and
the surrounding wetland habitats. Additionally, there had never been a
vegetative survey aimed at examining the characteristics and discreet plant
communities present in the wetlands of JLNHPP. In fact, one of the most
startling characteristics of this wetland is the prevalence of freshwater floating
marsh. This habitat type, although widespread in the park, has not
undergone much scrutiny in the past.
Floating marshes are found throughout the world, including in the
Danube River delta in Romania, the Amazon Basin in South America, the
Netherlands, Australia, Canada, Hawaii, Florida, Georgia, Arkansas, and
numerous water bodies in Africa (Sasser et al. 1994). These floating mats of
vegetation form on top of peat and muck, three to six meters above subsiding
silts and clays deposited by rivers (Chabreck 1988). Sasser and colleagues
described the floating marshes of Louisiana (Sasser 1994; Sasser et al. 1994,
1995; Visser et al. 1998, 2000). Although the marshes of JLNHPP resemble
*Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Tulane University, 310
Dinwiddie Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118. Current address - The Humane Society of
the United States, Wildlife and Habitat Protection, 700 Professional Drive,
Gaithersburg, MD 20879; email@example.com.
500 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 3
those described in the past, many of the species assemblages found there
appear to be unique.
Vegetative surveys of the area now encompassed by JLNHPP have been
conducted previously, yet these are sparse and often incomplete. Penfound
and Hathaway (1938) conducted a survey of plant communities in Louisiana
marshes, but did not give exact locations of their study sites. The Bayou
Villars transect they describe is roughly located in what is now part of
JLNHPP. Therefore, the plant lists and habitat descriptions generated from
that 1938 survey are considered comparable to this study.
White et al. (1983) conducted a survey of all plant communities of
JLNHPP soon after its establishment in 1978. That survey included
bottomland hardwood forests, swamps, marshes, canals, and disturbed
communities. Yet, a close examination of their list revealed that many of
the species characteristic of the floating-marsh habitat are absent, especially
those found in association with wax-myrtle thickets and certain
Conner et al. (1986) published a floristic survey of the known plant
species found in the wetlands of the Barataria Basin, LA, an area directly
adjacent to JLNHPP. Their list includes species they collected as well as
species recorded previously in the literature for that area. That survey
encompassed not only fresh-, brackish-, and salt-water marshes, but also
bottomland hardwoods, swamps, and disturbed areas.
An aspect of the present survey that sets it apart from previous work on
the floating marshes of Louisiana and their associated wetland habitats is
that careful attention was paid in noting non-native species. Introduced
species are present throughout the wetland habitats of JLNHPP. Although
some of the non-native species recorded have been established in this area
for nearly a century or more, such as Alternanthera philoxeroides (Jipsen
1995) and Eichhornia crassipes (Center et al. 2005), others are relatively
new introductions, such as Hydrilla verticillata (Colon-Gaud et al. 2004)
and Salvinia minima (Madeira et al. 2003).
Additionally, the floating wax-myrtle thicket community, despite its
mention in previous works, has hitherto not been described in detail. Moreover,
many of the understory species found in the wax-myrtle thickets of the
park have not been previously recorded in association with these shrubs.
Therefore, the primary focus of this survey was to evaluate the wetland area
of JLNHPP for overall species composition and habitat types, while noting
the presence of non-native species.
This study was conducted in the Barataria Unit of Jean Lafitte National
Historical Park and Preserve, located about 24 km south of New
Orleans in Jefferson Parish, LA. The wetland habitats of the park make
up about 4900 hectares of the total park area of approximately 7500
hectares (D.P. Muth, JLNHPP, pers. comm.). The climate is subtropical
2006 L.E. Nolfo 501
with annual rainfall exceeding 160 cm and mean annual temperature of
21 °C (summer average of 28.5 °C, winter average of 12.2 °C). The
growing season typically exceeds 260 days. The study site is at or slightly
below sea level (White et al. 1983).
The wetland habitats of the park include three types of floating-marsh,
spoil-banks, and open-water habitats. The floating-marsh habitats roughly
coincide with types I–V thick- and thin-mat fresh floating marsh, as characterized
by Sasser (1994). These habitats are nearly devoid of woody vegetation
except for patches of Morella cerifera (Myrica cerifera) distributed across the
marsh. Canals that were dug primarily for oil and gas exploration provide
access to the marsh. These canals are lined by spoil banks that were constructed
from the sediments excavated in the digging of the canals. Woody
vegetation dominates this habitat type, in contrast to the herbaceous species
that dominate the surrounding canal and marsh communities. Smaller bodies
of water that traverse open expanses of marsh are referred to as trenasses,
French-Acadian for “trail on the marsh.” These waterways are trappers’
ditches, dug by trappers as routes for laying trap lines (D.P. Muth, JLNHPP,
pers. comm.). Trenasses average 2–3 meters wide and are usually completely
covered with aquatic vegetation during the growing season.
All plant samples were collected either along transects extending up to
450 meters into the open marsh, or from locations within or adjacent to
known nutria home ranges. Many specimens were collected along transects
during trips conducted solely for the purpose of plant identification. Other
specimens were obtained during nutria-radiotracking expeditions or habitatassessment
samplings. All mat, wax-myrtle thicket, spoil-bank, and
trenasse-waterway collections were carried out on foot. Canal-waterway
collections and identifications were done from a 14-foot aluminum flatboat.
Specimens were collected May 2003–August 2004. Typically, two to
five trips were made to marsh areas almost every week during the warmer
months and once a week or less from November to February. Approximately
100 trips were made to the study site. Collections were not made on every
trip, but vouchers were taken whenever a fertile specimen was found of a
species that was previously unidentified. The location of each specimen was
recorded using a Garmin® Etrex Venture GPS unit (Forestry Suppliers,
Jackson, MS), and the habitat type and general species habit were noted.
Specimens were transported to the Tulane University Herbarium in New
Orleans for drying, identification, and cataloging.
Species that were previously well known before the study or were not
observed in flower or fruit were identified in the field, and no specimens
were collected. If such plants could not be identified to species in the field,
they are listed by generic name only.
Flowering plants were identified using Correll and Johnston (1979),
Godfrey and Wooten (1979, 1981), Allen (1992), and Stutzenbaker (1999).
502 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 3
Ferns were identified following Thieret (1980). The native range of each
species was noted from the sources above and from the following websites:
The International Plant Names Index (www.ipni.org) and the PLANTS
National Database (http://www.plants.usda.gov). All scientific nomenclature
follows the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) online
database (www.itis.usda.gov). After being identified, all specimens were
given a National Park Service catalog number, entered into their database,
and labeled accordingly. All specimens from this survey are on permanent
loan to the Tulane University Herbarium from the JLNHPP Herbarium.
Results and Discussion
A total of 168 species in 113 genera in 60 families were identified
(Appendix 1). Of these, 15 species were non-native. The three most prevalent
families were Cyperaceae (29 species), Poaceae (24 species), and
Asteraceae (16 species). The study area was divisible into three main habitat
types: floating marsh, spoil bank, and waterway.
The floating marsh was further divided into three distinct community
types: thick mat, thin mat, and wax-myrtle thicket. All three communities
maintain some buoyancy during the year. The thick-mat community may be
further divided into four discreet plant associations characterized by their
dominant species. These are the Sagittaria lancifolia, Typha spp.,
Schoenoplectus americanus, and Spartina spp. associations.
The spoil banks are generally of a slightly higher elevation than the
surrounding marsh and canals and are made of sediments dredged from
the canals. The waterways contain floating mats of vegetation during the
growing season, but these differ from those found on the floating marsh
in that they are ephemeral and their locations change often with wind and
tides. Their species composition also differs from that of the floatingmarsh
The following is a description of each of the three habitat types along
with a list of the dominant species that characterize each habitat and the
discreet communities and associations within these habitats.
This habitat type may be further divided into three distinct plant communities
as characterized by their differing species composition and mat thickness.
These communities will be referred to as thick-mat, thin-mat, and wax-myrtle
thicket floating-marsh communities.
Thick-mat community. This floating-marsh community resembles marsh
types I-III as described by Sasser et al. (1994), but, at JLNHPP, Panicum
hemitomon does not play a major role as it does in the thick-mat types
described by Sasser et al. (1994). Panicum hemitomon is primarily found as
an understory in certain wax-myrtle thickets and on the edges of thick-mat
communities. It does not form widespread monocultures as it does in many
other thick-mat floating marshes (Sasser et al. 1996).
2006 L.E. Nolfo 503
At JLNHPP, there are four main associations of thick-mat marsh characterized
by their dominant species. The first and most widespread is the
Sagittaria lancifolia type, followed by the patchy and nearly monotypic
Typha spp., Schoenoplectus americanus, and Spartina spp. types. There
are also monospecific patches of Zizaniopsis milaceae and Phragmites
australis that are concentrated along marsh edges and waterways. The
vines Vigna luteola and Ipomoea sagittata often form dense, twining
colonies over small areas of thick-mat vegetation regardless of the dominant
Sagittaria lancifolia association. The majority of the thick-mat marshes
at JLNHPP are dominated by stands of Sagittaria lancifolia acting as an
overstory. Leersia hexandra is usually a co-dominant with S. lancifolia in
most thick-mat communities. These two species are accompanied by other
understory and overstory species whose dominance in the community varies
greatly both temporally and spatially. Generally, this association is the most
species rich of the four thick-mat associations listed here.
Understory species often observed throughout the growing season include
Alternanthera philoxeroides, Hydrocotyle spp., Polygonum
punctatum, and Phyla lanceolata. Numerous species of Carex and Cyperus
are nearly always present in varying stages of flowering, fruiting, or senescence
throughout the year. Larger Eleocharis species, especially Eleocharis
cellulosa, Eleocharis fallax, and Eleocharis montana are often found as an
understory on this type of thick mat. Occassionally, small-scale (1–3 m2),
monospecific patches of Juncus spp., Schoenoplectus californicus, and
Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani are also common in this community.
Various plant species also make ephemeral appearances, primarily in the
late summer and fall (August–November). The grasses include Andropogon
glomeratus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Echinochloa walteri, several Panicum
spp., Paspalum mimus, Paspalum urvillei, Sacciolepis striata, and Setaria
spp. Composites also make their appearance on the marsh at this time
including Symphyotrichum subulatum, Conoclinium coelestinum, Cirsium
horridulum, Eupatorium capillifolium, Iva annua, and Pluchea odorata as
do Sesbania spp. and Ludwigia spp. In contrast, the mallows Kosteletzkya
virginica and Hibiscus moscheutos ssp. lasiocarpos, in addition to Iris
giganticaerulea and Hymenocallis caroliniana, make their debut in the
spring and early summer (March–June).
Typha spp., Schoenoplectus americanus, and Spartina spp. Associations.
As previously mentioned, areas of thick-mat marsh are dominated by
Typha spp., Schoenoplectus americanus, and Spartina spp. These thickmat
marsh associations are not as widespread as the S. lancifolia-type
marsh and often grade into S. lancifolia marsh; some of the understory
species listed above are occasionally found on the edges of these monotypic
thick-mat associations. This is especially true of the Typha spp.
association, which usually has significant overlap with the S. lancifolia
marsh and can sometimes act as an overstory.
504 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 3
Thin-mat community. This community corresponds with type IV marsh
characterized by Sasser et al. (1994). Generally, thin mat is found on the
edges of trenasses or wax-myrtle thickets, or occasionally interspersed with
thick-mat habitats. Areas of thin mat that are distributed in a thick-mat
matrix may have formed as a result of intense airboat or herbivore activity
(L. Nolfo, pers. observ.). Thin-mat marsh is often found under powerlines
that are maintained using airboats. Thin mats are also found in areas of
intense herbivore activity (primarily nutria, swamp rabbits, and deer) as
indicated by scat, resting platforms, and well-worn trails. Generally, thin
mats tend to have higher species diversity per 0.5 m2 than do thick mats,
averaging 10 species versus 4 or 5 for a thick mat during the peak of the
growing season; yet, total above- and below-ground biomass are significantly
lower in thin-mat marshes (L. Nolfo, unpubl. data).
Ordinarily, small Eleocharis species—especially Eleocharis olivacea,
Eleocharis radicans, and Eleocharis vivipara—tend to dominate this community,
often in conjunction with Hydrocotyle spp., Bacopa monnieri,
Ludwigia repens, and occasionally Micranthemum umbrosum. These species
form dense, low carpets from which other, less dominant species
emerge. Sagittaria latifolia and Pontedaria cordata are common emergents
in this marsh type, as are various species of Cyperus. Habenaria repens is
intermittently present, as are Fuirena pumila, Juncus filipendulus, and
Ludwigia uruguayensis. Other common thick-mat species found on the thin
mat include Alternanthera philoxeroides, Phyla lanceolata, Polygonum
punctatum, and Schoenoplectus americanus.
On occasion, floating aquatic species usually associated with waterways
are found on thin mats. These species sometimes wash in during periods of
high wind and tide and may make up a significant portion of the biomass of
the thin-mat community on such occasions. Species such as Salvinia
minima, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza, Wolffiela gladiata, and green
algae may all be found sporadically on the thin-mat marsh.
Wax-myrtle thicket community. Sasser et al. (1994) refer to wax-myrtle
thickets as type V floating marshes. Yet, the primary understory they note
for these marshes is Panicum hemitomon. Although this grass is present in
some patches of Morella (Myrica) cerifera, it is by no means the only, nor
the prevalent, understory species in this community at JLNHPP. In fact, the
dominant understory in these areas is Sphagnum spp. This moss forms a
carpet beneath M. cerifera in most areas that is only broken up by occasional
holes in the mat occupied by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza. Other
bryophytes and hepatophytes are often present with the Sphagnum spp., but
they generally do not make up a significant portion of the biomass.
Thelypteris palustris, Woodwardia areolata, Rhynchospora
microcephala, and Decodon verticillatus are the next most common understory
species after Sphagnum spp. Clumps of Xyris laxifolia var. iridifolia
are also found throughout this floating-marsh community. A number of
composites are common, including Eupatorium perfoliatum, Ageratina
2006 L.E. Nolfo 505
altissima, Pluchea foetida, and Solidago fistulosa. Occasionally, areas of
Sagittaria lancifolia are also present. Besides the Morella (Myrica) cerifera
that makes up the vast majority of the overstory in this community, there is
an occasional Triadica (Sapium) sebiferum or, less frequently, Acer rubrum.
Of the habitats investigated, the least time was spent collecting on the
spoil banks. Therefore, the species list for this habitat may not be as complete
as those for the other habitat types. These thin strips of woody habitat
line canals and form a barrier between open water and the marsh in most
areas of the park. In some areas, the marsh is directly adjacent to a canal, but
this is not usually the case.
The dominant overstory species in this habitat is Triadica (Sapium)
sebiferum. Other common spoil-bank trees include Salix nigra, Taxodium
distichum, Quercus virginiana, Celtis laevigata, and Morella (Myrica)
cerifera. Understory species in this habitat that do not occur elsewhere in the
park include Colocasia esculenta, various species of Carex, Rhynchospora
corniculata, Hymenocallis caroliniana, Arthraxon hispidus, Dichanthelium
dichotomum, Phytolacca americana, and many others (see Appendix I). The
species included in this habitat are also found in bottomland hardwood
forest, and are thus much more tolerant of shade and/or desiccation then are
the plants that dominate the floating-marsh and waterway habitats (Denslow
and Battaglia 2002).
This habitat type encompasses canals and the trenasses that dissect vast
areas of open marsh. Trenasses are filled with floating and submerged
aquatic vegetation for the majority of the growing season and tend to revert
to open water in the winter months. There is some evidence that these narrow
waterways may eventually revert to floating-mat marshes. For example,
there are certain trenasses that contain a nearly equal mix of open water
species and typical thin-mat species whose roots are still too sparse to walk
on. Yet, whether or not these areas are reverting to marsh or becoming open
water is unclear.
Overall, the species found in canals and trenasses are virtually identical
and are thus included in a single habitat type. The types of plants found in
the waterways can be divided into three categories according to their habit:
floating aquatics, submerged aquatics, and ephemeral-mat species.
The two most dominant floating aquatic species in this habitat are Azolla
caroliniana and Salvinia minima. Other common floating emergents include
Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor, and Heteranthera dubia.
Nymphaea odorata is unique in that, although its leaves are emergent, the
plant is rooted in the substrate below. The submerged aquatic flora includes
Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria americana, Myriophyllum aquaticum,
Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum, Najas guadalupensis,
Cabomba caroliniana, and Utricularia spp.
506 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 3
Ephemeral-mat species are plants that form thin, temporary, floating
mats in areas that are normally open water. These mats are highly variable
both temporally and spatially and are often found floating along the edge of
canals and in trenasses. These mats are usually present throughout the
summer and early fall, but typically disappear as the growing season ends.
Eichhornia crassipes is the dominant mat-forming species and it often
persists in waterways through a good portion of the winter months (through
January). Some other common ephemeral-mat species include Oxycaryum
cubense, Limnobium spongia, Bidens laevis, Alternanthera philoxeroides,
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia peploides, L. uruguayensis, Fuirena
pumila, and Pontederia cordata.
Forty seven of the species identified in this survey were not recorded for
this area by White et al. (1983) or Penfound and Hathaway (1938). A few of
these species are common and may constitute a significant portion of wetlands.
Most notable among these are Eleocharis fallax, Sphagnum spp.,
Schoenoplectus americanus, Sagittaria latifolia, Leersia hexandra,
Vallisneria americana, Decodon verticillatus, and Oxycaryum cubense. Other
species that are widespread but not as prevalent as those listed above include
Phyla lanceolata, Xyris laxifolia var. iridifolia, Rhynchospora microcephala,
Thelypteris palustris, Cyperus haspan, and Cyperus polystachyos.
Twenty nine species that were recorded for this area had not been
documented for these types of habitats in Louisiana (see Conner et al.
1986; Penfound and Hathaway 1938; Sasser 1994; Sasser et al. 1994, 1995;
Visser et al. 1998, 2000; White et al. 1983). These species include some
taxa that are common at JLNHPP, including Woodwardia areolata, Carex
frankii, Cyperus haspan, Eleocharis fallax, E. radicans, E. vivipara,
Rhynchospora microcephala, and Ludwigia repens, in addition to other,
less widespread species.
Twenty seven of the species identified were new records for Jefferson
Parish, LA across all habitat types (see Penfound and Hathaway 1938; Thomas
and Allen 1993, 1996, 1998; White et al. 1983). Nearly half of these new
records are from the family Cyperaceae, while the rest belong to a variety of
taxa. No new species records for Louisiana were recorded in this survey.
Another notable occurrence is the prevalence of introduced species primarily
on spoil banks and in waterways. Triadica sebiferum and Eichhornia
crassipes have come to dominate each of these habitats and may be considered
as noxious invasives on spoil banks and in trenasses, respectively.
Salvinia minima, Myriophyllum aquaticum, M. spicatum, and Hydrilla
verticillata have all become common in this area. The other non-native
species in the marsh habitat, Paspalum urvellei, Pennisetum glaucum, Setaria
faberi, Echinochloa crusgalli, Arthraxon hispidus, Colocasia
esculenta, Ludwigia uruguayensis, and Lygodium japonicum, appear to be
naturalized but not invasive in this area. Alternanthera philoxeroides is
found in all wetland habitats of the park and, in some areas, it may constitute
a significant proportion of the plant biomass during the growing season.
2006 L.E. Nolfo 507
A few other species expected in wetland habitats were not found at
JLNHPP, including Cladium mariscus ssp. jamaicense (Crantz) Kukenth.,
Pistia stratiotes L., Sagittaria platyphylla (Engelm.) J.G. Sm., Cyperus
esculentus L., Carex crus-corvi Shuttlw. ex Kunze, Carex cherokeensis
Schwein., Symphyotrichum tenuifolium (L.) Nesom, Scirpus cyperinus (L.)
Kunth, Eleocharis albida Torr., Eleocharis baldwinii (Torr.) Chapman,
Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Roth, and Osmunda regalis L. These species are
commonly found in these types of habitats elsewhere, but are apparently rare
or even absent at this site.
I would like to thank the staff of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and
Preserve and the Tulane University Herbarium for the use of equipment and technical
support. I would also like to thank Dr. S.P. Darwin and A.S. Bradburn for assistance
with identifications and the review of this manuscript. This project was supported by
funds from the Coypu Foundation.
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Jean Lafitte National Historical Park, Louisiana. Tulane Studies in Zoology and
2006 L.E. Nolfo 509
Appendix I (Species Checklist). Below is an annotated species list for the taxa
identified during this study. All scientific nomenclature and authorities were checked
for accuracy and acceptance according to the Integrated Taxonomic Information
System (ITIS) online database at www.itis.usda.gov. Species are listed taxonomically
by Division, with the Magnoliophyta being further divided into the classes
Liliopsida and Magnoliopsida. Families, genera, and species are listed alphabetically
within these taxa.
The collection number(s) of each species follows its authority. The numbers
listed are the author’s personal collection numbers. Each specimen was also given
an official National Park Service catalog number not listed here. An “N” indicates
that no specimen was collected for this species because only sterile specimens
Non-native species are indicated with an asterisk (*). A pound sign (#) indicates
species not previously found in this area by either White et al. (1983) or Penfound
and Hathaway (1938). A tilda (~) is indicative of species that have never been
recorded in a floating marsh habitat in Louisiana (see Conner et al. 1986; Penfound
and Hathaway 1938; Sasser 1994; Sasser et al. 1994, 1995; Visser et al. 1998, 2000;
White et al. 1983). An exclamation point (!) precedes new species records for
Jefferson Parish, LA across all habitat types. These species were not recorded in this
parish by Penfound and Hathaway (1938), White et al. (1983), or Thomas and Allen
(1993, 1996, 1998).
The habitat(s) and/or community(s) where each plant was found follow the collection
number; SB = spoil banks, TK = thick-mat floating marsh, TN = thin-mat
floating marsh, WA = waterways, and WM = wax-myrtle thicket floating marsh. For
species that are found in more than one habitat or community, the area in which it is
most common is listed first, followed by others areas in which it is present but not as
prevalent. All specimens were collected by L.E. Nolfo and currently reside in the
Tulane University Herbarium.
Taxon Collection # Habitat
Marchantia spp. N WM
Sphagnum spp. 173 WM
Hypnum spp. 202 WM
Azolla caroliniana Willd. 172 WA
~Woodwardia areolata (L.) T. Moore 174 WM
*Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.) Sw. 185 SB
*Salvinia minima Baker 171 WA, TN
510 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 3
Taxon Collection # Habitat
Thelypteris kunthii (Desv.) Morton 206 SB
Thelypteris palustris Schott. 38 WM, TK, TN
Taxodium distichum (L.) L. Rich N SB
#Sagittaria latifolia Willd. N TN, WA
Sagittaria lancifolia L. 183 TK, TN, WM
*Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott N SB
Sabal minor (Jacg.) Pers. N SB
Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. N SB
Commelina diffusa Burm. F. 126 SB
#Carex alata Torrey 6, 156 TK
~!Carex albolutescens Schwein. 33 TK
~!Carex atlantica Bailey 39 TK
Carex comosa Boott. 11, 152 TK, SB
~Carex frankii Kunth 205 SB
~!Carex glaucescens Ell. 150 SB
Carex hyalinolepis Steud. 154 SB
~!Carex reniformis (Bailey) Small 144 SB
Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl. 72 TN, TK
~!Cyperus haspan L. 10,37,97,128,135 TN, TK
Cyperus odoratus L. 87, 138 TK, TN
Cyperus polystachyos Rottb. 48, 69 TK, TN
Cyperus virens Michx. 8 TK, TN
Eleocharis cellulosa Torr. 43 TK, TN
~!Eleocharis fallax Weath. 158 TK, TN
~!Eleocharis flavescens (Poir.) Urban. 201 TN
Eleocharis montana (HBK) R. & S. 24 TK, TN
Eleocharis montevidensis Kunth 27 TN
Eleocharis olivacea Torr. 68, 198 TN
~!Eleocharis radicans (A. Dietr.) Kunth 52 TN
~!Eleocharis vivipara Link. 200 TN
#!Fuirena pumila (Torr.) Spreng. 81, 118, 119 TN, WA
#!Oxycaryum cubense (Poppig & Kunth) Lye 127 WA
#!Rhynchospora caduca Ell. 167 WM
Rhynchospora corniculata (Lam.) Gray 50 SB
~!Rhynchospora microcephala Britt ex Small 80, 146 WM
Schoenoplectus americanus Pers. 7 TK
Schoenoplectus californicus (C. Meyer) Palla 109 TK
Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (K.C. Gmel.) Palla 9, 54, 55 TK
2006 L.E. Nolfo 511
Taxon Collection # Habitat
*~!Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle 176 WA
Limnobium spongia (Bosc.) L.C. Rich ex Steud. 170 WA
~!Vallisneria americana Michx. 178 WA
Iris giganticaerulea Small N TN, TK
~Juncus acuminatus Michx. 155 TK
Juncus effusus L. 12, 159 TK, SB
~!Juncus elliottii Chapman 14 TK
~!Juncus filipendulus Buckl. 70 TN
#Juncus marginatus Rostk. 164 WM
~!Juncus validus Coville 13 TK
Lemna minor L. N WA, TN
Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden. 177 WA
Wolffia columbiana Karst. N WA
~Wolffiella gladiata (Hegelm.) Hegelm. N WA, TN
Hymenocallis caroliniana (L.) Herbert N TK, SB
Najas guadalupensis (Spreng.) Magnus N WA
Habenaria repens Nutt. 67 TN
Andropogon glomeratus (Walt) B.S.P. 131 TK, WM
*Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino 136 SB
~Dichanthelium dichotomum (L.) Gould 73 SB
~!Dichanthelium spretum (J.A. Schultes) Freckmann 161 SB
*Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. 56, 64 TK, SB
Echinochloa walteri (Pursh) Heller 3, 42 TK, SB
#Leersia hexandra Schwartz 4, 32 TK
Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. N TK
Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. 77, 108, 143 TK
Panicum hemitomon J.A. Schultes N TK, WM
#Panicum repens L. 106 TK
Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees. 96 TK
~!Paspalum minus Fourn. 101 TK
*Paspalum urvillei Steud. 53, 71 TK, TN
*Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. 75, 117 SB, TK
Phalaris caroliniana Walt. 153 SB, TK
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. N TK, SB
Saccharum giganteum (Walt.) Pers. 142 TN
Sacciolepis striata (L.) Nash 5, 26, 79 TK, TN
*~!Setaria faberi Herrm. 113 TK
Setaria magna Griseb. 61, 102 TK
Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. N TK
Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.) Scribn. 162 SB
Zizaniopsis miliacea (Michx.) Doell. & Asch. 2, 120 TK
512 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 3
Taxon Collection # Habitat
*Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms 22 WA
~!Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.) MacM. 60 WA
Pontederia cordata L. 25 TN, WA
Typha domingensis Pers. 1, 34, 40, 41 TK
Typha latifolia L. N TK
#Xyris laxifolia Mart. var. iridifolia Chapman 139, 186 WM
Acer negundo L. N SB
Acer rubrum L. N SB, WM
*Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. 18 TK, TN, WA, SB
Amaranthus australis (Gray) Sauer 59 TK
Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze N SB
#Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. 191 WM
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f. 180 WA, SB
Hydrocotyle umbellata L. 20 TN, TK
Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. 35, 44, 181 TN, TK
Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf. 16, 163 TK, SB, TN
Ageratina altissima (L.) King & H.E. Robins. 145 WM, SB
Baccharis halimifolia L. N SB, TK
Bidens laevis (L.)BSP 140 WA
Cirsium horridulum Michx. N SB, TK
Conoclinium coelestinum (L.) DC 125, 133 TK
Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. 29 TK, SB
Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam.) Small 132 TK, TN, SB
Eupatorium perfoliatum L. 93 WM
Eupatorium serotinum Michx. 122 SB
Iva annua L. 137 TK, SB
Mikania scandens (L.)Willd. 91, 111 SB, WM, TK
Packera glabella (Poir.) C. Jeffrey 157 TK
Pluchea foetida (L.)DC 92, 187 WM
Pluchea odorata (L.)Cass. 49 TK
~!Solidago fistulosa Mill. 147 SB, WM
Symphyotrichum subulatum (Michx.) Nesom 98, 141, 204 TK, SB
~!Cardamine parviflora L. 149 TK
Cabomba caroliniana Gray 30 WA
Ceratophyllum demersum L. 175 WA
~Atriplex cristata Humb. & Bonpl. Ex Willd. 88 SB
2006 L.E. Nolfo 513
Taxon Collection # Habitat
Hypericum hypericoides (L.) Crantz 193 WM, TN
#!Triadenum virginicum (L.) Raf. 83 WM
Ipomoea sagittata Poir. 78 TK
Ipomoea cordatotriloba Dennst. 107 SB
~Sicyos angulatus L. 104 SB
*Triadica sebifera (L.) Small N SB, WM
Aeschynomene indica L. 121 TK
Gleditsia triacanthos L. N SB
#Sesbania drummondii (Rydb.) Cory 89 TK
Sesbania herbacea (P. Mill.) McVaugh 63, 90 TK
Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth. 62 TK
Quercus nigra L. N SB
Quercus virginiana Mill. N SB
*Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verd. N WA
*#Myriophyllum spicatum L. 130 WA
Liquidambar styraciflua L. N SB
Utricularia spp. 182 WA
#!Decodon verticillatus (L.) Ell. 203 WM
Lythrum lineare L. 51, 197 TK
Hibiscus moscheutos ssp. lasiocarpos (Cav.) 169 TK
Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) Gray 15 TK
Morella cerifera (L.) Small N WM, SB
Nymphaea odorata Ait. 36 WA
Ludwigia decurrens Walt. 115 TK
Ludwigia leptocarpa (Nutt.) Hara 95, 114 TK
Ludwigia octovalis (Jacq.) Raven 86 TK
#Ludwigia peploides (HBK) Raven 168, 199 WA
~Ludwigia repens Forst. 103, 166 TN
*Ludwigia uruguayensis (Camb.) Hara 21 TN, WA
Phytolacca americana L. 148 SB
Rivina humilis L. 105 SB
Polygonum punctatum Ell. 116 TK, TN, SB
514 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 5, No. 3
Taxon Collection # Habitat
Samolus valerandi ssp. parviflorus (Raf.) Hulten 28, 179 TK, SB
Rubus spp. N SB
Cephalanthus occidentalis L. 66 SB
Galium tinctorium L. 17, 134 TK, TN
Salix nigra Marsh. N SB
Saururus cernuus L. 65 TN
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell 23, 188 TN
#!Micranthemum umbrosum (J.F. Gmel.) Blake 76 TN
Celtis laevigata Willd. N SB
#Ulmus alata Michx. N SB
Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. 74, 99 SB
#Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene 19, 31, 184 TK, TN
Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne. 124 SB
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. N SB