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Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Records for North Carolina
David R. Lenat, David E. Ruiter, Charles R. Parker, Jason L. Robinson4, Steven R. Beaty, and Oliver S. Flint, Jr.

Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 9, Issue 2 (2010): 201–236

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2010 SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST 9(2):201–236 Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Records for North Carolina David R. Lenat1,*, David E. Ruiter2, Charles R. Parker3, Jason L. Robinson4, Steven R. Beaty5, and Oliver S. Flint, Jr.6 Abstract - Information is presented on 348 Trichoptera (caddisfly) species recorded from North Carolina, including 76 new state records. This information includes distribution across 4 ecoregions, occurrence by stream size, and the 1st published North Carolina record for each species. Introduction North Carolina is an area with a diverse geography and geology, from the mountains in the western part of the state to the coastal plain in the east. A recent summary of these characteristics for North and South Carolina (Griffith et al. 2002) listed 31 ecoregions: 7 in the Piedmont, 7 in the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain, 4 in the Southeastern Plains, 9 in the Blue Ridge, and 2 in the Southern Coastal Plain. This geographical diversity is matched by a high diversity of aquatic insects (Brigham et al. 1982), and this information has been very useful in designating “High Quality Waters” or “Outstanding Resources Waters” (North Carolina DEHNR 1996) and in helping conservation organizations identify high priority areas (NC Natural Heritage Program 2004). Unzicker et al. (1982) provided a list of Trichoptera for both North and South Carolina, but did not make separate listings for either state. Michael Floyd (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Frankfort, KY unpubl. data) compiled a separate listing for the Trichoptera of each state, based largely on records at Clemson University. Recent publications that have contained NC caddis records include: DeWalt et al. 2007, Etnier et al. 1998, Glover and Floyd 2004, Morse and Lenat 2005, Parker 1998, Parker et al. 2007, Prather and Morse 2001, and Vineyard et al. 2005. This paper compiles these published and unpublished records as well as additional recent collections. Methods Sources used New collection records are based on six sources: Annual spring collecting trips (2003–2005) by Boris Kondratieff and Ralph Kirchner, often assisted by Robert Zuellig and David Lenat. 1Lenat Consulting Services, Inc., 3607 Corbin Street, Raleigh, NC 27612. 26260 South Grant Street, Centennial, CO 80121. 3US Geological Survey, 1316 Cherokee Orchard Road, Gatlinburg, TN 37738. 4Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 425 Hesler Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996. 5North Carolina Division of Water Quality, 3800 Barrett Drive, Raleigh, NC 27609. 6Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, MRC 169, Washington, DC 20013. *Corresponding author - Lenatbks@ mindspring.com. 202 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Collections (larvae only) by the North Carolina Division of Water Quality (DWQ) to evaluate water quality and habitat quality in North Carolina streams and rivers. These collections cover most of the state, although they rarely include any first order streams. All samples are stored in their Raleigh offices, so that records can be verified. Figure 1. Larvae and cases of some of the trichoptera species found in North Carolina. a. Micrasema charonis larva in case. b. Oxyethira sp. larva in transparent case. c. Ceraclea ancylus larva and sand "papoose" case. d. Oecetis cinerascens larva in twig case. 2010 D.R. Lenat, D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 203 Collections by David Lenat (with Skip Call), or Charles Parker and Jason Robinson in streams, springs, and seeps along the Blue Ridge Parkway. Collections in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) as part of the All Taxa Inventory. Parker et al. (2007) published a list of Trichoptera for the entire Park, but did not provide any locality data. Collections stored at the University of Tennessee (records provided by David Etnier). Figure 2. Close up photos of larvae of some of the trichoptera species found in North Carolina. a. Fattigia pele larval head and pronotum. b. Arctopsyche irrotata larva, full side view. c. Polycentropus sp. larval head. d. Hydropsyche bronta larval head. 204 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Black light collections by Jason Robinson in the NC mountains (June and July 2008) in Haywood, Jackson, Macon, and Buncombe counties, with identifications by David Etnier. Deposition of specimens Specimens are deposited at the University of Tennessee, Colorado State University, NC Division of Water Quality, National Museum of Natural History, and the authors’ personal collections. Specimens from the Blue Ridge Parkway, and Guilford Courthouse National Military Park are stored in the Mammoth Cave National Park collection. Specimens from Great Smoky Mountains National Park are stored in that park’s collection. Results The summary list of NC Trichoptera is presented in Appendix 1, with data on ecoregion (Mountain, Piedmont, Sandhills, and Coastal Plain) and stream size (springs/seeps, streams, and rivers). A visual sampling of some of the species is shown in Figures 1 and 2. The division between streams and rivers is arbitrarily set at a width of about 20 meters. Where a species can be identified from larvae, the DWQ data (see above) give a good picture of geographic distribution within NC (see 140 distribution maps presented in Supplementary Appendix, available online at http://www.eaglehill. us/SENAonline/suppl-files/s9-2-792-Lenat-s1, and, for BioOne subscribers, at http://dx.doi.org/10.1656/S781.s1). For species that require identification of adults, however, the data are often very patchy. Ecoregion information was also taken from Unzicker et al. (1982), but they included the sandhills within the coastal plain ecoregion, and much of their information came from South Carolina records. Appendix 1 also gives the 1st record for each caddisfly species in North Carolina. If the original species description does not include NC records, the appropriate citation is given in the comments column. The original species description will not be included in the list of references if it did not include North Carolina data. The rarity of many caddisfly species can be hard to determine, especially if a species can only be identified in the adult stage, since the numerous State collections focus only on larval material. Many parts of North Carolina have very few adult collections; thus we may present some new state records for species that may actually be fairly common. For species that can be reliably identified in the larval stage, the maps given here provide a good indication of distribution. Also, note that a species may be “rare” in North Carolina, but more common elsewhere. This is especially true for species that are at the edge of their geographic range. For example, larvae in the genus Frenesia (2 species) are common in springs of the northeastern United States, but reach their southern limit in North Carolina and are rarely collected there. The presence of rare species can be quite useful in identifying high quality streams and in protecting water quality. For example, the presence of rare species is a “resource value” that can be used in designating outstanding resource 2010 D.R. Lenat, D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 205 waters (ORW) in North Carolina. The ORW designation then imposes more stringent water quality protection. The NC Natural Heritage Program maintains an inventory of rare species, including many caddisfly species. The most current version of this list (Legrand et al. 2008) may be viewed by going to http://www.ncnhp.org and checking under the “publications” link. For caddisflies, they list five North Carolina endemics, 36 significantly rare species, and an additional 59 species placed on a “watch list”. We have tried to locate all the collections which Unzicker et al. (1982) may have based North Carolina records upon, although they did not provide separate listings for North and South Carolina. The collections at the Illinois Natural History Survey, National Museum of Natural History, University of Tennessee, and Clemson University have been examined. Information is presented here on 348 Trichoptera found in North Carolina. Similar numbers of caddisfly species have been found in Virginia (361; Flint et al. 2004, 2008, 2009) and Tennessee (328; Etnier et al. 1998). Etnier et al. (1998) listed a total of 383 species found in Tennessee and bordering states, but we have tabulated here only the number of caddisfly species actually found in Tennessee. The North Carolina data include 76 new state records. Discussion Of New Records By Family Format for records: site, county, date (month/year). Additional collection details for specific species may be requested from the senior author. Glossosomatidae Glossosomatid larvae make dome-shaped cases, usually with ventral anterior and posterior openings. Wiggins (1996) compares these cases to the shell of a tortoise. The larvae are found on the top and sides of rocks, but may often be missed by quantitative invertebrate sampling. Larvae are found throughout the piedmont and mountains regions, but tend to segregate by stream size, with Agapetus usually in smaller streams and Culoptila/Protoptila in larger streams and rivers. As all larvae are grazers, they can often increase under moderate enrichment, especially Glossosoma nigrior. Agapetus. Unzicker et al. (1982) listed only A. iridus and A. rossi for the Carolinas; Michael Floyd (unpubl. data) added A. jocassee for North Carolina. This genus is under-collected due to spring emergence and a limitation to small streams for most species. Work by David Etnier (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN) has greatly expanded the number of Agapetus known from North Carolina, often from live pupae that were reared to the adult stage. Larval data from the North Carolina’s Biological Assessment Unit (at the generic level) has sometimes provided valuable leads for further work by Dr. Etnier, especially where there appeared to be disjunct records. A. hessi. Pupae were collected and reared from a coastal plain site: Swift Creek, Nash, 4/02. This is the only North Carolina record for this widespread eastern species. 206 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 A. minutus. Big Creek tributary, Haywood, 5/98. This species is also known north to Ontario, Canada and west to Tennessee and West Virginia. A. tomus. Arrow Wood Road, Cherokee, 5/00. Culoptila. DWQ biologists have larval records for this genus from about 10 sites, including the New River, South Fork New River, and North Fork New River in Ashe and Alleghany counties. Other caddisfly lists for the southeast (M. Floyd, unpubl. data) assumed these records were for C. thoracica. Blahnick and Holzenthal (2006) revised the North American Culoptila and erected a new species (C. plummerensis) for most eastern populations, previously called C. cantha. Recent adult collections of C. plummerensis were made from the Johns River (Caldwell, 5/06). Protoptila. DWQ has many larval records for Protoptila, but adults are required for species-level identification. New records include: P. georgiana. Uwharrie River, Montgomery, 5/04; Cape Fear River, Harnett, 5/05; Hunting Creek, Iredell, 5/04. This rare species was previously known from Alabama, Georgia, and Virginia. Flint et al. (2004) indicated that this species is common in the Virginia piedmont. P. lega. A widespread species, but rarely collected throughout its range. Mayo River, Rockingham, 7/07. P. maculata. This species is quite widespread in the northeastern US, but this is a southern range extension: Watauga River, Watauga, 7/07. P. morettii. Little River, Harnett/Cumberland, 5/06. This is a sandhills species, previously known only from South Carolina. Hydroptilidae The small larvae (less than 5 mm) usually make purse-shaped cases and are easily overlooked in collections of aquatic macroinvertebrates due to their small size, tightly-attached cases, and cryptic habitats. Although adult Hydroptilidae are often collected near streams and rivers, their exact larval microhabitats are usually unknown, especially in the genus Hydroptila. Some genera are primarily found in ponds and lakes, including Hydroptila (in part), Oxyethira, and Orthotrichia. Due to relatively few collections of adult Hydroptilidae in North Carolina, this family remains poorly known. For this reason, we usually cannot provide habitat data at the species level. Agraylea sp. There are no prior North Carolina or South Carolina records for this genus. Larvae were collected in Wilson Creek below the gorge (Caldwell, 7/04). Hydroptila. There are many Hydroptila species recorded in South Carolina and Tennessee (M. Floyd, unpubl. data), but not yet seen in North Carolina. For this reason, we expect further additions to the North Carolina fauna. H. alabama. Lower Shope Fork, Macon, 7/91; Davidson River, Transylvania, 5/56 (both in USNM collection). H. ampoda. GSMNP, Smokemont Campground, 5/70; Deep Creek campground, Swain, 07/05; stream on Norton Creek Road, Jackson, 7/08; 2010 D.R. Lenat, D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 207 Horsepasture River tributary on US 64, Jackson, 5/08; Norton Creek, Jackson, 5/08; Edwards Creek, Macon, 5/08 and 7/08; Turtle Pond Creek, Macon, 5/08; stream in Botanical Gardens of the Highland Biological Station, Macon, 5/08; Big Creek, Macon, 5/08. These records are a southern range extension. H. armata. Uwharrie Creek, Montgomery, 5/04. This is a widespread eastern species. H. delineata. French Broad River, Buncombe, 7/07; Oconaluftee River, Swain, 7/99; Little Tennessee River, Swain/Macon, 7/77; Horsepasture River tributary on US 64, Jackson, 5/08; Edwards Creek, Macon, 7/08. This is an eastern species. H. lloganae. Lumber River, Scotland, 5/04. This rare species has also been collected in Florida, South Carolina, Louisiana, and Texas. H. maculata. Lake Waccamaw, Columbus, 4/99. A southern range extension. H. remita. Cataloochee Creek, Haywood, 7/88; by Rough Fork, nr Woody Homestead, Haywood, 7/88; stream on Norton Creek Road, Jackson, 7/08; Horsepasture River, Jackson, 5/08; Norton Creek, Jackson, 5/08; Edwards Creek, Macon, 5/08; Turtle Pond Creek, Macon, 7/08. This is a widespread eastern species. H. waubesiana. French Broad River, Buncombe, 7/07; Tar River, Edgecombe, 7/07; Big Creek, Haywood, 7/86, Oconaluftee River, Swain, 7/99; Cullasaja River, Macon, 5/08. This is a widespread eastern species. Neotrichia sp. DWQ has larvae from 12 sites, mostly piedmont rivers, although no adults are known from North Carolina. Four species are reported from South Carolina: N. collata Morton 1905, N. falca Ross 1938, N. minutisimella (Chambers 1873), and N. vibrans Ross 1938. Virginia records are mostly N. vibrans (Flint et al. 2004). Orthotrichia cristata. North shore of Lake Waccamaw, Columbus, 09/92. Oxyethira. Many species in this genus are limited to ponds and lakes, and they are poorly represented in collections from North Carolina. There are at least 9 species of Oxyethira known from South Carolina, but not yet collected in North Carolina (M. Floyd, unpubl. data). O. glasa. Lake Waccamaw, Columbus, 9/82. This is a northern range extension. O. janella. Tar River, Edgecombe, 7/07. This is a mostly southeastern species, with a northern limit in Virginia. O. novasota. Norton Creek, Jackson, 6/08. O. pallida. Shelley Lake, Wake, 6/90; Tar River, Edgecombe, 7/07. This is a widespread eastern species. O. pescadori. Little River, Hoke/Moore, 5/04. This is northern range extension; reported distribution is from the coastal plain of Alabama and Florida (Harris and Keth 2002). 208 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 O. verna. Lake Waccamaw, Columbus, 9/83. This is a widespread eastern species. Stactobiella palmata. Uwharrie River, Montgomery, 5/86. This is a southern range extension of a widespread species. Rhyacophilidae (Rhyacophila) Most species in this family are both predacious and free-living as larvae. The greatest diversity in North Carolina is found in small mountain streams, with 4–5 species often found at high quality sites. Larval descriptions are not available for some rare species, but the recent review of this genus by Prather and Morse (2001) (as updated and corrected by Stocks and Morse at http://entweb.clemson.edu/research/CEL/rhyacophila. htm) provides a wealth of data for the eastern Rhyacophila. An additional species is being described by Jim Glover (SC Department of Health and Environmental Control Columbus, SC) from the coastal plain of South Carolina (Glover, in prep.). DWQ has larval records for this undescribed species from Robeson, Columbus, Brunswick, and Pender counties that are listed as R. lobifera. DWQ has larval records for R. mainensis, but the most recent revision (Prather and Morse 2001) indicated that the larvae of R. amicis are not separable from the larvae of R. mainensis, and that R. amicis is more likely to occur in North Carolina. Rhyacophalia kondratieffi. High-elevation seep on Blue Ridge Parkway 3/07, Buncombe. Formerly known only from Virginia and Tennessee (Flint et al. 2004). R. tricornuta. Previously known only from Mt. Rogers area in Virginia. Gragg Prong of Lost Cove Creek, Avery, 4/07. Hydropsychidae All hydropsychid larvae are filter-feeders, although filtered material can vary in size from nanoplankton up to small macroinvertebrates. Species within a basin segregate based on food size (mesh size of nets), current speed, and stream size. Genera most commonly associated with small streams include Diplectrona, Parapsyche, Oropsyche (rare), and Homoplectra (rare). Pollution tolerance varies greatly within this family. The greatest hydropsychid diversity is seen at riverine sites. A number of larval types can be seen within Diplectrona modesta; some of these may represent new species (J. Morse, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, pers. comm.). Cheumatopsyche. Many species are known only as adults, therefore they have been poorly evaluated by DWQ larval collections. There is some confusion in prior records over Cheumatopsyche enigma, which is also listed as Cheumatopsyche harwoodi enigma, and possibly as just Cheumatopsyche harwoodi. We list this species as C. enigma. C. geora. Hunting Creek, Wilkes, 5/05; Little River, Harnett/Cumberland, 5/05. Widespread eastern species. 2010 D.R. Lenat, D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 209 C. halima. Deep Creek, Swain, 8/99; Middle Fork Reddings River, Wilkes, 5/06. This species is reported from 10 other states in the eastern US. C. parentum. Uwharrie River, Montgomery, 5/04. Prior records are limited to Maryland and Virginia, although Flint et al. (2004) speculated that it would be found in NC. C. richardsoni. Little River, Hoke/Montgomery, 5/04, This species appears to be limited to North Carolina and South Carolina. C. virginica. Little River, Cumberland/Harnett, 5/04. C. wrighti. Lower Shope Fork (Coweeta), Macon, 7/91, USNM collection. Hydropsyche. Ceratopsyche is used by some authors at the genus or subgenus level, but we follow Olah and Johanson (2008) and place all North Carolina Hydropsyche within a single genus, Hydropsyche. Hydropsyche alvata. Roanoke River, Halifax, 5/84. H. cheilonis. Larvae of this species are labeled as H. bifida by DWQ biologists, but discussion in Schuster and Etnier (1978) strongly suggested that this species is H. cheilonis. DWQ had numerous records in six counties in the northwest corner of the state, especially in the New and Watauga basins. The identity of these specimens was confirmed by adult collections in Swain and Watauga counties. H. fattigi. Cape Fear River, Harnett, 5/04; Hunting Creek, Iredell, 5/04; Linville River, Burke, 5/06; Watauga River, Watauga, 7/07. H. incommoda. DWQ has many larval records for H. incommoda for rivers in the upper piedmont, piedmont and coastal plain ecoregions that are probably H. rossi and/or other closely related species. Flint et al. (1979) pointed out the problems with use of H. incommoda records, indicating that specimens previously labeled as H. orris were actually H. incommoda and that H. orris does not occur east of the Appalachian mountains. DWQ has many larval NC records of the “true” H. incommoda from piedmont and coastal plain rivers. H. opthalmica. Watauga River, Watauga, 7/07; Cape Fear River, Harnett, 5/04. Southern range extension of this riverine species. H. simulans. Lumber River, Hoke/Scotland, 7/07. This is a southern and eastern range extension; data from other states suggest that it would also occur in mountain rivers. H. walkeri. DWQ has larval records (confirmed by G. Schuster, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY) from Beech Creek, Watauga, 8/94, 7/99, and 8/04. This is a southern range extension. Philopotamidae All Philopotamidae are filter-feeders, and require flowing water. Although they often occupy the same habitat as Hydropsychidae, they usually feed on smaller particle sizes. Of the three genera commonly found in North Carolina, Dolophilodes is most common in mountain streams, Chimarra is most common in piedmont and sandhills streams, while Wormaldia is limited to seeps, springs, and 1st order streams. Note that two species formerly in Dolophilodes have been split off into the genera Sisko and Fumonta (Blahnik 2005). 210 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Chimarra spp. Previously three species of Chimarra had been reported in North Carolina. New North Carolina records include: C. augusta. Linville Falls, Avery County, 5/70, USNM collection. C. florida. Little R, Hoke/Moore 5/04; Shoe Hill Creek, Robeson, 5/03; Naked Creek, Richmond, 5/03. C. obscura. This is a relatively common US species, but had not been reported from North Carolina. We have records from Edwards Creek, Macon, 5/08; Uwharrie River, Montgomery, 5/03; Hunting Creek, Iredell, 5/04; Lumber River, Hoke/Scotland, 5/03. Polycentropodidae Polycentropodidae are also filter-feeders, but can be found in some lentic habitats. Because larvae often cannot be identified to the species level, DWQ collections have not contributed to information on the geographic distribution of species in some genera, especially Polycentropus and Neureclipsis. Unusual larvae have been reported from both high mountain seeps and coastal plain swamps (DWQ, unpubl. data). Cernotina calcea. Lake Waccamaw, Columbus, 9/82. This is a midwestern species, although it occurs along the gulf coastal area in Florida, Louisiana, and Alabama. Neureclipsis melco. Shoe Hill Creek, US 501, Robeson, 5/03; Hunting Creek, Guilford, 5/07. Northern range extension. Nyctiophylax denningi. Near Price Lake, Watauga, 5/05; Edwards Creek, Macon, 5/08 and 7/08; Big Creek, Macon, 5/08; Norton Creek, Jackson, 5/08. Polycentropus barri. Buncombe, 4 km SW of Black Mountain, 6/86, USNM collection. P. blicklei. A widespread eastern species, but not previously reported in North Carolina. Spring at N Loop Road (Greensboro), Guilford, 8/05, and McKee Branch, Haywood, 7/01. P. carlsoni. Headwater of Gilliland Creek along Mt Sterling Trail, Haywood 6/89. Confined to Alabama, North Carolina, and South Carolina. P. elarus. Unnamed creek on Blue Ridge Parkway, Ashe, 7/07; Poplar Springs, Jackson, 5/08. A widespread eastern species. P. interruptus. Black Mountain, USNM collection, 1929 P. nascotius. Bass Lake, Watauga, Blue Ridge Parkway, 7/07. P. rickeri. Seeps on Blue Ridge Parkway: Buncombe, 7/07 and Watauga 3/07. Brachycentridae This family is well known, with extensive work by Flint (1984) on Brachycentrus and Chapin (1978) on Micrasema. Harrington and Morse (2004) recently added Brachycentrus lunatus to the list of southeastern species. DWQ maps for both Brachycentrus nigrosoma and B. numerosus show 2010 D.R. Lenat, D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 211 two distinct distributions: mountains (including the upper piedmont) and coastal plain. This pattern suggests the possibility of additional undescribed species. Most brachycentrids are highly intolerant, and high quality river sites may have 5+ species in this family. Brachycentrus etowahensis. The Flint (1984) monograph on Brachycentrus showed several records from Tennessee that were just south of the Tennessee/North Carolina border. Re-examination of stored larval specimens showed that this species was found in the Hiawassee River, Cherokee, 8/85. However, this species has not been collected recently in North Carolina. B. incanus. This species was originally reported from North Carolina by Lenat and Penrose (1987) (Tar River, coastal plain), but this record was shown to be an error. Subsequent DWQ collections, however, have turned up larval specimens at the Little Tennessee River, Macon, 7/04, and the Yadkin River, Yadkin, 8/06. Goeridae The goerids are a small group in North America with two genera and seven species in North Carolina. Goera stylata. Commissioners Creek, Macon, 4/03. Southern range extension. Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma larvae can be found in most small mountain streams, but there are no larval keys for North Carolina species. Lepidostoma sommermanae. Seep on Blue Ridge Parkway, Buncombe, 7/07. This is a southern range extension for this northeastern US species. Leptoceridae Clemson University has long been a center for leptocerid research, producing major revisions for Ceraclea (Morse 1975), Oecetis (Floyd 1995b), Triaenodes (Glover 1996) and Nectopsyche (Glover and Floyd 2004). These authors collected throughout the southeast, adding many North Carolina records. Many leptocerid species, however, are associated with lentic habitats and not well-collected by DWQ biologists. Ceraclea. This is a genus with many rare species; many of these also have very restricted distributions. Taxonomic problems make many of the older larval DWQ records questionable, especially for C. nepha and C. tarsipunctata. There remain a number of undescribed Ceraclea species in North Carolina, with up to 3 new species being described by Jim Glover and John Morse. One of the new species has been found only in streams in Panthertown Valley, Jackson County, NC. A second species occurs in coastal plain swamp streams, including 2 locations in the southern part of North Carolina; this species has been labeled by DWQ biologists as “Ceraclea nr. tarsipunctata”. DWQ biologists routinely collect another larvae type they label as “Ceraclea nr. excisa” in the sandhills and coastal plain ecoregions, but this larva has 212 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 not been associated with any described adult. It is possible that these specimens are the larvae of C. protonepha. Ceraclea transversa appears to be a complex of species based on male morphology and preliminary DNA work (J. Glover and J. Morse, pers. comm.). Ceraclea cancellata. Little River, Hoke/Montgomery, 5/04; Fishing Creek, Edgecombe, 5/05; and Tar River, Granville, 5/86. We also have larvae from Little River (Wake) verified by J. Morse. C. neffi. Some larval records of C. neffihave been shown to be misidentifications of C. flava, but we have verified larval records from Calor Fork, Macon, 5/08 and First Broad River, Cleveland, 10/93. These collections are a southern range extension for this species. C. ophioderus. This species occurs on snags in some coastal plain rivers. Large numbers of larvae were found by DWQ biologists on snags in the Tar River (Edgecombe), Roanoke River (Halifax), and the Neuse River (Johnston, Lenoir). Reared specimens from the Tar River were confirmed as C. ophioderus by J. Glover, and adults have been collected (7/07) from the Lumber River (Hoke), Mayo River (Rockingham), and the Johns River (Caldwell). These latter records extend the range of this species into the foothills. C. protonepha. Adults were collected at Trout Lake, Blue Ridge Prkway, Watauga County. C. punctata. Adults were collected from Little River, Hoke/Moore, 5/04. This is a southern range extension. C. resurgens. Larvae of C. resurgens are sponge-feeders; separation from C. transversa can be difficult. DWQ has larval records from many sites in the piedmont and coastal plain, but re-examination of the specimens indicates that many are C. transversa and some may be an undescribed species. Larvae matching Resh’s (1976) description were collected at Gum Swamp, Scotland, 2/01 and Hannah Creek, Johnston, 2/05. C. slossonae. Very rare in North Carolina; larvae collected by DWQ in summer collections from North Fork New River and South Fork New River (Ashe, 3 sites). Adults were also collected from South Fork New River, Ashe, 5/05. Mystacides. Larvae of all Mystacides collected in the Carolinas key to the western M. alafimbriata in Yamamoto and Wiggins (1964), but adults appear to be M. sepulchralis. We assume here that M. sepulchralis is the species found in North Carolina, although it may eventually be shown to be a new species. Nectopsyche pavida. This common riverine species has no published North Carolina records, but DWQ has larval data from over 35 counties. Adults were collected from Little River, Hoke/Moore, 5/04 and Price Lake, Watauga, 7/07. Oecetis sp. E. Larvae of this species were described by Floyd (1995b), but were found only in a few Carolina Bays in South Carolina. Larval collections by DWQ biologists have found this species in 9 coastal counties 2010 D.R. Lenat, D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 213 in the Chowan, Cape Fear, Lumber, White Oak, and Neuse river basins. These collections were mostly from February sampling of swamp streams. Setodes arenatus. This species was known only from the coastal plain in South Carolina. We have a new collection from the Little River, Hoke/ Moore, 5/04. It is possible that Setodes larvae from the Lumber River at Wagram also are this species (Scotland, 6/86). Triaenodes. The genus Triaenodes was thoroughly reviewed by Glover (1996), and this work included extensive collection in North Carolina and review of larval specimens collected by DWQ biologists. Early DWQ records for T. tardus larvae appear to be misidentifications of T. ignitus larvae. T. sp. nov. A (Glover 1996). Drowning Creek, SR 1004, Richmond, 4/07. T. sp. nov. C (Glover 1996). Very rare (NC/SC), the only North Carolina records were from Laurinburg Bays, Scotland, 5/84. This species may have been extirpated from the Laurinburg Bays (not found on subsequent trips), but larvae were found in 17 Frog Pond, Sandhills Game Management Area, Scotland, 4/04. Limnephilidae This large, primarily northern-distributed, family has relatively few species in North Carolina. Frenesia missa. Larvae of this species are found in springs along the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia, but the first North Carolina record was an adult from Purchase Knob, Haywood, 11/03. Pycnopsyche circularis. Headwater spring at Wash Hollow, Haywood, 7/07. Southern range extension for this northeastern species. P. conspersa. Cataloochee Creek, Haywood, 07/88; Seep on Blue Ridge Parkway, Haywood, 7/07. P. indiana. US 74 and NC 710, Robeson, 10/81. Sericostomatidae Only two genera in this family are found in North Carolina: Fattigia pele is a common inhabitant of mountain streams, but Agarodes is both more widespread and less frequently collected. Agarodes libalis. Little River, Harnett/Cumberland, 5/06. Uenoidae Neophylax. This genus was recently revised by Vineyard et al. (2005), and we add two additional species for North Carolina. Many of the distribution maps provided in Vineyard et al. (2005) suggest some species are largely confined to the mountains, but DWQ larval data show more extensions into the piedmont and sandhills. DWQ has larval records for N. concinnus, but re-examination of these specimens indicates these determinations are incorrect. N. atlanta. Unnamed stream, Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, Guilford, 3/06. This record falls between the Georgia, South Carolina, 214 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 and Virginia records of Vineyard et al. (2005), although Flint et al. (2008) indicate that the Virginia record is an error. N. fuscus. Little Fishing Creek, Halifax, 8/88 (larvae); South Fork New River, Ashe, 8/95. These records are a southern range extension for this species. The presence of this species in the coastal plain (Little Fishing Creek) supports Vineyard’s et al. (2005) observation that this species is the best adapted of the genus to warm water conditions. Literature Cited Armitage, B.J. 1991. Diagnostic Atlas of the North American Caddisfly Adults. I. Philopotamidae. Second Edition. The Caddis Press, Athens, AL. 72 pp. Armitage, B.J., and K.J. Tennessen. 1984. The Trichoptera of Raven Fork, North Carolina—A stream subject to low pH events. Pp. 21–26, In J.C. 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List of North Carolina Trichoptera species with source of data (L = larvae or A = adult), region, and stream type. # indicates distribution map available (Supplementary Appendix, available online at https://www.eaglehill.us/SENAonline/suppl-files/s9-2-792-Lenat-s1, and, for BioOne subscribers, at http://dx.doi.org/10.1656/S781.s1) based on larval records. M = Mountain, P = Piedmont, SH = Sand Hills, C = Coastal Plain, Sp = springs, seeps, and very small streams, Str = streams, Riv = rivers. * = new North Carolina record. Order of families follows Wiggins (1996). The original reference for North Carolina records is provided in comments except when the species description is the original record. Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment Family Glossosomatidae *Agapetus hessi A X X Disjunct record from coastal plain river Leonard and Leonard 1949 A. iridis Ross 1944 A X X X Schmid (1982) A. jocassee Morse 1989 A X X Morse et al. (1989) *A. minutus Sibley 1926 A X X A. pinatus Ross 1938 A X X Floyd et al. (1997) A. rossi Denning 1941 A X X X X Harris et al. (1991) *A. tomus Ross 1941 A X Adult may have come from either spring or stream * Culoptila plummerensis Blahnik & Holzenthal 2006 A, L# X X Especially in New River basin Glossosoma lividum (Hagen 1861) A X X Unzicker et al. (1982), based on GSMNP Deep Creek (06/61), in USNM collection G. nigrior Banks 1911 A, L# X X X X X X Matrioptila jeanae (Ross 1938) A, L# X X X X *Protoptila georgiana Denning 1948 A X X *P. lega Ross 1941 A X X *P. maculata (Hagen 1861) A X X *P. morettii Morse 1988 A X X Rare (North Carolina/South Carolina), Sandhills P. palina Ross 1941 A X X X Harris et al. (1991) 222 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment Family Hydroptilidae *Agraylea spp. L No adult collections Dibusa angata Ross 1939 A, L# X X X Mostly slate belt *Hydroptila alabama A Two collections in USNM Harris & Kelley 1984 *H. ampoda Ross 1941 A X X *H. armata Ross 1938 A X X H. callia Denning 1948 A X X In Virginia occurs mainly in piedmont, Flint et al. (2004) H. coweetensis Huryn 1985 A X Rare, limited to Alabama, North Carolina, Virginia *H. delineata Morton 1905 A X X X H. englishi Hamilton 1989 A X X 1 stream at North Carolina/South Carolina border (Morse et al. 1998) H. fiskei Blickle 1963 A X Morse et al. (1989) H. gunda Milne 1936 A X X Morse et al. (1989) H. hamata Morton 1905 A X X X Ross (1944) *H. lloganae Blickle 1961 A X X *H. maculata Banks 1904 A X Coastal plain lake H. quinola Ross 1947 A X ? X X X Floyd et al. (1997). All Virginia records in the Piedmont (Flint et al. 2004) *H. remita Blickle and Morse 1954 A X X X X X H. talladega Harris 1985 A X X X Morse et al. (1989) H. tortosa Ross 1938 A X Morse et al. (1989) *H. waubesiana Betten 1934 A X X X X Leucotrichia pictipes (Banks 1911) A, L# X X X X Armitage and Tennessen (1984) Mayatrichia ayama Mosely 1937 A, L# X X X X Morse et al. (1989) *Neotrichia spp. L# X X X Not yet collected as adults, though likely abundant 2010 D.R. Lenat, D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 223 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment Ochrotrichia confusa (Morton 1905) A, L X X Harris et al. (1991). May occur on vertical rock faces. O. tarsalis (Hagen 1861) A X Frazer and Harris (1991) O. transylvanica Harris and Floyd 1997 A X X Floyd et al. (1997), NC endemic? Orthotrichia aegerfasciella A X X X X McAtee (1915) (Chambers 1873) *O. cristata Morton 1905 A X Oxyethira abacatia Denning, 1947 A Moulton and Harris (1999) O. forcipata Mosely 1934 A X Kelley and Morse (1982) *O. glasa (Ross 1941) A X Coastal plain lake O. grisea Betten 1934 A X ? X Morse et al. (1989) *O. janella Denning 1948 A Piedmont River O. michiganensis Mosely 1934 A X X X X Morse et al. (1989) *O. novasota Ross 1944 A X X *O. pallida (Banks 1904) A X X X Coastal plain river, Piedmont lake *O. pescadori Harris & Keth 2002 A X X Sandhills river. *O. verna Ross 1938 A X Coastal plain lake O. zeronia Ross 1941 ? Kelley and Morse (1982). In Virginia occurs in coastal plain and piedmont (Flint et al. 2004) Palaeagapetus celsus (Ross 1938) A, L# X X X Stactobiella delira (Ross 1938) A X X X X Smith (1969) S. martynovi Blickle and Denning 1977 A X X X X Morse et al. (1989) *S. palmata (Ross 1938) A X X Family Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila accola Flint 1972 A X X X R. acutiloba Morse and Ross 1971 A, L# X X X X Flint (1962) 224 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment R. amicis Ross 1956 A, L# X X X R. appalachia Morse and Ross 1971 A, L# X X X Prather and Morse (2001) R. atrata Banks 1911 A, L# X X X R. carolina Banks 1911 A, L# X X X X X X R. carpenteri Milne 1936 A, L X X Carpenter (1933) R. celadon Etnier, Stocks & Parker 2004 A, L# X X X R. fenestra Ross 1938 A, L# ? X X X Edwards (1966), esp. slate belt area R. formosa Banks 1911 A, L# X X X X Roback (1975), older records as R. vuphipes R. fuscula (Walker 1952) A, L# X X X X X Carpenter (1933) widespread, and tolerant species R. glaberrima Ulmer 1907 A, L# X X X X Carpenter (1933) R. invaria (Walker 1852) A, L X X X Harris and Lawrence (1978) *R. kondratieffiParker 1986 A X X High-elevation seep R. ledra Ross 1939 A X X X Schmid (1970), larvae not separable from R. fenestra. In Virginia, mainly coastal plain and piedmont (Flint et al. 2004) R. minora Banks 1924 A, L# X X X Flint (1962) also listed as R. minor R. montana Carpenter 1933 A X X Streams in North Carolina/Tennessee R. mycta Ross 1941 A X X High-elevation seeps and bogs, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia R. nigrita Banks 1907 A, L# X X X X R. teddyi Ross 1939 A X X X R. torva Hagen 1861 A, L# X X X Carpenter (1933), often on vertical rock in moss *R. tricornuta Sykora and McCabe 1996 A X X R. vibox Milne 1936 X X Schmid (1970) Family Dipseudopsidae Phylocentropus auriceps (Banks 1905) A X X P. carolinus Carpenter 1933 A X X X X X X 2010 D.R. Lenat, D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 225 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment P. lucidus (Hagen 1861) A X X X X X Schuster and Hamilton (1984) P. placidus (Banks 1905) A X X X X X X Banks (1908) Family Hydropsychidae Arctopsyche irrorata Banks 1905 A, L# X X X Cheumatopsyche analis (Banks 1903) A X X X X Gordon (1974) as C. pettiti Banks C. campyla Ross 1938 A X X X Unzicker et al. (1982), based on USNM collection; Haywood County C. ela Denning 1942 A X X X C. enigma Ross 1971 A X X X Gordon (1974) C. etrona Ross 1941 A X X Gordon (1972) Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia *C. geora Denning 1948 A X X X X X C. gracilis (Banks 1899) A X Gordon (1974) C. gyra Ross 1938 A X X X X X *C. halima Denning 1948 A X X X GSMNP C. harwoodi Denning 1949 A X? X X Floyd et al. (1997) C. helma Ross 1939 A X Etnier et al. (1998) C. minuscula (Banks 1907) A X X Carpenter (1933) C. oxa Ross 1938 A X X Ross (1944) *C. parentum Gordon 1974 A X X From piedmont river C. pasella Ross 1941 A X X X X C. pinaca Ross 1941 A X X X X *C. richardsoni Gordon 1974 A X X From a piedmont river C. sordida (Hagen 1861) A X X X Banks (1908) C. speciosa (Banks 1904) A X Banks (1908) *C. virginica Denning 1949 A X X From Sandhills Virginia records in coastal plain (Flint et al. 2004) 226 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment *C. wrighti Ross 1947 A X X USNM collection Diplectrona metaqui Ross 1970 A, L X X X Phillippi and Schuster (1987) D. modesta Banks 1908 A, L X X X X X X Brimley (1938) Homoplectra doringa (Milne 1936) A X X H. flinti Weaver 1985 A, L X X Wiggins (1977) as Oropsyche H. monticola Flint 1965 L X X Huryn (1989) Hydropsyche alhedra Ross 1939 A, L# X X X X *H. alvata Denning 1949 A X X Roanoke River H. betteni Ross 1938 A, L# X X X X X X X Wray (1950), most tolerant in the genus H. bronta (Ross 1938) A, L# X X X Schuster and Etnier (1978) H. carolina Banks 1938 A, L# X X H. catawba Ross 1939 A X X *H. cheilonis (Ross 1938) X X X Incorrectly listed as C. bifida in DWQ data H. decalda Ross 1947 A, L# X X X Wray (1950) H. demora Ross 1941 A, L# X X X X X X H. depravata Hagen 1861 A X Brimley (1938) H. elissoma Ross 1947 A, L X X Wray (1950) *H. fattigi Ross 1941 A X X X X H. franclemonti Flint 1992 A X X H. hageni Banks 1905 A, L X X X Banks (1908) *H. incommoda Hagen 1861 A, L# X X X X X Older records invalid due to name change, many DWQ larval records H. macleodi Flint 1965 A, L# X X X H. mississippiensis Flint 1972 A, L X X X X X Penrose et al. (1983); in Virginia, most common in the piedmont (Flint et al. 2004) H. morosa Hagen 1861 A, L# X X X X Brimley (1938), scarce in piedmont *H. opthalmica Flint 1965 A X X X X 2010 D.R. Lenat, D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 227 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment H. phalerata Hagen 1861 A, L# X X X X X X Ross (1944) H. rossi Flint, Voshell and Parker 1979 A, L X X X X X H. scalaris Hagen 1861 A X X X X X Nimmo (1987) *H. simulans Ross 1938 A X? X X H. slossonae Banks 1905 A, L# X X X Brimley (1938) H. sparna Ross 1938 A, L# X X X X X Howell (1939), scarce in piedmont H. ventura Ross 1941 L X X X Lenat and Penrose (1987) H. venularis Banks 1914 A, L# X X X X X X Etnier (1973) *H. walkeri Betten and Mosley 1940 L# X X Single locality, larvae only Macrostemum carolina (Banks 1909) A, L# X X X X X X M. zebratum (Hagen 1861) A, L# X X X X X X Brimley (1938) Oropsyche howellae Ross 1941 A X X Larvae unknown Parapsyche apicalis (Banks 1908) A, L X X Milne and Milne (1938) P. cardis Ross 1938 A, L# X X X Family Philopotamidae Chimarra aterrima Hagen 1861 A X X X X X X Banks (1908) *C. augusta Morse 1971 A X Linville Falls, USNM collection *C. florida Ross 1944 A X X X C. moselyi Denning 1948 A X X X X X Armitage (1991) *C. obscura (Walker 1952) A X X X Found in all ecoregions of Virginia (Flint et al. 2004) C. socia Hagen 1861 A X X X X X Morse et al. (1989) Dolophilodes distincta (Walker 1952) A X X X Carpenter (1933) Fumonta major (Banks 1914) A X X X Sisko sisko (Ross 1949) A X X Ross (1956), limited to North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. Wormaldia moesta (Banks 1914) A X X Virgina records include piedmont and coastal plain (Flint et al. 2004) 228 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment W. mohri (Ross 1948) A X X W. oconee Morse 1989 A X X X Limited to Lake Jocassee area W. shawnee (Ross 1938) A X ? X X Armitage (1991) W. thyria Denning 1950 A X X Limited to North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia; Virgina records include piedmont (Flint et al. 2004) Family Polycentropodidae *Cernotina calcea Ross 1938 A X Lake Waccamaw C. spicata Ross 1938 A, L X X X X X X Hudson et al. (1981), lentic C. truncona Ross 1947 A X Unzicker et al. 1982, based on USNM collection Cyrnellus fraternus (Banks 1905) A, L# X X X X X X Hamilton and Schuster (1980) Neureclipsis crepuscularis (Walker 1852) A X X X X X X Carpenter (1933), slower areas of rivers *N. melco Ross 1947 A X X Nyctiophylax affinis (Banks 1897) A X X Banks (1908), mainly piedmont in Virginia (Flint et al. 2004) N. celta (Denning 1948) A, L# X X X X X *N. denningi Morse 1972 A X N. moestus (Banks 1911) A, L# X X X X X X Lenat and Penrose (1987) N. nephophilus (Flint 1964) A, L# X X X X *Polycentropus barri A Buncombe County SW of Black Mountain, USNM Ross & Yamamoto 1965 *P. blicklei Ross and Yamamota 1965 A X X X *P. carlsoni Morse 1971 A X X P. carolinensis Banks 1905 A X P. cinereus Hagen 1861 A X X X X X X Brimley (1938) P. clinei (Milne 1936) A X Nimmo (1986) 2010 D.R. Lenat, D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 229 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment P. colei Ross 1941 A X X Floyd et al. (1997), bright red larvae P. confusus Hagen 1861 A X X X X Morse et al. (1989) P. crassicornis Walker 1852 A X X X X X X Brimley (1938) *P. elarus Ross 1944 A X Seep *P. interruptus (Banks 1914) A X Virginia records in coastal plain (Flint et al. 2004) P. maculatus Banks 1908 A X X Morse et al. (1989) *P. nascotius Ross 1941 A X Bass Lake, Blue Ridge Parkway *P. rickeri Yamamoto 1966 A X X Family Psychomyiidae Lype diversa (Banks 1914) A, L# X X X X X X Larvae found on logs Psychomyia flavida Hagen 1861 A, L# X X X X X Brimley (1938) P. nomada (Ross 1938) A, L# X X X X Family Apataniidae Apatania incerta (Banks 1897) A, L# X X X 3 North Carolina species synonymized under A. incerta (Flint 2007) Manophylax altus (Huryn and Wallace 1984) A, L X X Mt. Mitchell Family Brachycentridae Brachycentrus appalachia Flint 1984 A, L# X X X B. chelatus Ross 1947 A, L# X X Lenat and Penrose (1987) *B. etowahensis Wallace 1971 L X X *B. incanus Hagen 1861 L# X X X B. lateralis (Say 1823) A, L# X X X X Lenat and Penrose (1987) B. lunatus Harrington and Morse 2004 A, L X X Harrington and Morse (2004) 230 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment B. nigrosoma (Banks 1905) A, L# X X X X X X Flint (1984), absent in middle part of the state B. numerosus (Say 1823) A, L# X X X X X X Flint (1984) B. spinae Ross 1948 A, L# X X X Flint (1984) Micrasema bennetti Ross 1947 A, L# X X X X X Chapin (1978), mainly rivers M. burksi Ross and Unzicker 1965 A, L# X X Chapin (1978), waterfalls and vertical rock surfaces M. charonis Banks 1914 A, L# X X X X X M. rickeri Ross and Unzicker 1965 A, L# X X X Chapin (1978) M. rusticum (Hagen 1868) A, L# X X X X X Wray (1950) M. sprulesi Ross 1941 A, L# X X X X Chapin (1978) M. wataga Ross 1938 A, L# X X X X X X Mainly rivers, very common species Family Calamoceratidae Anisocentropus pyraloides (Walker 1852) A, L# X X X X X X Harris et al. (1991) Heteroplectron americanum (Walker 1852) A, L# X X X X X X Morse et al. (1989) Family Goeridae Goera calcarata Banks 1899 A, L X X X X X Carpenter (1933) G. fuscula Banks 1905 A, L X X X *G. stylata Ross 1938 A X X G. townesi Morse 1971 A X X X Harris et al. (1991) Goerita betteni Ross 1962 A, L X X Phillippi and Schuster (1987) G. flinti Parker 1998 A, L X X Limited to North Carolina, Tennessee G. semata Ross 1938 A, L X X Larvae found on vertical rock; North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia Family Helicopsychidae Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen 1861) A, L# X X X X X Lenat and Penrose (1987) H. paralimnella Hamilton 1989 A, L# X X X Floyd (1995a) 2010 D.R. Lenat, D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 231 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment Family Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma americanum (Banks 1897) A X Flint and Wiggins (1961) L. bryanti (Banks 1908) A X Weaver (1988) L. carolina (Banks 1911) A X ? X L. excavatum Flint and Wiggins 1961 A X Wallace and Sherberger (1972) L. flinti Wallace and Sherberger 1972 A X X L. frosti (Milne 1936) A X Flint and Wiggins (1961) L. griseum (Banks 1911) A X Carpenter (1933) L. latipenne (Banks 1905) A X L. lobatum Wallace and Sherberger 1972 A X L. lydia Ross 1939 A X ? Armitage and Tennessen (1984); in Virginia, found only in small streams (Flint et al. 2008) L. mitchelli Flint and Wiggins 1961 A X X Flint and Wiggins (1961), high-elevation sites L. modestum (Banks 1905) A X L. ontario Ross 1941 A X X Wray (1950) L. pictile (Banks 1899) A X Ross (1939a) L. serratum Flint and Wiggins 1961 A X X *L. sommermanae Ross 1946 A X X Blue Ridge Parkway L. styliferum Flint and Wiggins 1961 A X L. tibiale (Carpenter 1933) A X X Virginia data include some disjunct coastal plain records (Flint et al. 2008) L. togatum (Hagen 1861) A X X X X Ross (1946) L. vernale (Banks 1897) A X Ross (1946) Theliopsyche corona Ross 1938 A X X Ross (1944), North Carolina/Tennessee T. epilonis Ross 1938 A X X North Carolina/Tennessee T. grisea (Hagen 1861) A X X X Weaver (1988) 232 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment Family Leptoceridae Ceraclea ancylus (Vorhies 1909) A, L# X X X X X X Howell (1939) C. cama (Flint 1965) A X Lake Waccamaw *C. cancellata (Betten 1934) A, L X X X X X C. diluta (Hagen 1861) A X X X X X X Floyd et al. (1997) C. enodis Whitlock and Morse 1994 A, L# X X X X Sponge-associated C. flava (Banks 1904) A, L# X X X X X DeWalt et al. (2007), widespread in the mountains, Moulton and Stewart (1996) record is a mistake C. joannae Morse and Lenat 2006 A, L# X X Snail predator C. maculata (Banks 1899) A, L# X X X X X X Banks (1908) C. mentiea (Walker 1852) A, L# X X Lenat and Penrose (1987) *C. neffi(Resh 1974) L X X X Also in piedmont in Virginia, Flint et al. (2008) C. nepha (Ross 1944) A, L X X Morse et al. (1989) *C. ophioderus (Ross 1938) A, L# X X X On logs in coastal plain rivers *C. protonepha Morse and Ross 1975 A X *C. punctata (Banks 1894) A, L# X X X *C. resurgens (Walker 1852) A, L X X X X Sponge-associated *C. slossonae (Banks 1938) A, L X X Most VA records in piedmont (Flint et al. 2008) C. tarsipunctata (Vorhies 1909) A, L X X X X X Lenat (1983) C. transversa (Hagen 1861) X X X X X X Wray (1950) Mystacides sepulchralis (Walker 1852) A, L# X X X X X Lenat (1983) as M. alafimbriata Nectopsyche candida (Hagen 1861) A, L# X X X X X Glover and Floyd (2004) N. exquisita (Walker 1852) A, L# X X X X X X Ross (1944) *N. pavida (Hagen 1861) A, L# X X X X X X Common N. waccamawensis Glover and Floyd 2004 A, L X Lake Waccamaw Oecetis avara (Banks 1895) A, L# X X X Banks (1908) O. cinerascens (Hagen 1861) A, L# X X X X Floyd (1995b), also in lakes 2010 D.R. Lenat, D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 233 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment O. ditissa Ross 1966 A X X Floyd (1995b) O. georgia Ross 1941 A, L# X X X X X Floyd (1995b), humic waters O. inconspicua (Walker 1852) A X X X X X X Banks (1908) O. nocturna Ross 1966 A, L# X X X X X X Floyd (1995b) O. ochracea (Curtis 1825) A, L X Floyd (1995b), lakes and ponds O. osteni Milne 1934 A, L X Floyd (1995b), lakes and ponds O. persimilis (Banks 1907) A, L# X X X X X X Morse et al. (1989), very common. O. porteri Ross 1947 A, L X Floyd (1995b), sandy-bottomed natural lakes O. scala Milne 1934 A X X X X X X O. sphyra Ross 1941 A X X X X X Floyd (1995b) O. species A Floyd 1995 L# X X X X X X Many adult “O. inconspicua” may be this species (Floyd 1995b) O. species B Floyd 1995 L X X Coastal plain lakes and rivers, limited to North Carolina? O. species D Floyd 1995 L# X X Lake Waccamaw and inner coastal plain NC endemic *O. species E Floyd 1995 A, L# X X Outer coastal plain, swamp streams O. species F Floyd 1995 A, L# X X Coastal plain, may tolerate low salinity *Setodes arenatus Holzenthal 1982 A, L X X X S. incertus (Walker 1852) A X X X Wray (1950) S. stehri (Ross 1941) A X Triaenodes aba Milne 1935 L X Lenat (1987), limited to the coastal plain in Virginia (Flint et al. 2008) T. flavescens Banks 1900 A, L X X Glover (1996), lentic? T. helo Milne 1934 A X X T. ignitus (Walker 1852) A, L# X X X X X X Armitage and Tennessen (1984), very common T. injustus (Hagen 1861) A, L# X X X X X X Lenat (1983), also found in lakes T. marginatus Sibley 1926 A, L# X X X X X X Morse et al. (1989) 234 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment T. melacus Ross 1947 A, L# X X X Glover (1996) T. ochraceus (Betten and Mosely 1940) A, L# X X X X X Glover (1996) T. perna Ross 1938 A, L# X X X X X X Glover (1996) T. taenius Ross 1938 A X X Manuel and Braatz (1984) *T. n. sp. A Glover 1996 L X X T. n. sp. C Glover 1996 L X Glover (1996), temporary pond Family Limnephilidae Anabolia consocia (Walker 1852) A X Banks (1908). lentic Frenesia difficilis (Walker 1852) A, L X X Etnier et al (1998) *F. missa Milne 1935 A, L X X Hydatophylax argus (Harris 1869) A, L# X X X X X X Flint (1960) Ironoquia punctatissima (Walker 1852) A, L# X X X X X X Brimley (1938), intermittent systems Limnephilus moestus Banks 1908 A X Hoffman and Parker (1997), Lake Waccamaw L. submonilifer Walker 1852 A X X Brimley (1938), ponds/marshes Platycentropus radiatus (Say 1824) A, L# X X Wray (1950) Pseudostenophylax sparsus (Banks 1908) A, L# X X Wray (1950) Pycnopsyche antica (Walker 1852) A X Wojtowicz (1982) *P. circularis (Provancher 1877) A X X *P. conspersa Banks 1943 A X X P. divergens (Walker 1852) A X Wray (1950) P. flavata (Banks 1914) A, L X X P. gentilis (McLachlan 1871) A, L# X X X X X Betten (1934) P. guttifer (Walker 1852) A, L X X X X X X X Betten (1950) *P. indiana (Ross 1938) A X Virginia records in piedmont and mountains (Flint et al. 2008) P. lepida (Hagen 1861) A, L X X X X X X X Banks (1908) P. luculenta (Betten 1934) A X X Howell (1939) 2010 D.R. Lenat, D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 235 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment P. pani Wojtowicz & Flint 2007 A X X P. scabripennis (Rambur 1842) A, L X X X X Banks (1908) P. sonso (Milne 1935) A X Carpenter (1933) P. subfasciata (Say 1828) A X X X Wray (1950), mainly piedmont in Virginia (Flint et al. 2008) P. virginica (Banks 1900) A X X Flint (1966) Family Molannidae Molanna blenda Sibley 1926 A, L# X X X X X X Lenat (1983) M. tryphena Betten 1934 A, L# X? X X X X Morse, et al. (1989) M. ulmerina Navas 1934 A X X X X Schmid (1983) M. uniophila Vorhies 1909 A, L X X X X Wray (1950) Family Odontoceridae Pseudogoera singularis Carpenter 1933 A, L X Carpenter (1933), waterfalls Psilotreta amera (Ross 1939) X X Huryn and Wallace (1987) P. frontalis Banks 1899 A, L X X X X X X Betten (1934) P. labida Ross 1944 A, L X X X X Wray (1950) P. rossi Wallace 1971 A, L X X P. rufa (Hagen 1861) A, L X X Parker and Wiggins (1987) Family Phryganeidae Agrypnia improba (Hagen 1873) A Wiggins (1960), lentic A. vestita (Walker 1852) A, L X X X Banks (1908), lentic Banksiola dossuaria (Say 1828) A X X Wiggins (1998), temporary ponds Oligostomis pardalis (Walker 1852) A, L# X X X X Wiggins (1998) Phryganea sayi Milne 1931 A X Wiggins (1960), marshes. In Virginia, most common in coastal plain and piedmont (Flint et al. 2008) 236 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Region Stream Size Taxa M P SH C Sp Str Riv Comment Ptilostomis ocellifera (Walker 1852) A X X X Wray (1950), slow stream water and swamps P. postica (Walker 1852) A X X Banks (1908), lentic Family Sericostomatidae Agarodes crassicornis (Walker 1852) A, L X X X X Wray (1950) A. griseus Banks 1899 A, L X X X X X Floyd et al. (1997) *A. libalis Ross and Scott 1974 A, L X X A. tetron (Ross 1948) A, L X X X Floyd et al. (1997) A. wallacei Ross and Scott 1974 A, L X X X Fattigia pele (Ross 1938) A, L# X X X Family Uenoidae Neophylax aniqua Ross 1947 A, L X X Vineyard et al. (2005) *N. atlanta Ross 1947 L X X N. consimilis Betten 1934 A, L# X X X Armitage and Tennessen (1984) *N. fuscus Banks 1903 A, L# X X X N. mitchelli Carpenter 1933 A, L# X X X X N. oligius Ross 1938 A, L# X X X X X X Lenat (1987) N. ornatus Banks 1920 A, L# X X X X Vineyard et al. (2005)