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Vascular Plant Flora of Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park, Cobb County, Georgia
Wendy B. Zomlefer, David E. Giannasi, and S. Lee Echols

Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 9, Issue 1 (2010): 129–164

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2010 SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST 9(1):129–164 Vascular Plant Flora of Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park, Cobb County, Georgia Wendy B. Zomlefer1,*, David E. Giannasi1, and S. Lee Echols1,2 Abstract - Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park, Cobb County, GA, is administered by the National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior, and comprises 1183 ha (2923 acres) including three significant Civil War battleground sites of the Atlanta Campaign of 1864. A fl oristic survey was conducted to provide Park Service personnel with a vouchered plant species checklist, supplemented with salient information such as relative abundance, locality data, and general community type. Twelve collecting trips conducted in 2006 yielded 538 species and two varieties of vascular plants. The six largest families were Asteraceae (73 spp.), Poaceae (69 spp.), Fabaceae (39 spp.), Rosaceae (21 spp.), Cyperaceae (19 spp.), and Lamiaceae (14 spp.). According to state rankings, six rare plant species occur within the study area, including Asclepias purpurascens (rare) and Thaspium pinnatifidum (endangered). Twenty-three percent of the non-cultivated fl ora is nonnative. Alliaria petiolata, a serious invasive exotic, was vouchered for the first time in Georgia. Herein, we provide a vouchered checklist of vascular plants and a map and descriptions of the general plant communities. Additionally, an earlier unvouchered list prepared by Park Service personnel is included with updated nomenclature and taxonomy. Introduction Study area Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park (KMNBP), administered by the National Park Service (NPS; US Department of the Interior), is located in Cobb County, GA (Fig. 1A), 4.5 km (2.8 mi) southeast of Kennesaw and ca. 3.2 km (2 mi) west of the historic downtown district of Marietta (Fig. 2; NPS 1976, 2005). The Park is ca. 8.2 km (5.1 mi) long and comprises 1183 ha (2923 acres) that surround several large private inholdings (“PP” in Fig. 2). KMNBP preserves a significant Civil War battleground of the Atlanta Campaign (see “Brief history of KMNBP” below). The vegetation is mainly upland mixed hardwood-pine forest, typical of the Piedmont in Georgia, with intermixed small wetlands and fields (Fig. 1B). The landscape is dominated by a north– south string of peaks: Kennesaw Mountain (550 m [1808 ft]), Little Kennesaw Mountain (490 m [1600 ft]), the mountain spur, Pigeon Hill (380 m [1250 ft]), and Cheatham Hill (340 m [1120 ft]). The main entrance to the Park (Visitor Center; 905 Mountain Drive), is just off Stilesboro Road at the intersection with Old Hwy 41 (NPS 1976, 1Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. 2Current address - North American Land Trust, Georgia Field Office, PO Box 7489, Athens, GA 30604-7489. *Corresponding author – wendyz@plantbio.uga.edu. 130 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 2005, 2009a). The 27.8 km (17.3 mi) of hiking trails—as well as cannon emplacements, various monuments/historical markers, and 18 km (11 mi) of Union and Confederate earthwork trenches—attract over 1.4 million visitors 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 131 per year. The steep, winding, and narrow Mountain Drive (2.3 km/1.4 mi; ca. 213 m/700 ft incline) provides vehicular access to the top of Kennesaw Mountain, which offers a panoramic view of north Georgia terrain and the city of Atlanta (to the south). Brief history of KMNBP The Park encompasses the battle lines of a series of Civil War engagements known as the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain and the Battle of Kolb’s Farm, fought from 18 June through 2 July 1864 (Baumgartner and Strayer 1998, Castel 1992, Kelly 1990, Yates 1976). Marietta, a small northwest Georgia rail center, was significant by the Civil War era as a supply link to Atlanta and was a prime target of William T. Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign. Entrenched along the mountain ridge tops, Confederate forces (65,000) under General Joseph E. Johnston blocked and delayed Sherman’s Union forces (100,000) in their southward advance from Chattanooga, TN, through Marietta to Atlanta. To break this stalemate, Sherman eventually attacked Cheatham Hill and Pigeon Hill, which were well defended by the Confederates: the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain was the worst defeat of the Union Army during the Atlanta Campaign with 3000 Union casualties (vs. 800 Confederate). Following this failed assault, Sherman’s forces eventually outfl anked Johnston’s defenders and forced them to abandon their lines; Sherman continued southward, and on 2 September, Atlanta fell to Union forces after a lengthy siege. The Kennesaw Mountain Battlefield Association, a non-profit organization founded by Union veterans, acquired a 60-acre tract (mainly Cheatham Hill) in 1900 and deeded the land to the US government in 1917, under the jurisdiction of the War Department (Capps 1994). Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Site was officially established by Congress in 1926 and in 1933 was transferred to the National Park Service, Department of the Interior (Executive Order 6166). The site was redesignated a national military park by Congress in 1935, with the mission to preserve and commemorate the 1864 Battle of Kennesaw Mountain. To meet this goal, the NPS endeavored to expand KMNBP boundaries to include Kennesaw Mountain and other focal segments of the original Figure 1 (opposite page). Location and vegetation of Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park. A. Inset maps of Georgia (top; Cobb County shaded) and Cobb County (bottom; KMNBP shaded). B. General vegetation zones of KMNBP. Abbreviations: CH = Cheatham Hill; KF = Kolb’s Farm; KM = Kennesaw Mountain; LK = Little Kennesaw Mountain; PH = Pigeon Hill; VC = Visitor Center. A: Modified by W.B. Zomlefer from Google Maps, map view (http://maps.google.com/); and Microsoft Virtual EarthTM, road view (http://maps.live.com/); B: Modified and updated by W.B. Zomlefer from field observations (W.B. Zomlefer, pers. obs.); Cobb County Engineering Division (2005); Google Maps, satellite view (http://maps.google.com/); and Microsoft Virtual EarthTM, aerial and bird’s eye views (http://maps.live.com/). 132 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 battlefield. Property purchases were restricted to the least expensive areas with the most historical significance—primarily the mountain ridge 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 133 lines with persistent earthwork trenches. Through a long (and litigious) land-acquisition process, the NPS obtained most of the current acreage by 1940 (details in Capps [1994]). The main battlefield zones now within KMNBP (see Fig. 2) include the areas northwest of the Visitor Center, Burnt Hickory Road/Pigeon Hill (and Noses Creek below), and Cheatham Hill (and John Ward Creek below), south to Kolb’s Farm/Powder Springs Road (Trailhead Graphics 2003). The restored 1836 Valentine Kolb log house (scene of some of the heaviest fighting) is the only structure at KMNBP that existed at the time of the battle. Due to these (and other) significant sites, the Park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966 (Blythe et al. 1995; NPS 2009b, c). Disturbance and natural resources of KMNBP Historically, much of the land of KMNBP was used for agriculture, and subsequent cultural resource management decisions by NPS (to preserve and/or recreate historic battlefield scenes) also have greatly affected the flora. Much grounds work was undertaken from 1934–1942 by the Civil Works Administration/Civilian Conservation Corps for erosion control (such as terracing hillsides) intended to stabilize the landscape. For example, the central ridge of Cheatham Hill was swept clean of most topsoil and forest litter, and fields throughout the Park were restored with Cynodon dactylon (Bermudagrass). The earthwork trenches (Kennesaw Mountain, Pigeon Hill, Cheatham Hill) were fertilized and reseeded along with selective tree removal from these areas. Crushed granite, quarried from the rocky slopes of Kennesaw Mountain, provided material for surfacing park roads and regrading stream banks. Other significant construction within the Park included installation of trails, parking lots, overlooks, drainage, and utilities—all to accommodate visitors (Capps 1994). During the 1960s, expansion in Marietta instigated the transition from a rural to an urban setting for KMNBP. Extensive suburban sprawl now completely surrounds the Park: more than 1200 homes have been built along its borders, and nine major commuter roads, carrying 160,000 cars per day, traverse KMNBP (Fig. 2). The Park is now the largest publically owned green space in the greater metropolitan Atlanta area, and KMNBP has become especially valuable as natural habitat for localized plant and animal communities. In particular, the Kennesaw Mountain area is prime natural migration stopover habitat critical for neotropical bird migrants, such as vireos and warblers. At least 175 bird species have been reported for KMNBP, which Figure 2 (opposite page). Map of Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park with boundaries, place names mentioned in the text, roads, and trail system. (Not shown: 14.2 ha [35 acres, east of Gilbert Road] added to the park property after this survey in 2008 [W.R. Johnson, pers. comm.].) Shaded areas = Park property; PP = private property inholding; VC = Visitor Center. Modified by W.B. Zomlefer from NPS (2005, 2009a). 134 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 has been officially designated a globally important bird area and is a focus area for bird conservation in Georgia (Watson 2005). Current resource management directly related to the flora comprises removal of exotic plant species along with erosion control and trail maintenance (Capps 1994). The actual floristics of the Park, however, has received little attention. Roland M. Harper was probably the first botanist to collect in the area, and he prepared at least 23 numbered collections (Harper 207–229?) from the slopes of Kennesaw Mountain on 12 July 1900 (Harper 1901). These specimens were deposited at several major herbaria, including MO (215, Selaginella rupestris; 220, Carex caroliniana; 221, Dichanthelium commutatum) and US (219, Commelina erecta; 225, Hexalectris aphyllyus [= H. spicata]). Over the past ten years, Park personnel have compiled a “sight list” with over 900 unverified plant species names (see Appendix 2). Our study is the first comprehensive vouchered floristic inventory of the Park. Methods The first author led 12 intensive field trips in 2006 (16 March–18 Oct.; Giannasi & Zomlefer 1738–1975; Zomlefer 840–1263, 1340–1407) to collect plant specimen vouchers using standard field and herbarium techniques (under collecting permit # KEMO-2006-SCI-0001), with assistance of the coauthors and personnel listed in the acknowledgments. Due to the time constraints of the survey (one growing season), areas of greatest potential diversity (e.g., wetland and disturbed sites) were targeted. The complete set of vouchers is deposited at GA. The fl oras of Weakley (2008) and Wunderlin and Hansen (2000, 2003) were primary sources for plant identification, supplemented by Radford et al. (1968), Godfrey and Wooten (1979, 1981), Cronquist (1980), Godfrey (1988), Wofford (1989), Isely (1990), Jones (2005), and FNA (2006a, b, c). Infraspecific taxa (varieties and subspecies) were designated when practical keys (utilizing discrete characters appropriate for our specimens) were available. The majority of specimens were identified by Zomlefer and/or Giannasi; co-author Echols provided identifications for nearly one-fifth of the vouchers, including most grass and sedge species. The final vouchered species list (Appendix 1) includes common names and authorities. The nomenclature and taxonomy for the list of unvouchered plant sightings (“sight records”) provided by the National Park Service (Appendix 2) were updated using Weakley (2008) and the Integrated Taxonomic Information System online database (ITIS 2009). Results and Discussion Floristics The 670 numbered collections comprise 538 species and two varieties in four major plant groups (see Appendix 1): lycopods (2 spp.), monilophytes (“ferns and allies”, 10 spp.), gymnosperms (5 spp.), and angiosperms (521 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 135 spp. and two varieties). Included in this total are 23 species in cultivation (indicated as “CULT”) or persisting from cultivation but likely not naturalized (“PERS”). The largest families are: Asteraceae (73 spp.), Poaceae (69 spp. and one variety), Fabaceae (39 spp.), Rosaceae (21 spp.), Cyperaceae (19 spp.), Lamiaceae (14 spp. and one variety), Polygonaceae (11 spp.), Rubiaceae (11 spp.), Apiaceae (10 spp.), Apocynaceae (10 spp.), Brassicaceae (9 spp.), Caryophyllaceae (9 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (9 spp.), Fagaceae (9 spp.), Plantaginaceae (9 spp.), Ranunculaceae (9 spp.), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Convolvulaceae (7 spp.), and Campanulaceae (6 spp.). Appendix 2 is a compilation of 388 additional species reported from KMNBP by unvouchered “sight records” provided by Park personnel. Without preserved specimens, verification of these reports is not possible; therefore, this list should be referenced with caution. Based on our previous national park survey work using unvouchered lists (Zomlefer et al. 2004, 2007, 2008), we predict that at least 20% of this NPS list likely represent misidentifications. The fl ora of KMNBP generally comprises a representation of the basic habitat types (see following section), “weedy” plants common in disturbed areas of the Piedmont, and some cultivated plants (a few persisting). No federally listed endangered/threatened plants (US Fish and Wildlife Service 2009) were found in this survey. However, six (non-cultivated) species are ranked as rare (Table 1) by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GA–DNR 2008a, b, c; Patrick et al. 1995). Arabis missouriensis (special concern), Asclepias purpurascens (rare), and Thaspium pinnatifidum (endangered) occur in somewhat disturbed and exposed areas of the study area Table 1. Rare species vouchered at KMNBP with this survey. Georgia rare plant listings (GA– DNR 2008a, b, c; Patrick et al. 1995): Pro = protected plant of Georgia; Con = Georgia special concern; Wat = Georgia watch list (further documentation needed). State status (GA–DNR 2008a): E = endangered (in danger of extinction throughout all or part of range); R = rare (may not be endangered or threatened, should be protected because of scarcity). State rank (GA–DNR 2008b): S1 = critically imperiled (five or fewer occurrences); S2 = imperiled, (6–20 occurrences); S3 = rare or uncommon (21–100 occurrences). Global rank (GA–DNR 2008b, c): G2 = imperiled (6–20 occurrences); G3 = rare or local throughout range, in special habitat, narrowly endemic (21–100 occurrences); G5 = demonstrably secure; Q = taxon not generally recognized or concern about validity/identity; Ts = taxonomic subdivision used in global rank; ? = questionable rank. State rare State status; Species (common name) plant listing state/global rank Arabis missouriensis (Green Rockcress) Con —; G5?Q/S2 Asclepias purpurascens (Purple Milkweed) Pro R; G5?/S1 Eupatorium sessilifolium (Upland Boneset) Wat —; G5/S3? Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium var. praecox (Rabbit Tobacco)* Wat —; G5Ts5/— Monarda fistulosa var. mollis (Eastern Bergamot) Wat —; G5Ts5?— Thaspium pinnatifidum (Cutleaf Meadowparsnip) Pro E; G2G3/S1 *Note: Our specimen fits the concept of Gnaphalium (Pseudognaphalium) obtusifolium var. praecox Fern. (see Fernald 1950), the infraspecific taxon listed on the Watched Plant Species in Georgia list, which is usually not accepted by recent authors (e.g., see Weakley 2008). 136 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 and may be more abundant within the Park than indicated by our survey. A few plants of Arabis missouriensis (Green Rockcress) were growing with Minuartia unifl ora and Opuntia humifusa on a granite outcrop dissected by trails on Pigeon Hill. Robust Asclepias purpurascens (Purple Milkweed), to over two meters tall, was well established in the sewer overfl ow zone of John Ward Creek along West Trail (west of Cheatham Road); wetland associates included Alisma subcordatum, Boehmeria cylindrica, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Impatiens capensis, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Scirpus cyperinus. Thaspium pinnatifidum (Cutleaf Meadowparsnip) was locally common on steep and rocky roadside slopes of Kennesaw Mountain (bordering oak–hickory forest) along Mountain Road. The plants were scattered among Asplenium platyneuron, Houstonia longifolia, Penstemon australis, Polygonatum bifl orum, and Toxicodendron pubescens. One hundred and thirty-five species are non-native (indicated with an asterisk in the Appendix 1). Excluding the 11 cultivated exotics, the remaining 124 introduced species represent 23 % of the vouchered, non-cultivated fl ora. Fifty of these exotics (9.3% of the fl ora) are invasive (Table 2) and ranked in four categories (and one subcategory) by the Georgia Exotic Pest Table 2. List of 50 non-native invasive (or potentially invasive) species vouchered for KMNBP with rankings as assessed by the GA–EPPC (2006): Category 1 (serious invasive), Category 1A (significant potential to be serious invasive), Category 2 (moderate invasive), Category 3 (minor invasive or potential threat not yet known), and Category 4 (naturalized in Georgia, additional data needed). CULT = cultivated, (VC) = Visitor Center, PERS = persisting from cultivation (likely not naturalized). Habitats: DA = disturbed area [(fi) = field, (fm) = field margin, (lm) = lawn margin; (pl) = parking lot, (rd) = roadside; (tm) = trail margin], OH = oak-hickory forest, RO = rock outcrop, RS = rocky slopes, WE = wetland. Abundance: c = common, o = occasional, i = infrequent, r = rare. (Two additional species found at KMNBP, Phragmites australis and Bidens bipinnata are listed by GA–EPPC [2006] as “exotic” invasives; however, since these are native plants [see ITIS (2009), Weakley (2008), Wunderlin and Hansen (2003)], they are not listed here.) Species (common name) Rank Habitat; abundance data Albizia julibrissin (Silktree) 1 DA ( rd/pl); o Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard) 1A DA (tm)/OH/RO; c Allium vineale (Wild Garlic) 4 DA (fi); o Anthoxanthum odoratum (Sweet Vernalgrass) 3 DA (fm, rd); c Arthraxon hispidus (Small Carpgrass) 1A DA (fm); c Berberis thunbergii (Japanese Barberry) 3 CULT (VC) Bromus secalinus (Rye Brome) 4 OH; i Bromus tectorum (Downy Brome) 4 DA/RS ( rd); o Cynodon dactylon (Bermudagrass) 2 DA ( rd/pl); c Daucus carota (Queen Anne's Lace) 3 DA (fi); o Elaeagnus umbellata var. parvifl ora (Autumn Olive) 1 DA (fm); i Eragrostis curvula (Weeping Lovegrass) 3 DA/RS ( rd); o Euonymus alatus (Winged Spindle Tree) 4 CULT (VC) Hedera helix L. (English Ivy) 1 DA ( rd/pl); o Hemerocallis fulva (Orange Daylily) 3 CULT (VC)* Hibiscus syriacus (Rose-of-Sharon) 3 PERS (Kennesaw Mt.); OH; i Ipomoea purpurea (Tall Morning-glory) 4 DA ( rd)/OH; r–i Lespedeza cuneata (Sericea Lespedeza) 1 DA (fm); c Leucanthemum vulgare (Oxeye Daisy) 2 DA (fi); o 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 137 Table 2, continued. Species (common name) Rank Habitat; abundance data Ligustrum sinense (Chinese Privet) 1 DA (lm); i Liriope spicatum (Monkey-grass) 4 OH; r Lonicera fragrantissima (January Jasmine) 3 DA ( rd/pl); o Lonicera japonica (Japanese Honeysuckle) 1 DA ( rd/pl)/OH; c Lonicera maackii (Amur Honeysuckle) 2 DA (lm, rd)/OH; i–o Lygodium japonicum (Japanese Climbing Fern) 1 DA (fm); r Mahonia bealei (Beale's Barberry) 3 DA (fm)/OH; r Melia azedarach L. (Chinaberry Tree) 1 DA (fm); o Melilotus albus (White Sweetclover) 3 DA (tm); o Microstegium vimineum (Nepalese Browntop) 1 DA (fm, rd/pl/tm)/WE; o–c Morus alba (White Mulberry) 3 DA (lm); r Mosla dianthera (Miniature Beefsteak) 3 DA (rd); c Murdannia keisak (Asian Spiderwort) 1 DA/OH/WE; c Nandina domestica (Heavenly Bamboo) 2 DA (rd/pl); o Nasturtium officinale (European Watercress) 2 DA (fm)/WE; c Paspalum urvillei (Vaseygrass) 3 DA (rd); o Paulownia tomentosa (Princesstree) 1 DA/RS (rd/pl)/OH; c Phyllostachys aurea (Golden Bamboo) 2 OH; o Poa annua L. (Annual Bluegrass) 3 DA (rd/pl); o Polygonum caespitosum Blume var. longisetum 4 DA (fm, pl)/OH/WE; i–o (Oriental Lady’s-thumb) Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) 1 DA (fm); c Rosa multifl ora (Multifl ora Rose) 1 DA (fm, rd/pl); i–c Schedonorus arundinaceus (Tall Fescue) 3 DA/OH (fm, rd); o–c Setaria pumila ssp. pumila (Yellow Bristlegrass) 4 DA (fm)/WE; o Sonchus asper (Spiny Sowthistle) 4 DA (fm); i Sonchus oleraceus (Common Sowthistle) 4 DA (fm); o Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass) 3 DA (fm)/WE; o Torilis arvensis (Hedge Parsley) 4 DA (rd)/RO; o Verbascum thapsus (Common Mullein) 4 DA (fm); o Vinca major (Bigleaf Periwinkle) 2 OH; o Vinca minor L. (Common Periwinkle) 2 DA (fm); o *Also PERS? along Old Mountain Road (W.B. Zomlefer, pers. obs.). Plant Council (GA–EPPC 2006) depending on perceived threat to native fl ora: Category 1 (serious invasive, extensively invading plant communities; displacing native species), Category 1 Alert (not yet a serious invasive but with significant potential); Category 2 (moderate invasive; invading and displacing to a lesser degree than Category 1 species), Category 3 (minor invasive or potential threat not yet known; a threat in adjacent states), and Category 4 (naturalized in Georgia; generally not posing a threat, but additional data needed). Four species are cultivated plants (“CULT” in Table 2) or plants likely persisting from cultivation (“PERS”) and not naturalized. Of the remaining 46 non-cultivated invasives, thirteen are ranked in Category 1, two in Category 1A, eight in Category 2, twelve in Category 3, and eleven in Category 4. Two additional species found at KMNBP, Phragmites australis and Bidens bipinnata, are listed by GA–EPPC (2006) as “exotic” invasives; these native species [see ITIS (2009), Weakley (2008), Wunderlin and Hansen (2003)] are not included in Table 2. 138 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 The majority of non-cultivated invasive exotics were vouchered from exposed disturbed areas—most often fields, lawns, parking lots, roadsides, and trail margins (see Table 2). Even though most of these species (e.g., Category 1 Melia azederach) are localized, they may eventually spread into adjacent, less disturbed habitats. Common field/roadside species, e.g., Allium vineale, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Cynodon dactylon, Daucus carota, Lespedeza cuneata, Leucanthemum vulgare, Melilotus albus, Poa annua, Schedenorus arundinaceus, Sonchus asper, S. oleraceus, Sorghum halepense, and Verbascum thapsus, are likely controlled at KMNBP by regular mowing (W.B. Zomlefer and D.E. Giannasi, pers. observ.). Other species within or along the margins of wooded areas and wetlands are more difficult to eradicate, including common (and potentially serious) Piedmont invasives, such as Ligustrum sinense, Lonicera spp., Microstegium vimineum, Paulownia tomentosa, Phyllostachys aurea, Pueraria montana, and Vinca spp. Notable is the highly invasive biennial Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard; Category 1A), vouchered for Georgia for the first time in this survey (Giannasi & Zomlefer 1848). The Alliaria-infested area comprises mainly the summit of Kennesaw Mountain (ca. 6.5 ha/16 acres), where the plants are often growing along trails and blanketing the rock faces; small populations have also been reported from Little Kennesaw Mountain and areas near the Visitor Center (SE-EPPC 2008). Garlic Mustard prefers the more basic soils of these rock outcrop areas. For several years, Park Service personnel at KMNBP have coordinated hand-pulling “work days” with public participation (GA–EPPC 2005). As of this writing, the plants still persist in the Park (W.R. Johnson, KMNBP Park Historian, pers. comm.). Habitats Figure 1B shows generalized habitat assemblages of KMNBP based upon aerial maps (e.g., Cobb County Engineering Division 2005) and our field observations; these categories actually often overlap, and small areas (such as rock outcrops) cannot be shown at the scale of this figure. Our survey data have been incorporated into the NPS Vegetation Mapping Program (see USGS 2009) for KMNBP, which will ultimately produce a comprehensive plant communities classification and map. The Park, which has a long history of disturbance, is now primarily mixed hardwood–pine forest with scattered patches of grassy fields and small wetlands. In addition, the summits of Pigeon Hill, Little Kennesaw Mountain, and Kennesaw Mountain comprise more or less exposed flat granite outcrops, and their steep rocky slopes are densely covered with an overstory of trees and/or shrubs. Below is a summary of the flora of these general community types: oak–hickory forest (sometimes intermixed with pine); rocky slopes and granite outcrops, various wetlands (creek/stream, sewer overflow, swamp, water-filled ditches), and cleared disturbed areas (e.g., fields, mowed areas, roadsides). 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 139 Oak-hickory forest. The upland piedmont forests of KMNBP, which cover most of the Park, have been modified by disturbance into secondary growth hardwood and mixed hardwood–pine (Wharton 1978). The dominants are oaks (e.g., Quercus alba, Q. falcata, Q. montana, Q. stellata), hickories (Carya alba, C. glabra, C. pallida), and Pinus taeda (Loblolly Pine; especially in forest openings). Fagus grandifolia is often found in moister areas. Other codominant trees may include Liquidambar styracifl ua and Liriodendron tulipifera. The understory shrubs and shrubby trees vary according to the location in the Park and commonly include: Aesculus ×mutabilis, Asimina parvifl ora, Calycanthus fl oridus, Carpinus caroliniana, Celtis occidentalis, Cercis canadensis, Cornus fl orida, Euonymus americanus, Ilex opaca, Lindera benzoin, Morus rubra, Nyssa sylvatica, Prunus serotina, Ptelea trifoliata, Vaccinium arboreum, and V. stamineum, plus the invasives Ligustrum sinense, Lonicera japonica, and L. maackii. Cocculus carolinus, Dioscorea villosa, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Smilax spp. (e.g., S. bona-nox, S. glauca, S. rotundifolia), Toxicodendron radicans, and Vitis rotundifolia comprise the most abundant vine species intertwined amongst the shrubby understory. The herbaceous layer of the upland forest varies considerably throughout the Park depending on soil moisture content. The early spring fl ora species, carpeting the forest fl oor before the canopy closes, include: Anemonella thalictroides, Chrysogonum virginianum, Geranium maculatum, Galium aparine, Hexastylis arifolia, Polygonatum bifl orum, Ranunculus abortivus, Ruellia caroliniensis, Sanguinaria canadensis, Trillium catesbaei, Uvularia perfoliata, and Viola spp. (e.g., Viola palmata, V. tripartita, V. walteri). Woodland species such as Agrimonia rostellata, Brachyelytrum erectum, Coreopsis major, Desmodium spp. (e.g., D. paniculatum, D. viridifl orum), Dichanthelium spp. (e.g., D. commutatum, D. dichotomum), Elephantopus carolinianus, E. tomentosus, Euphorbia pubentissima, Galactia volubilis, Galium circaezans, Phytolacca americana, Piptochaetium avenaceum, Polystichum acrostichoides, Sanicula canadensis, Silphium compositum, Sisyrinchium angustifolium, and Symphyotrichum spp. (e.g., S. patens), thrive later in the season, especially under canopy openings such as blow-downs and along trails. Rocky slopes. The steep mountainsides of KMNBP (Fig. 1B) are generally dry habitats with shallow rocky soils overlying granite (gneiss) that was quarried in the past. Mafic substrate (amphibolite) may also be present (Hurst 1952). Mountain Drive, which cuts through Kennesaw Mountain slopes, exposes much of this habitat type. In the spring, rivulets of water cascade down the rocky ledges along the road, supporting a diverse flora of herbaceous plants rooted amongst the boulders, often on nearly vertical faces. The tree–shrub layer may be quite dense to scattered, comprising species such as Carya pallida, Celtis laevigata, C. occidentalis, Lonicera 140 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 japonica, Philadelphus hirsutus, Prunus angustifolia, P. umbellata, Ptelea trifoliata, Q. marilandica, Q. montana, Q. stellata, Rhus glabra, Rubus bifrons, Toxicodendron pubescens, and Vaccinium arboreum. Typical herbaceous species along these slopes (often in exposed areas), include: Amsonia tabernaemontana, Antennaria plantaginifolia, Aquilegia canadensis, Brickellia eupatorioides, Briza minor, Bromus tectorum, Buglossoides arvensis, Cheilanthes lanosa, Desmodium nudiflorum, Heuchera americana, Houstonia longifolia, Hypericum punctatum, H. gentianoides, Liatris pilosa, L. squarrosa, Oxalis priceae, Packera anonyma, Penstemon australis, Phlox pilosa, Piptochaetium avenaceum, Pycnanthemum muticum, Rudbeckia hirta, Sanicula smallii, Saxifraga virginiensis, Silene stellata, Silphium asteriscus, Sisyrinchium albidum, Solidago arguta, and Yucca filamentosa. Rock outcrop (“fl at rock outcrop”). Granite outcrops are a unique and fragile Piedmont ecosystem (Wharton 1978). At KMNBP, these are arid, more or less fl at-rock (gneissic) zones comprising the crest of Kennesaw Mountain, Little Kennesaw Mountain, and Pigeon Hill; they are also strewn along the rocky slopes (e.g., along Mountain Drive). Except for the top of Little Kennesaw Mountain, which is the least accessible site, the vulnerable rock outcrops at KMNBP have been heavily damaged by foot traffic on trails (Murdy and Carter 2000). On Pigeon Hill summit, the outcrop area is intermixed with very large boulders. This habitat supports a distinctive fl ora at KMNBP, although it shares several species of the (more or less) forested rocky slopes surrounding them. The outcrops are generally exposed, and the few and scattered trees and shrubs that may be present are typically stunted, due to the shallow soil. These woody species include: Pinus echinata, Prunus umbellata, Quercus marilandica var. marilandica, Q. montana, Q. stellata, Rhus copallinum, Ulmus alata, and Vaccinium arboreum. Invasive woody plants, such as Ligustrum sinense and vines of Lonicera japonica are also common at these sites. The herbaceous plants dominating the outcrops at KMNBP comprise several indicators typically found in similar habitats elsewhere (Murdy and Carter 2000, Wharton 1978), including Asplenium platyneuron, Danthonia sericea, Krigia virginica, Minuartia unifl ora, Nuttallanthus canadensis, Opuntia humifusa, Phemeranthus teretifolius, Saxifraga virginiensis, and Selaginella rupestris—along with species such as Antennaria plantaginifolia, Arabis missouriensis, Brickellia eupatorioides, Carex festucacea, Chaerophyllum tainturieri, Croton monanthogynus, Eragrostis hirsuta, Melica mutica, Pityopsis aspera, Sporobolus clandestinus, and Torilis arvensis. Wetland. This broad habitat designation covers aquatic areas along creeks/streams and the adjacent margins of often woody vegetation and forested swampland zones, as well as damp ditches along roadsides and railroad tracks (see Fig. 1B). Our survey concentrated on several open wetland areas, particularly the sewer overfl ow zones of John Ward Creek where it intersects 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 141 with West Trail (west of Cheatham Hill Road) and East Trail/Kolb’s Farm Trail (east of Cheatham Hill Road; see Fig. 2). Scattered shrubs of Cephalanthus occidentalis often occur in these open wetlands. Grasses, sedges, and rushes predominate here, including Echinochloa crus-galli, Avena sativa, Carex spp. (e.g., C. lupulina, C. lurida), Chasmanthium laxum, Cyperus strigosus, Dichanthelium scoparium, Eleocharis obtusa, Echinochloa colonum, Leersia oryzoides, Panicum anceps, Panicum virgatum, Juncus spp. (e.g., J. acuminatus, J. effusus), Scirpus cyperinus, S. georgianus, Setaria pumila, Rhynchospora microcephala, and Tripsacum dactyloides. Other typical herbaceous species are Alisma subcordatum, Bidens frondosa, B. tripartita, Cicuta maculata, Diodia virginiana, Eupatorium serotinum, Hypericum mutilum, Impatiens capensis, Lobelia spicata, Ludwigia alternifolia, Murdannia keisak, Polygonum spp. (e.g., P. hydropiperoides, P. sagittatum), Rudbeckia laciniata, Sagittaria latifolia, Sparganium americanum, Typha latifolia, and Vernonia noveboracensis. Forested wetlands at KMNBP consist of seasonally fl ooded, mesic lowlands and smaller areas with groundwater seepage year-round. Swampy habitat was surveyed at several sites north of Noses Creek (e.g., West Trail loop, just south of Burnt Hickory Road). Within the swamp forest, tall trees create a closed-canopy over an often dense shrubby understory. Typical swampland trees and shrubs (e.g., Acer rubrum, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Cornus amomum, Lindera benzoin, Nyssa bifl ora, Oxydendrum arboreum, Salix caroliniana, and Toxicodendron radicans) also comprise woody margins bordering open wetland areas. A sparse understory of ferns and herbaceous species, such as Arisaema triphyllum, Boehmeria cylindrica, Botrychium virginianum, Cimicifuga racemosa, Clematis viorna, Onoclea sensibilis, Penthorum sedoides, Pilea pumila, and Trillium catesbaei, may occur under openings in the swamp canopy. Disturbed area. This general category refers here to cleared zones around public access areas (parking lots, roadsides, trails) and mowed fields, characterized by a variable and diverse flora that includes many non-native and invasive species (see Table 2). Examples of the numerous grasses established in fields and along roadsides at KMNBP are Andropogon ternarius, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Arthraxon hispidus, Cynodon dactylon, Dactylis glomerata, Eleusine indica, Elymus vriginicus, Eragrostis spectabilis, Hordeum pusillum, Lolium perenne var. aristatum, Paspalum spp. (e.g., P. urvillei), Sorghastrum nutans, and Tripsacum dactyloides; large tangled masses of Nepalese Browntop (Microstegium vimineum) commonly occur along trails. Other widespread weedy herbs in these habitats include Allium vineale, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Apocynum cannabinum, Cardamine hirsuta, Chamaesyce maculata, Conyza canadensis, Daucus carota, Erigeron philadelphicus, Eupatorium capillifolium, Gamochaeta purpurea, Geranium carolinianum, Hypochaeris radicata, Juncus tenuis, Lamium purpureum, Lespedeza cuneata, 142 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 Leucanthemum vulgare, Mikania scandens, Nothoscordum bivalve, Polygonum aviculare, Salvia lyrata, Solidago spp. (e.g., S. leavenworthii), Stellaria media, Symphyotrichum dumosum, and Viola bicolor. The tree and shrub border of these fields commonly comprise species such as Acer rubrum, Albizia julibrissin, Cercis canadensis, Cornus florida, Elaeagnus umbellata, Gleditsia triacanthos, Ligustrum sinense, Lonicera fragrantissima, Melia azedarach, Paulownia tomentosa, Pinus echinata, P. taeda, Quercus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Rosa multiflora, Rubus argutus, and R. trivialis—with woody vines such as Campsis radicans, Toxicodendron radicans, and Vitis rotundifolia. Importance of Vouchers The Civil War Preservation Trust (2009) lists KMNBP as one of America’s most endangered national battlefields, typically ranking second (or third), after Gettysburg in visitation numbers. Maintaining the integrity of this significant historic park is a continuing management challenge involving the balance of public use with protection of natural (and cultural) resources (Blythe et al. 1995, Capps 1994). The Park Service now recognizes the value of park floras based on vouchers deposited in recognized herbaria (see Funk et al. 2005, Ruedas et al. 2000), especially in reference to natural resource management issues. Our survey (funded for one growing season) comprises a reliable foundation for the floristics of KMNBP. Encroachment of extensive development surrounding KMNBP threatens the native component of the flora, while likely contributing to an increase in invasives and weedy species that require documentation. Continued inventory efforts should also concentrate on locating rare species (e.g., orchids) previously reported in the Park (see Appendix 2, “sight list”) but not verified by voucher specimens. Acknowledgments We thank Kelly A. Bettinger, Galen Burke, Amy Edgerton, Leah Hardeman, Claire Kurtz, and Harald Scherm for their enthusiastic assistance in the field. Kelly also maintained specimen lists and alerted us to the historic plant collections on Kennesaw Mountain by Roland M. Harper. We also greatly appreciate the invaluable support and cooperation of National Park Service personnel: Joe DeVivo, Network Coordinator; Willie R. Johnson, Park Historian; and Daniel R. Brown, (former) Park Superintendent. Walter S. Judd checked our family circumscriptions for conformance to APG, and Mary Coeli Meyer graciously orientated the first author to the Park via her yearly public wildfl ower walk (25 March 2006); Richard Carter (VSC), Kent D. Perkins (FLAS), and Michael A. Vincent (MU) identified the sterile Indigofera caroliniana specimen (Zomlefer 1187). Richard Carter and two anonymous reviewers provided constructive criticisms of the manuscript. We are also grateful to James L. Hamrick for lending his field vehicle for several collecting trips. This survey was funded by National Park Service contract agreement J2114-05-0024 (PI, W.B. 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Kennesaw Mountain Historical Association, Marietta, GA. 47 pp. Zomlefer, W.B, D.E. Giannasi, W.S. Judd, L.M. Kruse, and K.A. Bettinger. 2004. A floristic survey of Fort Matanzas National Monument, St. Johns County, Florida. Sida 21:1081–1106. Zomlefer, W.B., D.E. Giannasi, and W.S. Judd. 2007. A floristic survey of National Park Service areas of Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve (including Fort Caroline National Memorial), Duval County, Florida. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 1(2):1157–1178. Zomlefer, W.B., D.E. Giannasi, K.A. Bettinger, S.L. Echols, and L.M. Kruse. 2008. Vascular plant survey of Cumberland Island National Seashore, Camden County, Georgia. Castanea 73:251–282. 146 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 Appendix 1. Annotated list of vascular plants vouchered for Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park. This list of 538 vascular plant species (plus two varieties), representing 344 genera in 115 families was compiled from Giannasi & Zomlefer (1738–1975) and Zomlefer (840–1263, 1340–1407) collections deposited at GA. Genera, species, and infraspecific taxa are listed alphabetically within each family under four major groups (lycophytes, monilophytes [“ferns and allies”], gymnosperms, and angiosperms). Family circumscriptions have been made according to the following sources: Smith et al. (2006) for lycophytes and monilophytes ; FNA (1993) for gymnosperms; and APG (2003) for angiosperms. Scientific nomenclature and common names follow Wunderlin and Hansen (2003), Weakley (2008), and ITIS (2009). Specimen notations: G & Z = Giannasi & Zomlefer; Z = Zomlefer; * = exotic [ITIS (2009), Weakley (2008), Wunderlin and Hansen (2003)]; invasive exotics (GA–EPPC 2006): [CAT 1] = Category 1; [CAT 1A] = Category 1 Alert; [CAT 2] = Category 2; [CAT 3] = Category 3; [CAT 4] = Category 4; CULT = cultivated (i.e., planted on Park grounds); PERS = persisting from cultivation and likely not naturalized; rare plants: [Con] = species of special concern in Georgia (GA–DNR 2008b); [Pro] = protected species in Georgia (GA–DNR 2008a); [Wat] = watched plant species (GA– DNR 2008c). Habitat/locality data: DA = disturbed area (e.g., fields, mowed areas, roadsides), OH = oak-hickory forest, RS = rocky slope, WE = wetland (creek/stream, sewer overfl ow, swamp, water-filled ditches). Relative abundance: c = common (generally abundant throughout a particular habitat; species easily found); o = occasional (locally common and/or several individuals distributed within a habitat; species not too difficult to locate); i = infrequent (sporadic occurrence of a small number of individuals; species relatively scarce and not easily found); r = rare (very few individuals encountered). LYCOPHYTES LYCOPODIACEAE Lycopodium digitatum Dill. ex A. Braun [= Diphasiastrum digitatum (Dill. ex A. Braun) Holub], Fan Clubmoss—DA; i; G & Z 1744 SELAGINELLACEAE Selaginella rupestris (L.) Spring, Ledge Spikemoss—DA/RO; o; Z 986 MONILOPHYTES (“FERNS AND ALLIES”) ASPLENIACEAE Asplenium platyneuron (L.) B. S. P., Ebony Spleenwort—DA/OH/RO; c; G & Z 1910, Z 1168, 1181 DRYOPTERIDACEAE Athyrium asplenioides (Michx.) Desv. [= Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth ex Mertens ssp. asplenoides (Michx.) Hultén], Asplenium Lady Fern—OH; o; Z 1149 Onoclea sensibilis L. var. sensibilis, Sensitive Fern—DA/WE; i; G & Z 1831 Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott, Christmas Fern—OH; c; Z 882, 1144 LYGODIACEAE *Lygodium japonicum (Thunb. ex Murr.) Sw., Japanese Climbing Fern—[CAT 1]; DA; r; Z 1107 OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Botrychium biternatum (Savigny) Underw. [= Sceptridium biternatum (Savigny) Lyon], Southern Grape-fern—DA/OH; i; Z 1248, 1406 Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. [= Botrypus virginianus (L.) Holub], Rattlesnake Fern— OH; i; Z 936 POLYPODIACEAE Pleopeltis polypodioides (L.) Andrews & Windham ssp. michauxiana (Weath.) Andrews & Windham, Resurrection Fern—DA; i; Z 843 PTERIDACEAE Cheilanthes lanosa (Michx.) D.C. Eaton, Hairy Lip Fern—DA/OH/RS; c; Z 962 THELYPTERIDACEAE *Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) Ching [= Thelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) Altson], Sword Fern—DA/WE; i; Z 1091 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 147 GYMNOSPERMS CUPRESSACEAE Juniperus virginiana L., Eastern Red Cedar—CULT; G & Z 1852 PINACEAE Pinus echinata Mill., Shortleaf Pine—DA/OH/RO; c–i; G & Z 1755, Z 905 Pinus strobus L., Eastern White Pine—DA; i; G & Z 1781 Pinus taeda L., Loblolly Pine—DA; c; G & Z 1745 Pinus virginiana P. Mill., Virginia Pine—DA; o; Z 886 ANGIOSPERMS ACANTHACEAE Ruellia caroliniensis (J. F. Gmel.) Steud., Carolina Wild Petunia—DA/OH; i; Z 972 ADOXACEAE Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli [= S. canadensis L. var. canadensis; see Weakley (2008)], Common Elderberry—OH; o; Z 896 *Viburnum lantanoides Michx., Hobblebush—CULT; G & Z 1850 Viburnum prunifolium L., Blackhaw—DA/OH; i–r; G & Z 1833, Z 940 AGAVACEAE Manfreda virginica (L.) Salisb. ex Rose, False Aloe—OH/RS; r; Z 1118 Yucca filamentosa L., Adam's Needle—OH/RS; r; Z 965 ALISMATACEAE Alisma subcordatum Raf., American Water Plantain—DA/WE; o; Z 1099 Sagittaria latifolia Willd. var. pubescens (Muhl. ex Nutt.) J. G. Smith, Broadleaf Arrowhead— DA/WE; o; Z 1256 ALLIACEAE Allium canadense L. var. canadense, Canada Garlic—DA/WE; o; Z 864 *Allium vineale L., Wild Garlic—[CAT 4]; DA; o; G & Z 1939 *Narcissus pseudonarcissus L., Common Daffodil—OH; o; G & Z 1829 Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britton, Crowpoison—DA; c; G & Z 1812 ALTINGIACEAE Liquidambar styracifl ua L., Sweetgum—OH; c; Z 920 AMARANTHACEAE *Amaranthus spinosus L., Spiny Amaranth—DA; c; Z 1151 *Chenopodium album L., Lamb'squarters—DA; c; Z 1123 ANACARDIACEAE Rhus copallinum L., Winged Sumac—OH/RO; o; Z 911 Rhus glabra L., Smooth sumac—OH/RS; o; Z 963 Toxicodendron pubescens Mill., Atlantic Poison Oak—DA/RS; o; Z 1126 Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze ssp. radicans, Eastern Poison Ivy—DA/OH; c; G & Z 1957 ANNONACEAE Asimina parvifl ora (Michx.) Dunal, Smallfl ower Pawpaw—OH; o; G & Z 1861 APIACEAE Angelica venenosa (Greenway) Fern., Hairy Angelica—OH; i; Z 989 Chaerophyllum tainturieri Hook. var. tainturieri, Hairyfruit Chervil—DA/RO; o; G & Z 1846, 1929 Cicuta maculata L. var. maculata, Common Water Hemlock—DA/WE; o; Z 1139 [Specimen represents concept of C. maculata s.s.: fruits constricted at commissure; see Radford et al. (1968)] *Conium maculatum L., Poison Hemlock—DA/WE; r; Z 952 *Daucus carota L., Queen Anne's Lace—[CAT 3]; DA; o; Z 1014 Sanicula canadensis L. var. canadensis, Canadian Blacksnakeroot—OH; c–i; Z 853, 907, 919, 930 Sanicula smallii E.P. Bicknell, Small's Blacksnakeroot—OH/RS; i–c; G & Z 1909, Z 880 Thaspium pinnatifidum (Buckl.) A. Gray, Cutleaf Meadowparsnip—[Pro, GA Endangered]; OH/RS; o; G & Z 1892 Thaspium trifoliatum (L.) A. Gray var. aureum Britt., Smooth Meadowparsnip—OH; r; Z 923 *Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link, Hedge Parsley—[CAT 4]; DA/RO; o; Z 1115 148 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 APOCYNACEAE Amsonia tabernaemontana Walter var. salicifolia (Pursh) Woods., Eastern Bluestar—OH/RS; i; G & Z 1897 Apocynum cannabinum L., Indianhemp—DA; o; Z 861 Asclepias amplexicaulis Sm., Clasping Milkweed—DA; r; Z 927 Asclepias purpurascens L., Purple Milkweed—[Pro, GA Rare]; DA/WE; o; Z 1100 Asclepias syriaca L., Common Milkweed—DA; r; Z 1344 Asclepias tuberosa L. var. tuberosa, Butterfl yweed—OH/RS; r; Z 957 *Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, Madagascar Periwinkle—CULT; Z 1171 Matelea decipiens (Alexander) Woods, Oldfield Milkvine—DA; r; G & Z 1884 *Vinca major L., Bigleaf Periwinkle—[CAT 2]; OH; o; Z 934 *Vinca minor L., Common Periwinkle—[CAT 2]; DA; o; G & Z 1808 AQUIFOLIACEAE Ilex opaca Aiton, American Holly—CULT; G & Z 1851 Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray, Common Winterberry—CULT; Z 894 ARACEAE Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott ssp. pusillum (Peck) Huttl., Small Jack-in-the-pulpit—OH/ WE; o; Z 938 ARALIACEAE *Hedera helix L., English Ivy—[CAT 1]; DA; o; G & Z 1775 ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Hexastylis arifolia (Michx.) Small var. arifolia [= Asarum arifolium Michx.], Littlebrownjug— OH; o; G & Z 1792 ASTERACEAE Achillea millefolium L., Common Yarrow—DA; o; Z 922 Ageratina aromatica (L.) Spach, Lesser Snakeroot—DA/OH; o–r; Z 1358, 1401 Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Common Ragweed—DA; c; Z 1175 Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Hook., Plantainleaf Pussytoes—OH/RO/RS; o; G & Z 1766 Arnoglossum atriplicifolium (L.) H. Rob., Pale Indian Plantain—OH; r; Z 1205 Bidens bipinnata L., Spanish Needles—DA; c; Z 1119 Bidens frondosa L., Devil's Beggarsticks—DA/WE; o–i; Z 1350, 1397 Bidens tripartita L., Threelobe Beggarticks—DA/WE; c; Z 1240 Brickellia eupatorioides (L.) Shinners var. eupatorioides [= Kuhnia eupatorioides L.], False Boneset—OH/RO/RS; c; Z 1362 Chrysogonum virginianum L. var. australe (Alexander ex Small) Ahles, Green-and-gold— OH; c; G & Z 1791 Chrysopsis mariana (L.) Ell., Maryland Goldenaster—DA/OH; i; Z 1353 Cirsium horridulum Michx. var. horridulum, Yellow Thistle—DA; c; Z 876 Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. var. canadensis, Canadian Horseweed—DA; i; Z 949 Coreopsis major Walter var. rigida (Nutt.) F. E. Boynton, Stiffl eaf Coreopsis—OH; c; Z 895 *Dahlia pinnata Cav., Pinnate Dahlia (cultivar)—CULT; Z 967 Doellingeria infirma (Michx.) Greene [= Aster infirmus Michx.], Cornel-leaf Whitetop—OH; r; Z 1207 Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, Purple Conefl ower (cultivar “Blue sky sunrise")—CULT; Z 966 Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., False Daisy—DA/WE; o; Z 1153 Elephantopus carolinianus Räusch., Carolina Elephantsfoot—OH; c–o; Z 1206, 1234 Elephantopus tomentosus L., Devil's Grandmother—OH; c; Z 1134 Erechtites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC., American Burnweed—DA; i; Z 1253 Erigeron philadelphicus L. var. philadelphicus, Philadelphia Fleabane—DA/OH; c–i; G & Z 1788, 1826, 1928 Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. var. strigosus, Prairie Fleabane—DA/OH; i–o; Z 869, Z 958 Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam.) Small ex Porter & Britton, Dogfennel—DA; c; Z 1349 Eupatorium hyssopifolium L., Hyssopleaf Thoroughwort—DA; i; Z 1165 Eupatorium serotinum Michx., Latefl owering Thoroughwort—DA/WE; o–c; Z 1191, 1252 Eupatorium sessilifolium L. var. sessilifolium, Upland Boneset—[Wat]; OH; i; Z 991 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 149 Eupatorium torreyanum Short & Peter [= Eupatorium hyssopifolium L. var. laciniatum A. Gray], Torrey’s Thoroughwort—DA; o; Z 1164 Eurybia divaricata (L.) G.L. Nesom [= Aster divaricatus L.], White Wood Aster—OH; o; Z 1208 *Facelis retusa (Lam.) Sch. Bip., Annual Trampweed—OH; r; Z 845 Gamochaeta pensylvanica (Willd.) Cabrera, Pennsylvania Everlasting—DA; o; G & Z 1782 Gamochaeta purpurea (L.) Cabrera, Spoonleaf Purple Everlasting—DA; c; Z 888 Helenium amarum (Raf.) H. var. amarum, Bitter Sneezeweed—DA; r; Z 1019 Helianthus microcephalus Torr. & A. Gray, Small Woodland Sunfl ower—DA; r; Z 1351 Hieracium gronovii L., Queendevil—DA/OH; r–c; Z 1215, 1235 *Hypochaeris radicata L., Hairy Catsear—DA; i–c; G & Z 1880, Z 1109 Krigia cespitosa (Raf.) K.L. Chambers var. cespitosa [K. caespitosa, orthographic variant], Weedy Dwarfdandelion—DA; c; G & Z 1943 Krigia virginica (L.) Willd., Virginia Dwarfdandelion—DA/RO; o; G & Z 1864 Lactuca canadensis L., Canada Lettuce—DA/RO; r; G & Z 1913 *Leucanthemum vulgare Lam., Oxeye Daisy—[CAT 2]; DA; o; G & Z 1815 Liatris pilosa (Aiton) Willd. var. pilosa [= L. graminifolia Willd.; see Nesom (2006)], Shaggy Blazing Star—DA/OH/RS; o–c; Z 1220, 1244, 1359 Liatris squarrosa (L.) Michx. var. squarrosa, Scaly Gayfeather—OH/RO/RS; i; Z 1117 Liatris squarrulosa Michx., Appalachian Gayfeather—OH; i; Z 1360 Mikania scandens (L.) Willd., Climbing Hempvine—DA; o; Z 1157 Packera anonyma (A. W. Wood) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve [= Senecio anonymus Wood], Small's Ragwort—OH/RS; c; G & Z 1844 Packera glabella (Poir.) C. Jeffrey [= Senecio glabellus Poir.], Butterweed—DA; r; G & Z 1856 Pityopsis aspera (Shuttlew. ex Small) Small var. adenolepis (Fern.) Semple & Bowers [= P. adenolepis (Fern.) Semple], Carolina Silkgrass—DA/OH/RO; o–c; Z 1219, 1366 Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Nutt. [= Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Ell.], Narrowleaf Silkgrass—DA; o; Z 1386 Pluchea camphorata (L.) DC., Camphorweed—WE; r; Z 1258 Prenanthes altissima L., Rattlesnakeroot—DA/OH/WE; r; Z 1395 Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.) Hilliard & B.L. Burtt [= Gnaphalium obtusifolium L.], Rabbit Tobacco—[Wat]; DA; i; Z 1210 [Our specimen fits the concept of Gnaphalium (Pseudognaphalium) obtusifolium var. praecox Fern. (see Fernald 1950), listed on Watched Plant Species in Georgia (GA–DNR 2008c).] Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walter) DC., Carolina Desertchicory—DA; i; Z 1379 Rudbeckia hirta L. var. pulcherrima Farw., Blackeyed Susan—OH/RS; i–c; Z 960, 980 Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. laciniata, Cutleaf Conefl ower—DA/WE; o; Z 1251 Sericocarpus asteroides (L.) B.S.P. [= Aster paternus Cronq.], Toothed Whitetop Aster—OH; r; Z 1137 Silphium asteriscus L. var. dentatum (Ell.) Chapm. [= S. asteriscus var. laevicaule DC., = S. dentatum Ell.], Starry Rosinweed—OH/RO/RS; o; Z 973 Silphium compositum Michx. var. compositum, Kidneyleaf Rosinweed—OH; o; Z 999 Solidago altissima L. var. altissima, Tall Goldenrod—DA; i–o; Z 1160, 1348 Solidago arguta Aiton var. caroliniana A. Gray, Carolina Goldenrod—OH/RS; r; Z 1183 Solidago leavenworthii Torr. & A. Gray, Leavenworth's goldenrod—DA; c; Z 1400 [Specimen represents concept of S. leavenworthii s.s.; see Radford et al. (1968)] Solidago nemoralis Aiton var. nemoralis, Gray Goldenrod—DA; c; Z 1380, 1381 Solidago petiolaris Aiton var. petiolaris, Downy Ragged Goldenrod—DA/OH; c; Z 1368 *Sonchus asper (L.) Hill, Spiny Sowthistle—[CAT 4]; DA; i; G & Z 1949 *Sonchus oleraceus L., Common Sowthistle—[CAT 4]; DA; o; G & Z 1950 Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) G.L. Nesom [= Aster dumosus L.], Rice Button Aster—DA/ WE; o–c; Z 1189, 1246, 1388 Symphyotrichum patens (Aiton) G.L. Nesom var. patens [= Aster patens Aiton], Late Purple Aster—OH; c; Z 1369 Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willd.) G.L. Nesom var. pilosum [= Aster pilosus Willd.], Hairy White Oldfield Aster—DA/OH; i–o;Z 1347, 1377, 1402 150 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 Symphyotrichum puniceum (L.) A. & D. Löve [= Aster puniceus L.], Purplestem Aster—DA/ WE; c; Z 1389, 1390 Symphyotrichum undulatum (L.) G.L. Nesom [= Aster undulatus L.], Waxyleaf Aster—DA/ OH; c; Z 1367, 1370, 1371, 1375 *Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg., Common Dandelion—DA; o; G & Z 1739 Vernonia fl accidifolia Small, Tennessee Ironweed—OH; i; Z 1122 Vernonia noveboracensis (L.) Michx., New York Ironweed—DA/WE; o; Z 1254 *Youngia japonica (L.) DC., Oriental False Hawksbeard—DA/OH; i–c; G & Z 1795, 1818, 1827 BALSAMINACEAE Impatiens capensis Meerb., Spotted Touch-me-not—DA/WE; o; Z 1088 BERBERIDACEAE *Berberis thunbergii DC., Japanese Barberry—[CAT 3]; CULT; Z 1373 *Mahonia bealei Fortune, Beale's Barberry—[CAT 3]; DA/OH; r; G & Z 1746 *Nandina domestica Thunb., Heavenly Bamboo—[CAT 2]; DA; o; G & Z 1783 BETULACEAE Alnus serrulata (Aiton) Willd., Hazel Alder—DA; i; G & Z 1823 Carpinus caroliniana Walter var. caroliniana, American Hornbeam—OH; c; G & Z 1926 Corylus americana Walter, American Hazelnut—OH; i; Z 941 BIGNONIACEAE Bignonia capreolata L., Crossvine—DA; i; G & Z 1954 Campsis radicans (L.) Seemann, Trumpet Creeper—DA; o; Z 997 BORAGINACEAE *Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnst. ssp. arvensis, Corn Gromwell—OH/RO/RS; o; G & Z 1769 BRASSICACEAE *Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande, Garlic Mustard—[CAT 1A]; DA/OH/RO; c; G & Z 1848 Arabis missouriensis Greene, Green Rockcress—[Con]; DA/RO; r; G & Z 1867 *Brassica rapa L. var. rapa, Rape—DA/OH/RS; r–i; G & Z 1841, 1881 Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) Wood, Crinkleroot—OH; o; G & Z 1777 *Cardamine hirsuta L., Hairy Bittercress—DA; c; G & Z 1738 Lepidium virginicum L. var. virginicum, Virginia Pepperweed—DA; o; G & Z 1773 *Nasturtium officinale R. Br. [= Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek], European Watercress—[CAT 2]; DA/WE; c; G & Z 1951 *Raphanus raphanistrum L., Wild Radish—DA; o; G & Z 1927 *Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop., Hedgemustard—DA; o; G & Z 1882 CACTACEAE Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. var. humifusa, Pricklypear—DA/RO; o; Z 918 CALYCANTHACEAE Calycanthus fl oridus L. var. glaucus (Willd.) Torr. & A. Gray, Smooth Sweetshub—OH; o–c; G & Z 1800, Z 1182 CAMPANULACEAE Campanula divaricata Michx., Small Bonny Bellfl ower—OH; o; Z 1354 Lobelia cardinalis L., Cardinalfl ower—DA/WE; r; Z 1197 Lobelia georgiana McVaugh [= L. amoena Michx. var. glandulifera A. Gray], Southern Lobelia—DA/WE; r; Z 1384 Lobelia siphilitica L. var. siphilitica, Great Blue Lobelia—DA/WE; i; Z 1242 Lobelia spicata Lam., Pale-spike Lobelia—DA/WE; r; Z 1081 Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl., Clasping Venus' Lookingglass—DA; o; G & Z 1953 CANNABACEAE Celtis laevigata Willd., Sugarberry—OH/RS; o; G & Z 1886 Celtis occidentalis L., Hackberry—OH; c; G & Z 1878 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 151 CAPRIFOLIACEAE *Lonicera fragrantissima Lindl. & Paxton, January Jasmine—[CAT 3]; DA; o; G & Z 1774 *Lonicera japonica Thunb., Japanese Honeysuckle—[CAT 1]; DA/OH; c; G & Z 1747 *Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder, Amur Honeysuckle—[CAT 2]; DA/OH; i–o; G & Z 1853, Z 1364 CARYOPHYLLACEAE *Cerastium glomeratum Thuill., Mouse-ear Chickweed—DA; o; G & Z 1768 *Dianthus armeria L. ssp. armeria, Deptford Pink—DA; o; Z 862 Minuartia unifl ora (Walter) Mattf., Onefl ower Stitchwort—DA/RO; o; G & Z 1866 *Saponaria officinalis L., Bouncingbet—DA; o; Z 1124 Silene antirrhina L., Sleepy Catchfl y—DA; o; G & Z 1948 Silene stellata (L.) Aiton f., Whorled Catchfl y—OH/RS; o; Z 1116 Silene virginica L., Fire Pink—DA/OH; r–c; G & Z 1796, 1834 *Stellaria media (L.) Vill., Common Chickweed—DA; o; G & Z 1742 Stellaria pubera Michx., Great Chickweed—OH/WE; i; G & Z 1803 CELASTRACEAE *Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold, Winged Spindle Tree—[CAT 4]; CULT; Z 1172 Euonymus americanus L., Strawberry-bush—DA; r; G & Z 1763 COLCHICACEAE Uvularia perfoliata L., Perfoliate Bellwort—OH; i; G & Z 1794, Z 855 COMMELINACEAE *Commelina communis L., Asiatic Dayfl ower—OH; i; Z 1143 Commelina virginica L., Virginia Dayfl ower—DA/OH/WE; i–o; Z 983, 1094 *Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz., Asian Spiderwort—[CAT 1]; DA/OH/WE; c; Z 1141 Tradescantia ohiensis Raf., Bluejacket—OH; i–o; G & Z 1838, Z 993 CONVOLVULACEAE Cuscuta campestris Yuncker [= C. pentagona Englm. var. pentagona], Fiveangled Dodder— DA; i; Z 959 Dichondra carolinensis Michx., Carolina Ponysfoot—DA; c; Z 1128 *Ipomoea hederacea Jacq., Ivyleaf Morning-glory—DA; i; Z 1173 Ipomoea hederifolia L., Scarletcreeper—DA; o; Z 1188 Ipomoea lacunosa L., Whitestar—DA; r–o; Z 1261, 1345 Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G. Mey, Man-of-the-earth—DA; r; Z 985 *Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Tall Morning-glory—[CAT 4]; DA/OH; r–i; Z 988, 1174 CORNACEAE Cornus amomum Mill., Silky Dogwood—DA/WE; i; Z 1078 Cornus fl orida L., Flowering Dogwood—DA; c; G & Z 1786 Nyssa bifl ora Walter [= N. sylvatica Marshall var. bifl ora (Walter) Sarg.], Swamp Tupelo— OH/WE; r–c; Z 969, Z 1262 Nyssa sylvatica Marshall [N. sylvatica var. sylvatica], Blackgum—OH; i; Z 942 CRASSULACEAE *Hylotelephium erythrostictum (Miq.) H. Ohba. [= Sedum erythrostictum Miq.], Garden Stonecrop—CULT; Z 1170 CYPERACEAE Carex caroliniana Schwein., Carolina Sedge—DA/WE; i; Z 1010 Carex cherokeensis Schwein., Cherokee Sedge—DA; o–c; G & Z 1817, 1894 Carex complanata Torr. & Hook., Blue Sedge—OH; o; Z 847a Carex digitalis Willd. var. digitalis, Slender Woodland Sedge—DA/OH; i–c; G & Z 1931, Z 854 Carex festucacea Schkukr ex Willd., Fescue Sedge—OH/RO; o; G & Z 1916, Z 847b Carex frankii Kunth, Frank's Sedge—DA/WE; o; Z 1009 Carex lupulina Muhl. ex Willd., Hop Sedge—DA/WE; c; Z 1011 Carex lurida Wahlenb., Shallow Sedge—DA/WE; o; G & Z 1941, Z 1008 Carex muhlenbergii Schkuhr ex Willd. var. muhlenbergii, Muhlenberg's Sedge—OH; o; Z 904 Carex nigromarginata Schwein., Blackedge Sedge—OH; o; G & Z 1778 152 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 Carex normalis Mackenzie, Greater Straw Sedge—OH; i; Z 850 Carex stipata Muhl. ex Willd. var. stipata, Owlfruit Sedge—DA/WE; i; Z 873 Carex texensis (Torr.) Bailey, Texas Sedge—DA/OH; o–c; G & Z 1895, Z 852 Carex tribuloides Wahlenb. var. sangamonensis Clokey, Festival Sedge—DA/WE; i; Z 1006 Cyperus strigosus L. Strawcolored Flatsedge—DA/WE; i–o; Z 981, 1086, 1196, 1199 Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schult., Blunt Spikerush—DA/WE; c; Z 870 Rhynchospora microcephala (Britton) Britton ex Small, Smallhead Beaksedge—DA/WE; c; Z 1072 Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth, Woolgrass—DA/WE; o; Z 1102 Scirpus georgianus Harper [= S. atrovirens Willd. var. georgianus (Harper) Fern.], Georgia Bullrush—DA/WE; c; Z 871, 1079 DIOSCOREACEAE Dioscorea villosa L., Wild Yam—OH; o; Z 935 EBENACEAE Diospyros virginiana L., Common Persimmon—OH; r; Z 933 ELAEAGNACEAE *Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifl ora (Royle) Schneid., Autumn Olive—[CAT 1]; DA; i; G & Z 1825 ERICACEAE Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh., Spotted Wintergreen—OH; i; Z 885 Gaylussacia frondosa (L.) Torr. & A. Gray ex Torr., Blue Huckleberry—OH; i; Z 1003 Monotropa unifl ora L., Indianpipe—OH; r; Z 1405 Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC., Sourwood—DA/WE; i; Z 1080 Rhododendron canescens (Michx.) Sweet, Sweet Pinxter Azalea—OH; o; G & Z 1857 Rhododendron catawbiense Michx., Catawba Rhododendron—CULT; Z 1169 Vaccinium arboreum Marshall, Sparkleberry—OH/RO; o; Z 917 Vaccinium stamineum L. var. stamineum, Common Deerberry—OH; i; G & Z 1824 EUPHORBIACAE Acalypha gracilens A. Gray, Slender Threeseed Mercury—DA; r–i; Z 1097, 1114 Acalypha rhomboidea Raf., Diamond Threeseed Mercury—OH; o; Z 1201 Chamaesyce hyssopifolia (L.) Small, Hyssopleaf Sandmat—DA; o; Z 1228 Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small, Spotted Sandmat—DA; c; Z 1111 Chamaesyce nutans (Lag.) Small, Eyebane—DA; o; Z 1155 Croton glandulosus L. var. septentrionalis Muell., Vente Conmigo—DA; c; Z 1152 Croton monanthogynus Michx., Oneseeded Croton—OH/RO; o; Z 1179 Euphorbia pubentissima Michx. [= E. corollata L. var. zinnifl ora Small], False Flowering Spurge—OH; o; Z 856 Tragia urticifolia Michx., Nettleleaf Noseburn—OH/RS; r; Z 977 FABACEAE *Albizia julibrissin Durazz., Silktree—[CAT 1]; DA; o; Z 1391 Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern. var. comosa (L.) Fern., American Hogpeanut—OH; r; Z 1204 Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth., Spurred Butterfl y Pea—DA/OH; i; Z 974 Cercis canadensis L. var. canadensis, Eastern Redbud—DA/OH; o; G & Z 1758 Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene var. fasciculata, Partridge Pea—OH/RO; i; Z 1180 Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench var. nictitans, Southern Sensitive Pea—DA; o; Z 1198 Clitoria mariana L. var. mariana, Atlantic Pigeonwings—OH; i; Z 1216 Desmodium fl oridanum Chapm., Florida Ticktrefoil—DA/OH; r–c; Z 1202, 1223, 1224, 1361 Desmodium lineatum DC., Sand Ticktrefoil—DA/OH/WE; o; Z 1232, 1245 Desmodium marilandicum (L.) DC., Smooth Small-leaf Ticktrefoil—DA/WE; o; Z 1247 Desmodium nudifl orum (L.) DC. [= Hylodesmum nudifl orum (L.) H. Ohashi & R. R. Mill], Nakedfl ower Ticktrefoil—OH/RS; c; Z 1121 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 153 Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC. var. paniculatum, Panicled Ticktrefoil—OH; o; Z 1225 Desmodium viridifl orum (L.) DC., Velvetleaf Ticktrefoil—OH; c; Z 1231 Galactia volubilis (L.) Britton, Downy Milkpea—OH; c; Z 1167 Gleditsia triacanthos L., Honey Locust—DA; o; G & Z 1933, Z 1125 Indigofera caroliniana Mill., Carolina Indigo—DA; i; Z 1187 [Specimen non-reproductive; vegetative characters best match this species, which would be out of its typical range in Cobb County, GA (see Weakley 2009).] *Lathyrus latifolius L., Perennial Pea—DA; o; Z 1018 *Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don, Sericea Lespedeza—[CAT 1]; DA; c; Z 1104 Lespedeza procumbens Michx., Trailing Lespedeza—OH; c; Z 1230 Lespedeza repens (L.) W.P.C. Barton, Creeping Lespedeza—OH; o–c; Z 1000, 1213 Lespedeza violacea (L.) Pers., Violet Lespedeza—OH; i; Z 1214 [Specimen represents segregate L. intermedia Britton] Lespedeza virginica (L.) Britton, Slender Lespedeza—DA/OH; o; Z 1229, 1241 *Medicago lupulina L., Black Medick—DA; c; G & Z 1767 *Melilotus albus Medik., White Sweetclover—[CAT 3]; DA; o; Z 994 Mimosa microphylla Dry. [= M. quadrivalvis L. var. angustata (Torr. & A. Gray) Barneby], Littleleaf Sensitive Brier—OH; i; Z 899 *Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. M. Almeida, Kudzu— [CAT 1]; DA; c; Z 1154 Robinia pseudoacacia L., Black Locust—DA; o–c; Z 1159, 1186 Stylosanthes bifl ora (L.) B.S.P., Sidebeak Pencilfl ower—OH; i; Z 1001 Tephrosia spicata (Walter) Torr.& A. Gray, Spiked Hoarypea—DA; c; Z 1070 Tephrosia virginiana (L.) Pers., Goat's Rue—OH; r; Z 929 *Trifolium arvense L., Rabbitfoot Clover—DA; i; Z 1017 *Trifolium campestre Schreb., Field Clover—DA; o; G & Z 1942 *Trifolium dubium Sibth., Smallhop Clover—DA; i; G & Z 1828 *Trifolium pratense L., Red Clover—DA; i; G & Z 1879 *Trifolium repens L., White Clover—DA; i; G & Z 1772 *Vicia sativa L. ssp. nigra (L.) Ehrh. [= V. angustifolia Riechard], Common Vetch—DA; o; G & Z 1770 *Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreb., Lentil Vetch—DA/WE; o; Z 874 *Vicia villosa Roth ssp. varia (Host) Corb. [Incl. V. dasycarpa Ten.], Winter Vetch—DA; i; G & Z 1899 Wisteria frutescens (L.) Poir., American Wisteria—OH; i; G & Z 1891 FAGACEAE Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. var. caroliniana (Loudon) Fern. & Rehder, American Beech—OH; c; Z 943 Quercus alba L., White Oak—DA; r; G & Z 1919 Quercus falcata Michx., Southern Red Oak—DA; c; G & Z 1819 Quercus lyrata Walter, Overcup Oak—DA/RO; r–o; G & Z 1918, Z 914b Quercus marilandica Muenchh. var. marilandica, Blackjack Oak—DA/RO; o; Z 913 Quercus montana Willd., Rock Chestnut Oak—DA/RO; o; Z 912 Quercus nigra L., Water Oak—DA; o; G & Z 1820 Quercus stellata Wangenh., Post Oak—DA/RO; o; Z 914a Quercus velutina Lam., Black Oak—DA; r; Z 893 GERANIACEAE Geranium carolinianum L. var. carolinianum, Carolina Cranes-bill—DA; c; G & Z 1945 Geranium maculatum L., Spotted Crane's-bill—DA/OH; r; G & Z 1789 *Geranium pusillum L., Small-fl ower Crane's-bill—DA; o; G & Z 1920 HAMAMELIDACAE Hamamelis virginiana L. var. virginiana, American Witchhazel—OH; i; Z 939 *Loropetalum chinense (R. Br.) Oliv., Chinese Fringefl ower—CULT; G & Z 1784 HEMEROCALLIDACEAE *Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L., Orange Daylily (cultivar)—[CAT 3]; CULT; Z 891 154 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 HYACINTHACEAE *Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Ten., Starch Grapehyacinth—OH; r; G & Z 1804 *Ornithogalum umbellatum L., Star–of-Bethlehem—DA/OH; o; G & Z 1814 HYDRANGEACEAE Hydrangea arborescens L., Wild Hydrangea—OH; i; Z 987 Philadelphus hirsutus Nutt., Streambank Mock Orange—OH/RS; o; G & Z 1902 HYPERICACEAE Hypericum gentianoides (L.) B.S.P., Pineweeds—OH; i; Z 1404 Hypericum hypericoides (L.) Crantz ssp. multicaule (Michx. ex Willd.) Robson [= H. stragalum P. Adams & Robson], St. Andrew's Cross—DA/OH; r–o; G & Z 1862, Z 1217 Hypericum mutilum L. var. mutilum, Dwarf St. John's-wort—DA/WE; c; Z 1083 Hypericum punctatum Lam., Spotted St. John's-wort—DA/OH/RS/WE; i; Z 976, 1069 HYPOXIDACEAE Hypoxis curtissii Rose [H. hirsuta (L.) Coville, misapplied], Common Yellow Stargrass—DA; o; Z 842 IRIDACEAE Sisyrinchium albidum Raf., White Blue-eyed Grass—OH/RS; o; G & Z 1837 Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill., Narrowleaf Blue-eyed Grass—OH; r; Z 931 Sisyrinchium mucronatum Michx. [S. albidum Raf., misapplied], Needle-tip Blue-eyed Grass—DA; o; Z 866 Sisyrinchium nashii E. P. Bicknell, Nash's Blue-eyed Grass—OH/RS; r; G & Z 1893 *Sisyrinchium rosulatum E. P. Bicknell, Annual Blue-eyed Grass—DA; o; Z 946 ITEACEAE Itea virginica L., Virginia Willow—CULT; G & Z 1917 JUGLANDACEAE Carya alba (L.) Nutt. [= C. tomentosa (Lam.) Nutt.], Mockernut Hickory—OH; c; Z 916 Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet var. glabra, Pignut Hickory—OH; o–c; Z 915, 1382 Carya pallida (Ashe) Engl. & Graebn., Sand Hickory—DA; r; G & Z 1870, Z 1222 Juglans nigra L., Black Walnut—OH; r; Z 1103 JUNCACEAE Juncus acuminatus Michx., Tapertip Rush—DA/WE; c; G & Z 1955, Z 872 Juncus effusus L. ssp. solutus (Fern. & Wieg.) Hämet-Ahti, Common Rush—DA/WE; o; G & Z 1922 Juncus marginatus Rostk., Grassleaf Rush—DA/WE; o; Z 948 Juncus tenuis Willd., Path Rush—DA; i–c; G & Z 1932, Z 1127 Luzula bulbosa (Wood) Smyth & Smyth, Bulbous Woodrush—DA; o; G & Z 1873 LAMIACEAE Collinsonia verticillata Baldw., Stoneroot—OH; i; Z 897 *Glechoma hederacea L., Groundivy—DA; o; G & Z 1752 *Lamium amplexicaule L. var. amplexicaule, Henbit Deadnettle—DA; o; G & Z 1749 *Lamium purpureum L., Purple Deadnettle—DA; c; G & Z 1748 Monarda fistulosa L. var. mollis (L.) Benth., Eastern Bergamot—[Wat]; DA; c; Z 998 *Mosla dianthera (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Maxim., Miniature Beefsteak—[CAT 3]; DA; c; Z 1357 *Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, Beefsteakplant—DA/WE; r; Z 1239 *Prunella vulgaris L. var. vulgaris, Common Selfheal—DA; r; G & Z 1914 *Prunella vulgaris L. var. lanceolata (Fern.) Hultén, Lance Selfheal—DA; c; Z 1108 Pycnanthemum muticum (Michx.) Pers., Clustered Mountainmint—OH/RS; c; Z 978 Salvia azurea Michx. ex Lam. var. azurea, Azure Blue Sage—OH; r; Z 1356 Salvia lyrata L., Lyreleaf Sage—DA; c; G & Z 1871 Salvia urticifolia L., Nettleleaf Sage—OH/RS; i; G & Z 1877 Scutellaria elliptica Muhl. ex Spreng. var. hirsuta, Hairy Skullcap—DA; i; Z 924 Teucrium canadense L. var. hypoleucum Griseb., Wood Sage—DA/WE; i; Z 1073 LAURACEAE Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume var. pubescens, Hairy Northern Spicebush—OH; i; G & Z 1798 Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees, Sassafras—DA; r; G & Z 1757 LILIACEAE *Lilium lancifolium Thunb. [= L. tigrinum Ker-Gawl.], Tiger Lily—DA; r; Z 961 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 155 LINACEAE Linum striatum Walter, Ridged Yellow Flax—OH; o; Z 1002 MAGNOLIACEAE Liriodendron tulipifera L., Tuliptree—OH; c; Z 844 Magnolia grandifl ora L., Southern Magnolia—CULT; Z 968 MALVACEAE *Hibiscus syriacus L., Rose-of-Sharon—[CAT 3]; PERS?; OH; i; Z 1184 Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don, Carolina Bristlemallow—DA; i; G & Z 1923 Sida rhombifolia L. var. rhomibifolia, Cuban Jute—OH; r; Z 1226b, Z 1394 *Sida spinosa L., Prickly Fanpetals—OH; r; Z 1226a MELANTHIACEAE Trillium catesbaei Ell., Bashful Wakerobin—OH/WE; c; G & Z 1805 Trillium rugelii Rendle [= T. cernuum L.], Illscented Wakerobin—OH; o; G & Z 1799 MELASTOMATACEAE Rhexia mariana L. var. mariana, Maryland Meadowbeauty—DA/WE; c; Z 1074 MELIACEAE *Melia azedarach L., Chinaberry Tree—[CAT 1]; DA; o; G & Z 1937 MENISPERMACEAE Cocculus carolinus (L.) DC., Carolina Coralbead—DA/OH; r; Z 984 MOLLUGINACEAE *Mollugo verticillata L., Carpetweed—DA; r; Z 1112 MONTIACEAE Phemeranthus teretifolius (Pursh) Raf. [= Talinum teretifolium Pursh ], Quill Famefl ower— OH/RO/RS; r; Z 964 MORACEAE *Morus alba L., White Mulberry—[CAT 3]; DA; r; G & Z 1854 Morus rubra L., Red Mulberry—OH; i; Z 1185 MYRSINACEAE Lysimachia ciliata L., Fringed Loosestrife—DA/WE; i; Z 1075 Lysimachia lanceolata Walter var. lanceolata, Lanceleaf Loosestrife—OH; r; Z 1004 Lysimachia tonsa (Wood) Wood ex Pax & R. Knuth, Southern yellow Loosestrife—OH/RO/RS; i; Z 975 OLEACEAE *Ligustrum sinense Lour., Chinese Privet—[CAT 1]; DA; i; G & Z 1754 ONAGRACEAE Gaura filipes Spach, Slenderstalk Beeblossom—DA; o; Z 979 Ludwigia alternifolia L., Seedbox—DA/WE; i–o; Z 1071, 1192 Ludwigia decurrens Walter, Wingleaf Primrosewillow—DA/WE; i; Z 1236, 1237 Oenothera biennis L., Common Eveningprimrose—DA; i; Z 1190 ORCHIDACEAE Spiranthes lacera (Raf.) Raf. var. gracilis (Bigelow) Luer, Northern Slender Ladiestresses— DA/WE; i; Z 1243 Tipularia discolor (Pursh) Nutt., Cranefl y Orchid—OH/WE; i; Z 1150 OROBANCHACEAE Agalinis obtusifolia Raf., Tenlobe False Foxglove—DA; o; Z 1352 Aureolaria virginica (L.) Pennell, Downy Yellow False Foxglove—OH; r; Z 1203 OXALIDACEAE Oxalis corniculata L. [= O. dillenii Jacq.; = O. stricta L.], Common Yellow Woodsorrel—DA; o; G & Z 1771 Oxalis priceae Small ssp. colorea (Small) Eiten [= O. lyonii Pursh], Tufted Yellow Woodsorrel— OH/RS; o; G & Z 1840 Oxalis violacea L., Violet Woodsorrel—DA/OH/RS; i–o; G & Z 1860, 1901 PAPAVERACEAE Sanguinaria canadensis L., Bloodroot—OH; o; Z 841 156 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 PASSIFLORACEAE Passifl ora incarnata L., Purple Passionfl ower—DA; o; Z 1131 PAULOWNIACEAE *Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc. ex Steud., Princesstree—[CAT 1]; DA/OH/RS; c; G & Z 1896, Z 878 PENTHORACEAE Penthorum sedoides L., Ditch Stonecrop—DA/WE; o; Z 1089 PHRYMACEAE *Mazus pumilus (Burm. f.) Steenis, Japanese Mazus—DA; r–i; G & Z 1785, Z 1093 Mimulus ringens L. var. ringens, Allegheny Monkeyfl ower—DA; i; Z 1161 Phryma leptostachya L. var. leptostachya, American Lopseed—OH; o; Z 992 PHYLLANTHACEAE *Phyllanthus urinaria L. ssp. urinaria, Chamber Bitter—DA; c; Z 1211 PHYTOLACCACEAE Phytolacca americana L. var. americana, American Pokeweed—OH; i; Z 990 PLANTAGINACEAE (VERONICACEAE) *Digitalis purpurea L., Purple Foxglove—CULT; Z 1374 [Specimen comprises only basal rosette leaves.] Nuttallanthus canadensis (L.) D.A. Sutton [= Linaria canadensis (L.) Chaz.], Canada Toadfl ax—DA/RO; o; G & Z 1865 Penstemon australis Small, Eustis Lake Beardtongue—OH/RO/RS; o; G & Z 1885 *Plantago lanceolata L., English Plantain—DA; c; G & Z 1936 *Plantago major L., Common Plantain—DA; o; Z 996 Plantago virginica L., Virginia Plantain—DA; o; Z 951 *Verbascum thapsus L., Common Mullein—[CAT 4]; DA; o; Z 1162 *Veronica hederifolia L., Ivyleaf Speedwell—DA; o; G & Z 1751 Veronica spicata L., Spiked Speedwell (cultivar)—CULT; Z 889 PLATANACEAE Platanus occidentalis L. var. occidentalis, American Sycamore—DA; r; G & Z 1855 POACEAE *Aira caryophyllea L., Silver Hairgrass—DA; o; Z 887 Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) B.S.P. var. glomeratus, Bushy Bluestem—DA/WE; o; Z 1385 Andropogon ternarius Michx. var. ternarius, Splitbeard Bluestem—DA; c; Z 1376 *Anthoxanthum odoratum L., Sweet Vernalgrass—[CAT 3]; DA; c; G & Z 1787, 1813, 1816, 1930, Z 1106 *Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino var. hispidus, Small Carpgrass—[CAT 1A]; DA; c; Z 1341 Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Walter ex Muhl., Switchcane—DA/WE; o; G & Z 1863 *Avena sativa L. [= A. fatua L. var. sativa (L.) Hausskn.], Common Oat—DA/WE; c; G & Z 1946 Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb. ex Spreng.) P. Beauv., Bearded Shorthusk—OH; c; Z 1148 *Briza minor L., Little Quakinggrass—DA/RS. o; Z 956 *Bromus commutatus Schrad., Hairy Chess—DA/OH/WE; i–o; G & Z 1947, Z 901 *Bromus secalinus L., Rye Brome—[CAT 4]; OH; i; Z 902 *Bromus tectorum L., Downy Brome—[CAT 4]; DA/RS; o; G & Z 1904 Chasmanthium laxum (L.) Yates var. laxum, Slender Woodoats—DA/WE; c; Z 1372 Cinna arundinacea L., Stout woodreed—DA/WE; i–o; Z 1200, 1260 *Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon, Bermudagrass—[CAT 2]; DA; c; Z 1113 *Dactylis glomerata L., Orchardgrass—DA; c; G & Z 1934 Danthonia sericea Nutt., Downy Danthonia—DA/RO; i; Z 908 Danthonia spicata (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., Povertyoatgrass—DA; o; G & Z 1924 Dichanthelium clandestinum (L.) Gould, Deertongue Witchgrass—DA; o; Z 954 Dichanthelium commutatum (Schult.) Gould, Variable Switchgrass—OH; i–o; Z 848; 903a Dichanthelium depauperatum (Muhl.) Gould, Starved Panicgrass—DA/RO; r; Z 909 Dichanthelium dichotomum (L.) Gould var. dichotomum, Cypress Witchgrass—DA; o; Z 1129 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 157 Dichanthelium dichotomum (L.) Gould var. ramulosum (Torr.) LeBlond, Cypress Witchgrass— OH; o; Z 858 Dichanthelium laxifl orum (Lam.) Gould, Openfl ower Witchgrass—DA/OH; i–c; G & Z 1938, Z 846b, 865, 879, 945 Dichanthelium ravenelii (Scribn. & Merr.) Gould, Ravenel's Witchgrass—OH; o; Z 846a Dichanthelium scoparium (Lam.) Gould, Velvet Witchgrass—DA/WE; o; Z 1077 Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon (Ell.) Gould var. isophyllum (Scribn.) Gould & C. A. Clark [= D. polyanthes Schult.], Roundseed Panicgrass—DA/OH/RO; r–o; Z 903b, 955, 1403 Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler, Southern Crabgrass—DA/OH; o; Z 1163, 1399 *Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb. ex Schweigg.) Schreb. ex Muhl., Smooth Crabgrass—OH; o; Z 1398 *Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link [E. colona, orthographic variant], Jungle Rice—DA/WE; o–c; Z 1084, 1156 *Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv., Barnyardgrass—DA/WE; c; Z 1101 *Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Indian Goosegrass—DA; c; Z 1130, 1363 Elymus virginicus L. var. virginicus, Virginia Wildrye—DA; o; Z 970 *Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees, Weeping Lovegrass—[CAT 3]; DA/RS; o; G & Z 1905 Eragrostis hirsuta (Michx.) Nees, Bigtop Lovegrass—DA/RO; o; Z 1178 Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Steud., Purple Lovegrass—DA; o–c; Z 1212, 1378 Festuca subverticillata (Pers.) E.B. Alexeev [= F. obtusa Biehler], Nodding Fescue—DA/OH/ RO; i–o; G & Z 1915, Z 849, 1133 Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. var. striata, Fowl Mannagrass—DA/OH/WE; r–c; G & Z 1940, Z 921 Gymnopogon ambiguus (Michx.) B.S.P., Bearded Skeletongrass—OH; o; Z 1392 Hordeum pusillum Nutt., Little Barley—DA; c; Z 863 Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw., Rice Cutgrass—DA/WE; o; Z 1007, 1342 *Lolium perenne L. var. aristatum Willd., Italian Ryegrass—DA; o; G & Z 1898 Melica mutica Walter, Twofl ower Melicgrass—OH/RO/RS; i; G & Z 1906 *Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus, Nepalese Browntop—[CAT 1]; DA/WE; o–c; Z 1177, 1343, 1396 Muhlenbergia schreberi J. F. Gmel., Nimblewill Muhly—OH; o; Z 1218 Panicum anceps Michx., Beaked Panicum—DA/OH/WE; o–c; Z 1085, 1140 Panicum virgatum L., Switchgrass—DA/OH/WE; o–c; Z 1138, Z 1227, 1257, 1383 *Paspalum dilatatum Poir., Dallisgrass—DA; o; Z 947, 1020 *Paspalum urvillei Steud., Vaseygrass—[CAT 3]; DA; o; Z 1263 Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. ssp. australis, Common Reed—DA/WE; o; Z 1195 *Phyllostachys aurea Carrière ex Rivière & C. Rivière, Golden Bamboo—[CAT 2]; OH; o; Z 883 Piptochaetium avenaceum (L.) Parodi [= Stipa avaenaceum L.], Blackseed Needlegrass— DA/OH; o–c; G & Z 1858, 1903 *Poa annua L., Annual Bluegrass—[CAT 3]; DA; o; G & Z 1741 Poa cuspidata Nutt., Early Bluegrass—DA/WE; o; G & Z 1921 *Poa pratensis L. ssp. pratensis, Kentucky Bluegrass—OH/RO; c; G & Z 1847 Saccharum alopecuroideum (L.) Nutt. [= Erianthus alopecuroides (L.) Ell.], Silver Plumegrass— OH; c; Z 1407 *Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort. [= Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.], Tall Fescue—[CAT 3]; DA/OH; o–c; G & Z 1843, 1935, Z 857 Setaria parvifl ora (Poir.) Kerguélen, Yellow Bristlegrass—DA; i–o; Z 971, 1105, 1176 *Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. ssp. pumila, Yellow Bristlegrass—[CAT 4]; DA/WE; o; Z 1194 158 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 Sorghastrum elliottii (C. Mohr) Nash, Slender Indiangrass—OH; i; Z 1393 Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash, Yellow Indiangrass—DA; c; Z 1249 *Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., Johnsongrass—[CAT 3]; DA/WE; o; Z 953 Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.) Scribn., Prairie Wedgescale—OH; r; G & Z 1859 Sporobolus clandestinus (Biehler) Hitchc. [= S. compositus (Poir.) Merr. var. clandestinus (Biehler) Wipff & S.D. Jones], Hidden Dropseed—DA/RO; i; Z 1355 *Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. var. indicus, Smutgrass—DA; o; Z 1209 Tridens fl avus (L.) Hitchc. var. fl avus, Tall Redtop—DA; i–c; Z 1132, 1340 Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L. var. dactyloides, Eastern Gamagrass—DA; o; Z 1015 *Triticum aestivum L., Common Wheat—DA; i; G & Z 1944 Vulpia octofl ora (Walter) Rydb., Sixweeks Fescue—OH; i; Z 900 *Zea mays L. ssp. mays, Corn— PERS?; DA; i; Z 1346 [Sprouting grain in gravel between railroad ties] POLEMONIACEAE Phlox pilosa L. ssp. pilosa, Downy Phlox—DA/OH/RS; r–o; G & Z 1839, 1876 POLYGALACEAE Polygala polygama Walter, Racemed Milkwort—DA; o; Z 1016 POLYGONACEAE *Polygonum aviculare L., Prostrate Knotweed—DA; c; Z 1110 *Polygonum caespitosum Blume var. longisetum (Bruijn) Steward [= Persicaria longiseta (Brujin) Kitagawa], Oriental Lady's-thumb—[CAT 4]; DA/OH/WE; i–o; Z 906, 944, 1145, 1233 Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. [= Persicaria hydropiperoides (Michx.) Small], Mild Waterpepper—DA/WE; c; Z 1076 *Polygonum lapathifolium L. [= Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) A. Gray], Curlytop Knotweed— DA/WE; o; Z 1250 Polygonum pensylvanicum L. [= Persicaria pensylvanica (L.) M. Gómez], Pennsylvania Smartweed—DA/WE; i; Z 1255 Polygonum punctatum Ell. [= Persicaria punctata (Ell.) Small], Dotted Smartweed—OH/WE; i; Z 1146 Polygonum sagittatum L. [= Persicaria sagittata (L.) H. Gross], Arrowleaf Tearthumb—DA/ WE; c; Z 1012 Polygonum scandens L. var. cristatum (Englem. & A. Gray) Gleason [= Fallopia scandens (L.) Holub], Climbing False Buckwheat—DA/OH; o; Z 1365 *Rumex crispus L. ssp. crispus, Curly Dock—DA; i; G & Z 1956 Rumex hastatulus Baldwin, Heartwing Dock—DA; o; G & Z 1872 *Rumex obtusifolius L., Bitter Dock—DA; o; Z 1021 PORTULACACAE Portulaca oleracea L., Little Hogweed—DA; i; Z 1120 RANUNCULACEAE Anemonella thalictroides (L.) Spach [= Thalictrum thalictroides (L.) A. J. Eames & B. Boivin], Rue Anemone—OH; o; Z 840 Aquilegia canadensis L., Wild Columbine—OH/RS; o; G & Z 1845 Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. [= Actaea racemosa L.], Black Bugbane—OH/WE; o; Z 937 Clematis viorna L., Vasevine—DA/WE; r–i; Z 1090, 1259 Clematis virginiana L., Virgin’s Bower—DA; o; Z 119 Ranunculus abortivus L., Littleleaf Buttercup—OH; o–c; G & Z 1740, Z 881 *Ranunculus bulbosus L., Bulbous Buttercup—DA; o; G & Z 1811 Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. var. recurvatus, Blisterwort—OH; o; G & Z 1790 *Ranunculus sardous Crantz, Hairy Buttercup—DA/WE; c; Z 884 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 159 RHAMNACEAE Ceanothus americanus L., New Jersey Tea—OH; o; Z 925 ROSACEAE Agrimonia parvifl ora Aiton, Harvestlice—DA/WE; r; Z 1387 Agrimonia rostellata Wallr., Beaked Agrimony—OH; o; Z 1142 Crataegus spathulata Michx., Littlehip Hawthhorn—OH; r; Z 1005 Fragaria virginiana Duchesne, Virginia Strawberry—DA; i; G & Z 1807 Geum canadense Jacq., White Avens—OH; o; Z 1136 Malus angustifolia (Aiton) Michx., Southern Crabapple—DA; i; G & Z 1821 *Potentilla indica (Andrews) T. Wolf [= Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke], Indian Strawberry—DA; o; G & Z 1750 *Potentilla recta L., Sulphur Cinquefoil—DA; i; Z 860 Potentilla simplex Michx., Common Cinquefoil—DA; i; G & Z 1908, Z 875 Prunus angustifolia Marshall var. angustifolia, Chickasaw Plum—OH/RS; o; G & Z 1836 *Prunus persica (L.) Batsch var. persica, Peach— PERS; OH; i; G & Z 1779, 1780 [Trees on apex of Kennesaw Mt.; likely persisting from cultivation; not naturalized.] Prunus serotina Ehrh. var. serotina, Black Cherry—DA; r–c; G & Z 1809, 1810 Prunus umbellata Ell., Flatwoods Plum—DA/OH/RO/RS; i–c; G & Z 1835, 1868, 1869 *Pyrus communis L., Common Pear— PERS; DA; r; G & Z 1762 [One tree in open field, persisting from cultivation; not naturalized.] Rosa carolina L., Carolina Rose—DA/RO; i; Z 910 *Rosa multifl ora Thunb. ex Murr., Multifl ora Rose—[CAT 1]; DA; i–c; G & Z 1759, 1925 [1759 is a possible hybrid with R. wichuraiana Crépin (lateral leafl ets rounded; S. L. Echols, pers. obs.).] *Rosa odorata (Andr.) Sweet, Tea Rose—DA; r; Z 890 Rubus argutus Link, Sawtooth Blackberry—DA; c; Z 950 *Rubus bifrons Vest ex Tratt., Himalayan Blackberry—DA; i; G & Z 1900 Rubus occidentalis L., Black Raspberry—DA; o; Z 995 Rubus trivialis Michx., Southern Dewberry—DA; c; G & Z 1875 RUBIACEAE Cephalanthus occidentalis L., Common Buttonbush—DA/WE; o; Z 1087 Diodia teres Walter, Rough Buttonweed—DA; o; Z 1166 Diodia virginiana L., Virginia Buttonweed—DA/WE; o; Z 1082 Galium aparine L., Spring Cleavers—OH; c; G & Z 1793 Galium circaezans Michx. var. hypomalacum Fern., Northern Forest Bedstraw—OH; c; Z 926 Galium tinctorium L., Stiff Marsh Bedstraw—DA/WE; o; Z 867 *Gardenia angusta (L.) Merr., Cape Jasmine (cultivar)—CULT; Z 892 Houstonia longifolia Gaertn. var. glabra Terrell, Granite Dome Bluet—OH/RS; o; G & Z 1890 Houstonia pusilla Schoepf, Tiny Bluet—DA; o; G & Z 1832 Mitchella repens L., Partridgeberry—OH; o; Z 1135 *Sherardia arvensis L., Blue Fieldmadder—DA; o; G & Z 1756 RUSCACEAE *Liriope spicatum Lour., Monkey-grass—[CAT 4]; OH; r; Z 1147 Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link ssp. racemosum, Feathery False Solomon's Seal—OH; i; Z 932 Polygonatum bifl orum (Walter) Ell. var. bifl orum, Smooth Solomon's Seal—OH/RS; o; G & Z 1911 RUTACEAE Ptelea trifoliata L. var. mollis Torr. & A. Gray, Common Hoptree—OH/RS; c; G & Z 1883 SALICACEAE Salix caroliniana Michx., Carolina Willow—DA/WE; o; Z 1092 SAPINDACEAE Acer negundo L. var. negundo, Boxelder—DA/OH; r–o; G & Z 1776, Z 877 *Acer palmatum Thunb., Japanese Maple—CULT; G & Z 1849 160 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 Acer rubrum L., Red Maple—DA; i; G & Z 1761 [Specimen in fl ower/immature fruit; no leaves.] Aesculus ×mutabilis (Spach) Scheele, Hybrid Chestnut—OH; c; G & Z 1806, 1822 [A. pavia L. × A. sylvatica Bartr.; pure parent species not found (D. E. Giannasi & W. B. Zomlefer, pers. obs.)] SAXIFRAGACEAE Heuchera americana L., Alumroot—OH/RS; c; G & Z 1842 Saxifraga virginiensis Michx. [= Micranthus virginiensis (Michx.) Small], Early Saxifrage— OH/RO/RS; c; G & Z 1764 SMILACACEAE Smilax bona-nox L., Saw Greenbrier—DA/OH; c; G & Z 1907 Smilax ecirrata S. Watson [S. ecirrhata, orthographic variant], Upright Carrionfl ower—OH; o; Z 928 Smilax glauca Walter, Cat Greenbrier—OH; c; Z 851 Smilax rotundifolia L., Bullbrier—OH; c; G & Z 1830, 1874 SOLANACEAE Physalis virginiana P. Mill., Virginia Groundcherry—DA/OH; i; G & Z 1912, Z 898 Solanum carolinense L. var. carolinense, Carolina Horsenettle—DA; r; Z 859 Solanum ptychanthum Dunal, Black Nightshade—DA/WE; r; Z 1238 [Specimen represents segregate S. americanum Mill.] TYPHACEAE Sparganium americanum Nutt., American Burreed—DA/WE; o; Z 1013 Typha latifolia L., Broadleaf Cattail—DA/WE; o; Z 1158 ULMACEAE Ulmus alata Michx., Winged Elm—DA; r; G & Z 1760 URTICACEAE Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw., False Nettle—DA/WE; c; Z 1095 Pilea pumila (L.) A. Gray, Canadian Clearweed—DA/WE; c; Z 1096 VALERIANACEAE Valerianella radiata (L.) Dufr., Beaked Cornsalad—DA; o; G & Z 1952 VERBENACEAE *Verbena rigida Spreng., Tuberous Vervain—DA; r; Z 1221 Verbena urticifolia L., White Vervain—DA/WE; r; Z 1098 VIOLACEAE Viola bicolor Pursh, Field Pansy—DA; o; G & Z 1765 Viola palmata L., Early Blue Violet—OH; o; G & Z 1801 Viola sororia Willd., Common Blue Violet—DA; o–c; G & Z 1743, 1753 [Specimens represent segregate V. hirsutula Brainerd: pubescence characters; see Radford et al. (1968).] Viola tripartita Ell., Threepart Violet—OH; o; G & Z 1797 Viola walteri House, Prostrate Blue Violet—OH; o; G & Z 1802 VITACEAE Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch., Virginia Creeper—DA/OH; o; Z 982 Vitis aestivalis Michx. var. aestivalis, Summer Grape—DA; o; G & Z 1888, 1889 Vitis cinerea (Engelm.) Millard var. baileyana (Munson) Comeaux, Graybark Grape—DA/WE; i; Z 868 Vitis rotundifolia Michx. var. rotundifolia, Muscadine—DA/OH; c; G & Z 1887 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 161 Appendix 2. Additional vascular plant species reported for Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park. The following 388 additional vascular plant species and four hybrids have been listed for the Park in an unpublished and unvouchered report provided by NPS personnel. Where applicable, the name on the original list (in brackets) follows the current accepted synonym. Although many of these taxa may presently occur (or may have occurred) within Park boundaries, a significant percentage of these names likely represent misidentifications of species listed in our Annotated List (Appendix 1). ADOXACEAE: Viburnum acerifolium L.; Viburnum nudum L. AGAVACEAE: Schoenolirion croceum (Michx.) Wood ALLIACEAE: Allium cuthbertii L. ANACARDIACEAE: Rhus hirta (L.) Sudworth [R. typhina L.] ANNONACEAE: Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal APIACEAE: Eryngium integrifolium Walt.; Eryngium yuccifolium Michx.; Ligusticum canadense (L.) Britt.; Oxypolis rigidior (L.) Raf.; Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf.; Taenidia integerrima (L.) Drude; Thaspium barbinode (Michx.) Nutt.; Zizia aptera (A. Gray) Fern.; Zizia aurea (L.) W.D.J. Koch; Zizia trifoliata (Michx.) Fern. APOCYNACEAE: Asclepias variegata L.; Asclepias verticillata L. ARALIACEAE: Aralia spinosa L. ARISTOLOCHIACEAE: Asarum canadense L. ASPARAGACEAE: Asparagus officinalis L. ASPLENIACEAE: Asplenium bradleyi D.C. Eat.; Asplenium montanum Willd.; Asplenium pinnatifidum Nutt.; Asplenium resiliens Kunze ASTERACEAE: Ageratina altissima (L.) King & H.E. Robins. var. altissima; Ambrosia trifida L.; Antennaria parlinii Fern. ssp. fallax (Greene) Bayer & Stebbins; Antennaria solitaria Rydb.; Cichorium intybus L.; Coreopsis auriculata L.; Coreopsis lanceolata L.; Coreopsis pubescens Ell.; Coreopsis tripteris L.; Croptilon divaricatum (Nutt.) Raf.; Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.; Erigeron pulchellus Michx.; Eupatorium album L.; Eupatorium compositifolium Walt.; Eupatorium fistulosum Barratt; Eupatorium maculatum L.; Eupatorium perfoliatum L.; Eurybia surculosa (Michx.) G. L. Nesom; Helenium autumnale L.; Helianthus angustifolius L.; Helianthus atrorubens L.; Helianthus divaricatus L.; Helianthus hirsutus Raf.; Helianthus ×laetifl orus Pers. (pro sp.); Helianthus porteri (A. Gray) Pruski; Helianthus resinosus Small; Helianthus tuberosus L.; Heterotheca camporum (Greene) Shinners; Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby; Hieracium aurantiacum L.; Hieracium paniculatum L.; Hieracium venosum L.; Ionactis linariifolius (L.) Greene; Krigia bifl ora (Walt.) Blake; Krigia dandelion (L.) Nutt.; Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fern.; Lactuca fl oridana (L.) Gaertn.; Lactuca graminifolia Michx.; Lactuca hirsuta Muhl. ex Nutt.; Lactuca serriola L. [L. scariola L.]; Liatris aspera Michx.; Liatris spicata (L.) Willd.; Marshallia obovata (Walt.) Beadle & F. E. Boynt.; Packera tomentosa (Michx.) C. Jeffrey [Senecio tomentosus Michx.]; Parthenium integrifolium L.; Polymnia canadensis L.; Prenanthes serpentaria Pursh; Ratibida pinnata (Vent.) Barnh.; Smallanthus uvedalius (L.) MacKenzie ex Small; Solidago bicolor L.; Solidago caesia L.; Solidago fl exicaulis L.; Solidago canadensis L.; Solidago gigantea Aiton; Solidago odora Aiton; Solidago patula Muhl. ex Willd.; Solidago rugosa P. Mill.; Solidago speciosa Nutt. var. erecta (Pursh) McM. [S. erecta Pursh]; Symphyotrichum concolor (L.) G. L. Nesom [Aster concolor L.]; Symphyotrichum laeve (L.) A. & D. Löve [Aster laevis L.]; Symphyotrichum laterifl orum (L.) A. & D. Löve [Aster laterifl orus (L.) Britt.]; Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.; Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel.; Vernonia glauca (L.) Willd. BERBERIDACEAE: Podophyllum peltatum L. BETULACEAE: Corylus cornuta Marsh. BIGNONIACEAE: Catalpa bignonioides Walt.; Catalpa speciosa (Warder) Warder ex Engelm. BLECHNACEAE: Woodwardia areolata (L.) T. Moore BORAGINACEAE: Cynoglossum virginianum L.; Lithospermum canescens (Michx.) Lehm.; Lithospermum caroliniense (Walt. ex J. F. Gmel.) MacM.; Myosotis verna Nutt. BRASSICACEAE: Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.; Arabis canadensis L.; Arabis laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Poir.; Capsella bursa-pastoralis (L.) Medik.; Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb. 162 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 ex Muhl.) B. S. P.; Draba aprica Beadle; Draba brachycarpa Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray; Draba verna L.; Rorippa palustris (L.) Bess.; Thlaspi arvense L. CAPRIFOLIACEAE: Lonicera fl ava Sims; Lonicera sempervirens L.; Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench CARYOPHYLLACEAE: Agrostemma githago L.; Arenaria lanuginosa (Michx.) Rohrb. var. longipedunculata Duncan [A. lanuginosa (Michx.) Rohrb. ssp. lanuginosa var. longipedunculata Duncan]; Cerastium nutans Raf.; Holosteum umbellatum L. COLCHICACEAE: Uvularia grandifl ora Sm.; Uvularia puberula Michx.; Uvularia sessilifolia L. COMMELINACEAE: Commelina erecta L.; Tradescantia hirsuticaulis Small; Tradescantia virginiana L. CONVOLVULACEAE: Calystegia spithamaea (L.) Pursh; Cuscuta compacta Juss. ex Choisy; Ipomoea coccinea L.; Stylisma humistrata (Walt.) Chapm. CORNACEAE: Cornus alternifolia L. f. CRASSULACEAE: Diamorpha smallii Britt. ex Small; Sedum pusillum Michx. CYPERACEAE: Bulbostylis capillaris (L.) Kunth ex C.B. Clarke; Carex intumescens Rudge; Carex leptalea Wahlenb.; Carex pensylvanica Lam.; Carex picta Steud.; Carex willdenowii Schkuhr ex Willd.; Cyperus fl avescens L.; Cyperus retrofractus (L.) Torr.; Cyperus rotundus L.; Cyperus squarrosus L.; Kyllinga pumila Michx.; Rhynchospora globularis (Chapman) Small var. saxicola (Small) Kükenth.; Scirpus atrovirens Willd.; Scleria paucifl ora Muhl. ex Willd. DENNSTAEDTIACEAE: Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) T. Moore; Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn DIAPENSIACEAE: Galax urceolata (Poir.) Brummitt DIOSCOREACEAE: Dioscorea oppositifolia L. DRYOPTERIDACEAE: Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray ERICACEAE: Epigaea repens L.; Gaylussacia dumosa (Andr.) Torr. & A. Gray; Kalmia latifolia L.; Lyonia ligustrina (L.) DC.; Rhododendron fl ammeum (Michx.) Sarg.; Rhododendron minus Michx.; Rhododendron periclymenoides (Michx.) Shinners; Vaccinium corymbosum L.; Vaccinium pallidum Aiton EUPHORBIACEAE: Croton willdenowii G.L. Webster FABACEAE: Amorpha fruticosa L.; Apios americana Medik.; Baptisia alba (L.) Vent.; Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. ex Aiton f.; Crotalaria purshii DC.; Crotalaria sagittalis L.; Desmodium laevigatum (Nutt.) DC.; Desmodium rotundifolium DC.; Desmodium strictum (Pursh) DC.; Galactia regularis (L.) B.S.P.; Lespedeza angustifolia (Pursh) Ell.; Lespedeza capitata Michx.; Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.; Orbexilum pedunculatum (P. Mill.) Rydb. var. psoralioides (Walt.) Isely; Phaseolus polystachios (L.) B.S.P.; Rhynchosia tomentosa (L.) Hook. & Arn.; Robinia hispida L.; Strophostyles umbellata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Britt.; Trifolium aureum Pollich; Trifolium carolinianum Michx.; Trifolium hybridum L.; Vicia caroliniana Walt. FAGACEAE: Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.; Castanea pumila (L.) P. Mill.; Quercus coccinea Muenchh.; Quercus phellos L.; Quercus rubra L. GELSEMIACEAE: Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) St. Hil. GENTIANACEAE: Gentiana villosa L.; Obolaria virginica L. HAMAMELIDACEAE: Fothergilla major (Sims) Lodd. HYDRANGEACEAE: Decumaria barbara L.; Philadelphus inodorus L. HYDROPHYLLACEAE: Hydrophyllum virginianum L. HYPERICACEAE: Hypericum prolificum L.; Hypericum suffruticosum P. Adams & Robson IRIDACEAE: Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC.; Iris cristata Aiton; Iris verna L.; Sisyrinchium fuscatum Bickn. JUGLANDACEAE: Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch; Carya ovata (P. Mill.) K. Koch JUNCACEAE: Juncus georgianus Coville; Luzula acuminata Raf. LAMIACEAE: Blephilia ciliata (L.) Benth.; Blephilia hirsuta (Pursh) Benth.; Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi ssp. nepeta [Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele var. nepeta (L.) Briq.]; Callicarpa americana L.; Collinsonia canadensis L.; Lycopus virginicus L.; Monarda clinopodia L.; Physostegia virginiana (L.) Benth.; Pycnanthemum albescens Torr. & A. Gray; Pycnanthemum curvipes (Greene) E. Grant & Epling; Pycnanthemum incanum (L.) Michx.; 2010 W.B. Zomlefer, D.E. Giannasi, and S.L. Echols 163 Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Schrad.; Scutellaria incana Biehler; Scutellaria integrifolia L.; Trichostema dichotomum L.; Trichostema setaceum Houtt. LILIACEAE: Erythronium americanum Ker-Gawl.; Lilium michauxii Poir.; Medeola virginiana L. LOGANIACEAE: Spigelia marilandica (L.) L. MAGNOLIACEAE: Magnolia acuminata (L.) L.; Magnolia tripetala (L.) L. MELANTHIACEAE: Amianthium muscitoxicum (Walt.) A. Gray; Chamaelirium luteum (L.) A. Gray; Melanthium latifolium Desr.; Melanthium virginicum L.; Trillium lancifolium Raf.; Trillium sessile L.; Trillium vaseyi Harbison MELASTOMATACEAE: Rhexia virginica L. MENISPERMACEAE: Menispermum canadense L. MORACEAE: Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L’Hér. ex Vent.; Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. MYRSINACEAE: Lysimachia quadrifolia L. OLEACEAE: Chionanthus virginicus L.; Fraxinus americana L.; Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.; Ligustrum vulgare L. ONAGRACEAE: Gaura biennis L.; Oenothera fruticosa L.; Oenothera laciniata Hill; Oenothera speciosa Nutt. ORCHIDACEAE: Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl. ex Willd.) Torr.; Cypripedium pubescens Willd. var. pubescens [C. parvifl orum Salisb. var. pubescens (Willd.) Knight]; Corallorrhiza odontorhiza (Willd.) Poir.; Goodyera pubescens (Willd.) R. Br. ex Aiton f.; Hexalectris spicata (Walt.) Barnh.; Isotria verticillata Raf.; Liparis liliifolia (L.) L.C. Rich ex Ker-Gawl.; Platanthera clavellata (Michx.) Luer; Spiranthes cernua (L.) L.C. Rich.; Spiranthes tuberosa Raf. OROBANCHACEAE: Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell; Agalinis tenuifolia (Vahl) Raf.; Aureolaria fl ava (L.) Farw.; Pedicularis canadensis L. OSMUNDACEAE: Osmunda cinnamomea L.; Osmunda claytoniana L.; Osmunda regalis L. PAPAVERACEAE (incl. FUMARIACEAE): Corydalis fl avula (Raf.) DC. PARNASSIACEAE: Parnassia asarifolia Vent. PASSIFLORACEAE: Passifl ora lutea L. PHYLLANTHACEAE: Phyllanthus caroliniensis Walt. PHYRMACEAE: Mimulus alatus Aiton PINACEAE: Pinus rigida P. Mill. PLANTAGINACEAE: Chelone glabra L.; Lindernia monticola Nutt.; Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd.; Penstemon laevigatus Aiton; Plantago aristata Michx.; Plantago rugelii Dcne.; Verbascum blattaria L.; Veronica arvensis L.; Veronica officinalis L.; Veronicastrum virginicum (L.) Farw. POACEAE: Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) B.S.P.; Andropogon virginicus L.; Aristida dichotoma Michx.; Aristida longispica Poir.; Aristida oligantha Michx.; Aristida purpurascens Poir.; Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fern.; Chasmanthium latifolium (Michx.) Yates; Chasmanthium sessilifl orum (Poir.) Yates; Dichanthelium aciculare (Desv. ex Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark; Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C.A. Clark; Dichanthelium boscii (Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark; Dichanthelium latifolium (L.) Gould & C.A. Clark; Dichanthelium linearifolium (Scribn. ex Nash) Gould; Dichanthium ovale (Ell.) Gould & C.A. Clark; Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.; Elymus hystrix L.; Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign. ex Janchen; Festuca rubra L.; Holcus lanatus L.; Lolium pratense (Huds.) S.J. Darbyshire; Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin.; Panicum capillare L.; Panicum dichotomifl orum Michx.; Panicum philadelphicum Bernh. ex Trin.; Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees var. elongatum (Pursh) Lelong; Paspalum boscianum Flueggé; Paspalum fl oridanum Michx.; Paspalum laeve Michx.; Phalaris canariensis L.; Poa compressa L.; Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash; Sporobolus junceus (Beauv.) Kunth POLEMONIACEAE: Ipomopsis rubra (L.) Wherry; Phlox amoena Sims ssp. amoena; Phlox carolina L.; Phlox glaberrima L. POLYGALACEAE: Polygala curtissii A. Gray 164 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 1 POLYGONACEAE: Polygonum tenue Michx.; Polygonum virginianum L.; Rumex acetosella L.; Rumex conglomeratus Murr. POLYPODIACEAE: Polypodium virginianum L. PTERIDACEAE: Adiantum pedatum L.; Cheilanthes tomentosa Link; Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link RANUNCULACEAE: Aconitum uncinatum L.; Actaea pachypoda Ell.; Anemone quinquefolia L.; Anemone virginiana L.; Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyermark; Ranunculus acris L.; Ranunculus fascicularis Muhl. ex Bigelow; Ranunculus hispidus Michx. var. nitidus (Chapm.) T. Duncan; Ranunculus sceleratus L.; Thalictrum dioicum L.; Xanthorhiza simplicissima Marsh. ROSACEAE: Agrimonia pubescens Wallr.; Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern.; Amelanchier laevis Wieg.; Aruncus dioicus (Walt.) Fern.; Crataegus cornuta (Spach) Kirchn.; Crataegus fl ava Aiton; Crataegus intricata Lange; Crataegus marshallii Egglest.; Crataegus unifl ora Muenchh.; Photinia melanocarpa (Michx.) Robinson & Phipps [Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell.; Sorbus melanocarpa (Michx.) Heynh.]; Porteranthus trifoliatus (L.) Brit.; Potentilla canadensis L.; Prunus americana Marsh.; Rosa eglanteria L.; Rubus fl agellaris Willd.; Waldsteinia fragarioides (Michx.) Tratt. RUBIACEAE: Galium hispidulum Michx.; Houstonia caerulea L.; Houstonia purpurea L.; Houstonia serpyllifolia Michx. RUTACEAE: Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.; Zanthoxylum americanum P. Mill. SALICACEAE: Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.; Salix humilis Marsh.; Salix nigra Marsh.; Salix ×pendulina Wenderoth SANTALACEAE: Nestronia umbellula Raf.; Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M.C. Johnston; Pyrularia pubera Michx. SAPINDACEAE: Acer leucoderme Small; Acer saccharum Marsh; Aesculus pavia L.; Aesculus sylvatica Bartr. SAPOTACEAE: Sideroxylon lycioides L. SAXIFRAGACEAE: Heuchera villosa Michx.; Saxifraga michauxii Britt.; Tiarella cordifolia L. SCHISANDRACEAE: Schisandra glabra (Bickn.) Rehd. SIMAROUBACEAE: Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle SMILACACEAE: Smilax herbacea L.; Smilax laurifolia L. SOLANACEAE: Physalis heterophylla Nees STYRACACEAE: Halesia carolina L.; Styrax americanus Lam.; Styrax grandifolius Aiton SYMPLOCACEAE: Symplocos tinctoria (L.) L’Hér. THELYPTERIDACEAE: Phegopteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) Fée [Dryopteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) C. Christens.]; Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.) Nieuwl. ULMACEAE: Ulmus americana L.; Ulmus rubra Muhl. VIOLACEAE: Viola hastata Michx.; Viola macloskeyi Lloyd; Viola pedata L.; Viola pubescens Aiton; Viola ×primulifolia L. (pro sp.) VITACEAE: Vitis labrusca L. WOODSIACEAE: Woodsia obtusa (Spreng.) Torr. XYRIDACEAE: Xyris fimbriata Ell.; Xyris jupicai L.C. Rich.