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Effects of Time of Day and Activity Status on Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Cover-type Selection in Southwestern Georgia
T. Wayne Barger and Brian D. Holt

Southeastern Naturalist, Volume 9, Issue 2 (2010): 327–336

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2010 SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST 9(2):327–346 The Vascular Flora of the Indian Mountain Forever Wild Tract, Cherokee County, Alabama T. Wayne Barger1,* and Brian D. Holt1 Abstract - The Indian Mountain Forever Wild Tract (IMFWT) is a 240-ha property that was acquired in two purchases by the State of Alabama Forever Wild Program on 18 September 1997 and 31 December 2001. The IMFWT lies 55 km east of Gadsden, AL, and is in the Terrapin Creek watershed, a tributary of the Coosa River. The Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources manages the site with an emphasis on recreational use and habitat management. An intensive floristic study of this area was conducted from March 2007 through May 2008. A total of 431 taxa (430 species) from 281 genera and 103 families were collected, with 157 taxa being county records. Asteraceae was the most-collected family, with 73 species. Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Cyperaceae were the families with the next highest numbers of taxa found (40, 28, and 17 species, respectively). Quercus was the most-represented genus, with 11 taxa. Fifty non-native species were collected during the surveys. Plant collections were deposited at the Anniston Museum of Natural History Herbarium, with duplicates deposited at the University of Alabama Herbarium (UNA), Auburn University Herbarium (AUA), and Troy University Herbarium (TROY). Introduction The Forever Wild Program was established in 1992 by an Alabama constitutional amendment (Satterfield and Waddell 1993) to provide a mechanism for purchasing land from willing landowners for public recreation and conservation of vital habitat. Since its inception, the Forever Wild Program, managed by the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (AL-DCNR), has purchased approximately 56,656 ha (140,000 acres) of land for general recreation, nature preserves, additions to wildlife management areas, and state parks. For each Forever Wild tract purchased, a management plan providing guidelines and recommendations for the tract must be in place within a year of acquisition. The Indian Mountain Forever Wild Tract (IMFWT) was acquired through two separate purchases—the initial purchase was the “Indian Mountain Tract” on 18 September 1997; the second purchase, known as the “Indian Mountain- Garner Tract Addition,” was purchased on 3 December 2001. The two properties abut one another and will be referred to simply as the IMFWT tract hereafter. This study represents the first systematic inventory of the vascular flora on the tract and provides many county records for the poorly surveyed flora of Cherokee County. 1State Lands Division, Natural Heritage Section, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 64 North Union Street, Montgomery, AL 36130. *Corresponding author - 328 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Description of Study Area The 240-ha IMFWT is located in rural, southeastern Cherokee County, AL (34.018–34.040oN, 85.413–85.439oW; Fig. 1). In 2006, Cherokee County had an estimated population of 25,000 and total area of 1433 km2, resulting in a relatively low population density of 17 people per km2 (US Census Bureau 2006). Located approximately 55 km east of Gadsden (Etowah County, AL) and 35 km west of Rome (Floyd County, GA), the IMFWT was primarily acquired to provide a continuous corridor for the Pinhoti Trail in Alabama to connect to the southern terminus of the Appalachian Trail. The Pinhoti Trail, a National Recreation Trail, extends into Georgia, with the 180-km Alabama portion of the trail being partially maintained by the Alabama Trails Association. The IMFWT lies within the Ridge and Valley ecoregion, specifically the NatureServe ecological system Southern Ridge and Valley Dry Calcareous Forest (NatureServe 2008). The vegetation and terrain consists of heavily Figure 1. Location and surrounding land use of the Indian Mountain Forever Wild Tract in Cherokee County, AL. 2010 T.W. Barger and B.D. Holt 329 wooded oak-hickory forest lands with steep, rolling hills sloping into the narrow floodplain of Hurricane Creek. Elevations on the tract range from 260 m to approximately 600 m above sea level, with two of the highest peaks in Cherokee County— Indian Mountain at 588 m and Flagpole Mountain at 600 m —being located on the IMFWT. The soil association of the tract is Leesburg-Allen soils, often characterized by cobbly loam surface soils with rock outcroppings; typically they are well-drained, steep soils on uplands (USDA NRCS 2008). The climate for the area averages a July high of 33 °C and a January low of -1 °C; rainfall for the area is approximately 150 cm (59 inches) per year, with March typically being the wettest month and October being the driest ( 2008). The number of frost-free days (growing season) averages 234 ( 2008). Classification of forested plant communities on the IMFWT were approximately as follows: 75% Upland Dry Hardwood/Calcareous Forest (generally comprised of Asimina parviflora (Michx.) Dunal [Smallflower Pawpaw], Carya pallida (Ashe) Engl. & Graebn. [Sand Hickory], C. alba (L.) Nutt. ex Ell. [Mockernut Hickory], Cercis canadensis L. [Redbud], Pinus palustris P. Mill. [Longleaf Pine], P. taeda L. [Loblolly Pine], Quercus falcata Michx. [Southern Red Oak], Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm. [Chinkapin Oak], Q. shumardii Buckl. [Shumard Oak], and Prunus alabamensis C. Mohr [Alabama Cherry]); 20% Intermediate Mixed Pine/Hardwood Forest (generally comprised of Acer rubrum L. [Red Maple], Redbud, Juniperus virginiana L. [Eastern Red Cedar], Liriodendron tulipifera L. [Tulip Tree], Loblolly Pine, and Alabama Cherry); and 5% Bottomland/Mixed Mesophytic Forest (generally comprised of Red Maple, Betula nigra L. [River Birch], Carpinus caroliniana Walt. [Hornbeam], Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. [Beech], Ostrya virginiana (P. Mill.) K. Koch [Hop Hornbeam], and Tilia americana (L.) var. caroliniana P. Mill [Basswood]). Historical Land Use The area near the IMFWT experienced a period of great population growth during the mid-1880s. Bluffton, the largest (population of over 8000) of the local communities, was the first in the area to have electric lighting and supported one of the state’s first hotels and a major rail depot (Cherokee County Historical Society 1986). The town’s growth was a result of what was then referred to as an “inexhaustible supply” of iron ore, with four nearby charcoal iron blast furnaces operating for smelting/iron production. However, by the turn of the century, it was discovered that the ore’s quality was decreasing and there was not as much available as previously thought. Bluffton, along with several other smaller towns in the area, went “bust and vanished” (Cherokee County Historical Society 1986). Undoubtedly, the harvesting of timber from the surrounding community for fueling the iron production had a major, long-term impact on the local forests; however, most of this past land usage is now obscured by vegetation overgrowth and planted pine monocultures. 330 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Methods The systematic sampling of the IMFWT vegetation was conducted from March 2007 through May 2008. The study area was surveyed utilizing a modified meandering method similar to that of Goff et al. (1982). When possible, plant collection was done in a non-destructive (top-snatched) manner. Because of the relatively small size of the IMFWT, the natural divisions of the property, and the frequency of surveys, the entire tract was thoroughly sampled. Voucher specimens were collected and identified by the authors. Verifications were subsequently made by Dan Spaulding and deposited at the Anniston Museum of Natural History Herbarium, affiliated with Jacksonville State University Herbarium collections (JSU). Duplicates were deposited at the University of Alabama Herbarium (UNA), Auburn University Herbarium (AUA), and Troy University Herbarium (TROY). Identifications were determined using the following: Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and Surrounding Areas–online working draft version, April 2008 (Weakley 2008); Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas (Radford et al. 1968); Manual of the Grasses of the United States. Volumes I and II (Hitchcock 1971); Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle (Clewell 1985); Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern United States–Monocotyledons (Godfrey and Wooten 1979); and Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern United States – Dicotyledons (Godfrey and Wooten 1981). Guidelines for construction of this flora followed recommendations outlined by Palmer et al. (1995). Nomenclature, in most cases, follows Kartesz (1994). Results and Discussion Vegetation survey summary A total of 431 taxa representing 430 species (including two varieties of Rudbeckia laciniata L. (Cutleaf Coneflower)) were collected from the IMFWT. This collection represented 281 genera and 103 families, with 157 taxa (36%) ascertained to be county records for Cherokee County (Kartesz, in press). Asteraceae had the most taxa, with 73 species, followed by Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Cyperaceae, with 40, 28, and 17 species, respectively. Quercus was the genus with the most taxa (11 species). Flowering plants comprised 96% of the flora, with dicots making up 75% and monocots comprising 21% (Table 1). Ferns and allies followed with 3%, and conifers comprised 1% of the total number of taxa sampled. Fifty species, or 12% of the flora composition, were introduced species. No members of Lycopodiophyta were discovered during vegetation sampling. Three rare to uncommon species were discovered while conducting this flora: Marshallia trinervia (Walt.) Trel. (Broadleaf Barbara's Buttons), Alabama Cherry, and Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (American Chestnut). Additionally, other regionally uncommon species and/or undercollected species included: Amianthium muscitoxicum (Walt.) Gray (Flypoison), Baptisia bracteata Muhl. ex Ell. 2010 T.W. Barger and B.D. Holt 331 (Longbract Wild Indigo), and Oxalis priceae Small ssp. colorea (Small) Eiten. (Tufted Yellow Woodsorrel). Rare plant species Endemic to the southeastern US, Broadleaf Barbara’s Buttons is considered imperiled or rare throughout its seven-state distribution (NatureServe 2008). Broadleaf Barbara’s Buttons is known from about two dozen sites in 22 Alabama counties, with the IMFWT population representing a newly discovered population (Kartesz, in press). It is currently known from 2 Georgia counties, 2 Louisiana parishes, 17 Mississippi counties, 1 South Carolina county, and 7 Tennessee counties and is considered extirpated in North Carolina (Kartesz, in press). NatureServe (2008) designates Broadleaf Barbara’s Buttons as a G3 species, indicating that it is globally vulnerable to extirpation or extinction. This species appears restricted to specialized mesic calcareous habitats, often found in the understory of mixed hardwood forests near streams or slightly disturbed sites (NatureServe 2008, Weakley 2008). Typically flowering in May–June, Broadleaf Barbara’s Buttons has pink corollas, leaf blades that are strongly 3-nerved, and mostly ovate, cauline leaves that are not notably reduced distally (eFloras 2008). Alabama Cherry is currently known from 21 Alabama counties, 17 Georgia counties, 8 counties in the Florida panhandle, and 3 South Carolina counties. This G4 species (NatureServe 2008) is sometimes classified as a varietal taxon of Prunus serotina as var. alabamensis (C. Mohr) Little, though distinct differences in the leaves and inflorescence are readily recognizable (Mohr 1901). Alabama Cherry is commonly found in sandhills or other xeric sandy/rocky forests, often associated with Longleaf Pine (Weakley 2008). Sprout regrowth of American Chestnut, a G4 species as designated by NatureServe (2008), was observed on the IMFWT. Although none of the small trees were observed in a reproductive state and all are presumed to have been afflicted by the chestnut blight, many individuals were present. Exotic plant species Twenty-six of the fifty exotic plant species collected from the IMFWT were county records for Cherokee County (Kartesz, in press). Table 1. Summary of vegetation surveys by divisions, flowering plant class, family, genus, and species for the Indian Mountain Forever Wild Tract. Nativity of species refers to North America. Percentages rounded to the nearest whole number. Total Non-native Total species % Native Non-native species % Division Families Genera species composition species species composition Lycopodiophyta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Polypodiophyta 7 10 11 3 10 1 <1 Pinophyta 2 2 4 1 4 0 0 Magnoliophyta 94 269 416 96 367 49 12 Liliopsida 15 58 90 21 71 19 5 Magnoliopsida 79 211 326 75 296 30 7 Total 103 281 431 100 381 50 12 332 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Approximately 12% of the species collected were considered introduced to the flora. This percentage is similar to that of other regional floras: 2528 ha of Lake Guntersville State Park yielded 17% non-natives (Spaulding 1999); 28,329 ha of Talladega Ranger District, Talladega National Forest yielded 12% non-natives (Ballard 1995); and 1101 ha of Cheaha State Park yielded 10% non-natives (Bussey 1983). While this study did not focus on quantitative measurements of the exotic plant coverage, the observed land area covered by these non-native plants was restricted to primarily ruderal or disturbed areas of the tract. The most commonly encountered non-native plant species, in order of relative abundance, were: Ligustrum sinense Lour. (Chinese Privet), Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Japanese Honeysuckle), Albizia julibrissin Durazz. (Silktree), Daucus carota L. (Queen Anne's Lace), and the combined Trifolium spp. (clovers). Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Mike Palmer and Curtis Hansen along with two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments in crafting this manuscript. John Trent was also very helpful in the collection of specimens for this project. Special thanks are extended to Dan Spaulding for his expert assistance with plant specimen identification and to John Kartesz for verification of county record data. Literature Cited Ballard, J.M. 1995. A vascular flora of the Talladega Ranger District of the Talladega National Forest, Alabama. M.Sc. Thesis. Jacksonville State University. 270 pp. Bussey, M.G. 1983. Flora of Cheaha State Park, Alabama. M.Sc. Thesis. Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL. 90 pp. Cherokee County Historical Society. 1986. Cherokee County, AL: A Pictorial History 1836–1986. Sesquicentennial History Book Committee. Cherokee County Historical Society. Centre, AL. 72 pp. Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle. University Presses of Florida, Tallahassee, fl. 605 pp. eFloras. 2008. Flora of North America. Available online at Accessed 19 December 2008. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO and Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States–Monocotyledons. University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. 712 pp. Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States–Dicotyledons. University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. 933 pp. Goff, F.G., G.A. Dawson, and J.J. Rochow. 1982. Site examination for threatened and endangered plant species. Environmental Management 6:307–316. Hitchcock, A.S. 1971. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. Volumes I and II. Dover Publications, New York, NY. 1051 pp. Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland, 2nd Edition, Volume 1. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 622 pp. Kartesz, J.T. In press. Floristic Synthesis of North America. Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2010 T.W. Barger and B.D. Holt 333 Mohr, C.T. 1901. Plant Life of Alabama. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. v.6. US Department of Agriculture, Division of Botany, Washington, DC. NatureServe. 2008. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 6.1. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. Available online at http:// Accessed 19 December 2008. Palmer, M.W., G.L. Wade, and P. Neal. 1995. Standards for the writing of floras. Bioscience 45:339–345. Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp. Satterfield, W.H., and G.G. Waddell. 1993. A history and analysis of Alabama’s “Forever Wild” Constitutional Amendment. Alabama Law Review 44:393–419. Spaulding, D.D. 1999. The vascular flora of Lake Guntersville State Park, Marshall County, Alabama. Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science 70:163–204. US Census Bureau. 2006. State and county quick facts. Available online at http:// Accessed 2 November 2008. US Department of Agriculture Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA NRCS). 2008. Soil survey of Cherokee County, Alabama. Available online at Accessed 2 November 2008. USDA NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS database Available online at http://plants.usda. gov. Accessed 2 January 2009. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA Weakley, A.S. 2008. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia and surrounding areas [Online Draft Version]. Available online at WeakleyFlora_2008-Apr.pdf. Accessed 20 April 2008. 1014 pp. 2008. Records for Centre, AL. Available online at http://www. Accessed 24 August 2008. Atlanta, GA. 334 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Appendix 1. Annotated checklist of the vascular flora of the Indian Mountain Forever Wild Tract, with breakdown of the floristic survey by taxa level and native vs. exotic species. As previously mentioned, the nomenclature, in most cases, follows Kartesz (1994). Synonymy, authorities, common names (for labels), and nomenclature were verified using the United States Department of Agriculture’s Plants Database (USDA NRCS 2009). Arrangement of the checklist is by division, then alphabetically by family, genus, and specific epithet. A dagger (†) after the collection number indicates that the species was previously unreported for Cherokee County, AL; a double dagger (‡) indicates a non-native species. Species followed by an asterisk (*) are species of special concern. Collection numbers listed are those of the first author and are not lifetime collection numbers, but rather are specific to the current flora of Indian Mountain. PTERIDOPHYTA Aspleniaceae Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes 86 Dennstaedtiaceae Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. pseudocaudatum (Clute) Heller 12 Dryopteridaceae Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth ssp. asplenioides (Michx.) Hultén 69 Onoclea sensibilis L. 72 Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott 2 Ophioglossaceae Botrychium dissectum Spreng. 322 Ophioglossum vulgatum L. 432 † Osmundaceae Osmunda cinnamomea L. 89 Osmunda regalis L. 92 Polypodiaceae Pleopeltis polypodioides (L.) Andrews & Windham 384 Thelypteridaceae Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Ching 345 ‡ † CONIFEROPHYTA Cupressaceae Juniperus virginiana L. 421 Pinaceae Pinus palustris P. Mill. 340 † Pinus taeda L. 316 Pinus virginiana P. Mill. 19 MAGNOLIOPHYTA Acanthaceae Justicia americana (L.) Vahl 299 2010 T.W. Barger and B.D. Holt 335 Aceraceae Acer leucoderme Small 290 Acer rubrum L. 27 Agavaceae Yucca filamentosa L. 161 † Alliaceae Allium canadense L. 341 Amaryllidaceae Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Coville 30 Anacardiaceae Rhus copallinum L. 16 Rhus glabra L. 68 Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill. 21 † Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze var. radicans 39 Annonaceae Asimina parviflora (Michx.) Dunal 90 Apiaceae Chaerophyllum procumbens (L.) Crantz 395 † Daucus carota L. 108 ‡ Ligusticum canadense (L.) Britt. 298 † Oxypolis rigidior (L.) Raf. 189 † Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf. 132 Sanicula canadensis L. 74 † Thaspium trifoliatum (L.) Gray 258 † Apocynaceae Amsonia tabernaemontana Walt. 415 Apocynum cannabinum L. 1 † Vinca major L. 423 ‡ Aquifoliaceae Ilex ambigua (Michx.) Torr. 308 † Ilex opaca Aiton var. opaca 318 Araceae Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott 301 Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott 143 † Araliaceae Aralia spinosa L. 288 Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia serpentaria L. 326 † Hexastylis arifolia (Michx.) Small 208 Asclepiadaceae Asclepias amplexicaulis J.E. Smith 85 † Asclepias variegata L. 93 336 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Asteraceae Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. 281 Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Rich. 162 Arnoglossum atriplicifolium (L.) H.E. Robinson 291 † Bidens aristosa (Michx.) Britt. 237 Chrysopsis mariana (L.) Ell. 245 Cirsium altissimum (L.) Hill 267 † Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. 355 † Coreopsis major Walt. 84 Coreopsis pubescens Ell. var. pubescens 269 Coreopsis tripteris L. 282 Elephantopus carolinianus Raeusch. 312 † Elephantopus tomentosus L. 198 † Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. 218 † Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. 377 † Erigeron philadelphicus L. var. philadelphicus 63 † Eupatorium album L. 354 Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam.) Small 95 Eupatorium hyssopifolium L. 134 † Eupatorium perfoliatum L. 139 † Eupatorium rotundifolium L. 136 Eupatorium serotinum Michx. 235 † Eurybia divaricata (L.) Nesom 328 Eutrochium fistulosum (Barratt) E.E. Lamont 202 † Gamochaeta chionesthes Nesom 138 ‡ † Gamochaeta purpurea (L.) Cabrera 32 † Helenium autumnale L. 303 † Helianthus angustifolius L. 242 † Helianthus atrorubens L. 289 † Helianthus microcephalus Torr. & Gray 241 Helianthus resinosus Small 227 † Hieracium gronovii L. 315 Hieracium marianum Willd. 20 † Krigia biflora (Walt.) Blake 391 Krigia caespitosa (Raf.) Chambers 348 Krigia virginica (L.) Willd. 416 † Lactuca canadensis L. 297 Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaertner 270 † Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. 385 ‡ Liatris pilosa (Aiton) Willd. 239 Liatris spicata (L.) Willd. 238 Marshallia trinervia (Walt.) Trelease 332 * Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. 130 † Packera anonyma (Wood) W.A. Weber & A. Löve 13 Parthenium integrifolium L. 41 Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Nutt. var. latifolia (Fern.) Semple & Bowers 246 Pluchea camphorata (L.) DC. 146 Prenanthes altissima L. 305 Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.) Hilliard & Burtt 350 Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walt.) DC. 170 † 2010 T.W. Barger and B.D. Holt 337 Rudbeckia hirta L. 62 Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. digitata (P. Mill.) Fiori 335 † Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. laciniata 256 † Rudbeckia triloba L. 333 † Sericocarpus asteroides (L.) B.S.P. 362 † Sericocarpus linifolius (L.) B.S.P. 153 Silphium asteriscus L. var. asteriscus 64 Silphium compositum Michx. var. venosum (Small) Kartesz & Gandhi 24 † Smallanthus uvedalius (L.) Mackenzie ex Small 300 Solidago altissima L. 187 † Solidago caesia L. 193 Solidago erecta Pursh 240 Solidago gigantea Aiton 136 † Solidago nemoralis Aiton 230 † Solidago odora Aiton 276 Solidago rugosa P. Mill. 248 Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.) Nesom 302 Symphyotrichum divaricatum (Nutt.) Nesom 359 † Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) Nesom 320 Symphyotrichum patens (Aiton) Nesom var. patens 266 Symphyotrichum undulatum (L.) Nesom 321 † Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers 411 Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trelease 278 † Balsaminaceae Impatiens capensis Meerb. 156 † Berberidaceae Podophyllum peltatum L. 394 Betulaceae Alnus serrulata (Aiton) Willd. 78 Betula nigra L. 286 Carpinus caroliniana Walt. 111 Ostrya virginiana (P. Mill.) K. Koch 264 Bignoniaceae Bignonia capreolata L. 113 Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. 106 Brassicaceae Barbarea vulgaris Aiton f. 410 ‡ † Brassica rapa L. 429 ‡ † Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) Wood 407 Lepidium virginicum L. 102 Raphanus raphanistrum L. 94 ‡ Buddlejaceae Polypremum procumbens L. 231 † Cabombaceae Brasenia schreberi J.F. Gmel. 141 † 338 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Calycanthaceae Calycanthus floridus L. var. glaucus (Willd.) Torr. & Gray 287 Campanulaceae Campanula divaricata Michx. 277 † Lobelia cardinalis L. 199 Lobelia puberula Michx. 323 † Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. 97 Caprifoliaceae Lonicera japonica Thunb. 100 ‡ Lonicera sempervirens L. 418 † Sambucus canadensis L. 128 Viburnum acerifolium L. 9 Viburnum nudum L. 294 Caryophyllaceae Cerastium glomeratum Thuillier 36 ‡ Sagina decumbens (Ell.) Torr. & Gray 352 Silene stellata (L.) Aiton f. 59 Silene virginica L. 386 Stellaria pubera Michx. 404 Celastraceae Euonymus americana L. 77 Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium standleyanum Aellen 268 † Clusiaceae Hypericum gentianoides (L.) B.S.P. 221 Hypericum hypericoides (L.) Crantz 314 Hypericum mutilum L. 191 Hypericum punctatum Lam. 135 † Triadenum walteri (J.G. Gmelin) Gleason 304 † Commelinaceae Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz. 307 ‡ † Convovulaceae Ipomoea pandurata L. 60 Cornaceae Cornus amomum P. Mill. 105 Cornus florida L. 6 Cuscutaceae Cuscuta compacta Juss. ex Choisy 194 Cyperaceae Carex complanata Torr. & Hook. 165 Carex crinita Lam. 118 † Carex debilis Michx. 363 Carex intumescens Rudge 200 2010 T.W. Barger and B.D. Holt 339 Carex lurida Wahlenb. 372 Carex muehlenbergii Schkuhr ex Willd. var. enervis Boott 347 † Carex nigromarginata Schwein. 367 Carex tribuloides Wahlenb. 236 † Cyperus croceus Vahl 229 † Cyperus echinatus (L.) Wood 166 † Cyperus esculentus L. var. leptostachyus Böckler 216 † Cyperus retrorsus Chapman var. retrorsus 232 † Cyperus strigosus L. 338 Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) J.A. Schultes 167 Scirpus atrovirens Willd. 217 Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth 215 † Scirpus polyphyllus Vahl 247 † Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea villosa L. 10 Ebenaceae Diospyros virginiana L. 43 Ericaceae Epigaea repens L. 205 † Kalmia latifolia L. 155 Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC. 79 Rhododendron canescens (Michx.) Sweet 46 Vaccinium arboreum Marsh. 48 Vaccinium corymbosum L. 387 Vaccinium pallidum Aiton 18 Vaccinium stamineum L. var. stamineum 70 Euphorbiaceae Acalypha rhomboidea Raf. 293 † Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small 233 † Chamaesyce nutans (Lag.) Small 178 † Euphorbia corollata L. 351 Euphorbia pubentissima Michx. 22 Tragia urticifolia Michx. 223 Fabaceae Albizia julibrissin Durazz. 253 ‡ Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern. 306 † Baptisia bracteata Muhl. 25 Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth. 220 Cercis canadensis L. 400 Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene var. fasciculata 179 Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench var. nictitans 201 † Clitoria mariana L. 120 Desmodium glabellum (Michx.) DC. 331 † Desmodium viridiflorum (L.) DC. 188 † Gleditsia triacanthos L. 176 Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G.Don 31 ‡ † Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. 369 340 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Lespedeza procumbens Michx. 50 † Lespedeza violacea (L.) Pers. 329 † Mimosa microphylla Dryander 67 Orbexilum pedunculatum (P. Mill.) Rydb. var. psoralioides (Walt.) Isely 349 † Pisum sativum L. 144 ‡ † Strophostyles helvola (L.) Ell. 181 † Stylosanthes biflora (L.) B.S.P. 38 Tephrosia spicata (Walt.) Torr. & Gray 157 Tephrosia virginiana (L.) Pers. 37 Trifolium campestre Schreber 110 ‡ Trifolium pratense L. 114 ‡ Trifolium repens L. 383 ‡ Vicia caroliniana Walt. 126 Vicia grandiflora Scop. 422 ‡ † Vicia sativa L. 393 ‡ Fagaceae Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. 123 * Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. 324 Quercus alba L. 5 Quercus coccinea Münchh. 125 Quercus falcata Michx. 243 Quercus marilandica (L.) Münchh. 8 Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm. 7 Quercus nigra L. 280 Quercus phellos L. 119 Quercus prinus L. 327 Quercus shumardii Buckl. 375 † Quercus stellata Wangenh. 56 Quercus velutina Lam. 127 Geraniaceae Geranium carolinianum L. 392 Geranium maculatum L. 397 Grossulariaceae Itea virginica L. 196 Hamamelidaceae Hamamelis virginiana L. 310 Liquidambar styraciflua L. 11 Hippocastanaceae Aesculus pavia L. 398 Hydrangeaceae Decumaria barbara L. 75 Hydrangea arborescens L. 98 Hydrangea cinerea Small 210 Iridaceae Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. 122 ‡ † Iris cristata Aiton 409 2010 T.W. Barger and B.D. Holt 341 Iris germanica L. 424 ‡ † Iris verna L. 96 Sisyrinchium angustifolium P. Mill. 29 Juglandaceae Carya pallida (Ashe) Engl. & Graebn. 58 Carya alba (L.) Nutt. ex Ell. 42 Juncaceae Juncus debilis Gray 373 Juncus effusus L. 45 Luzula echinata (Small) F.J. Herm. 413 Lamiaceae Blephilia ciliata (L.) Benth. 163 Collinsonia canadensis L. 206 † Lycopus rubellus Moench 292 † Lycopus virginicus L. 192 † Monarda fistulosa L. 52 † Mosla dianthera (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Maxim. 317 ‡ † Prunella vulgaris L. 177 Pycnanthemum incanum (L.) Michx. var. incanum 149 † Salvia lyrata L. 396 Salvia urticifolia L. 34 Scutellaria elliptica Muhl. ex Spreng. var. elliptica 53 Scutellaria integrifolia L. 121 Trichostema dichotomum L. 226 Trichostema setaceum Houtt. 265 † Lauraceae Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume 259 Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 88 Lentibulariaceae Utricularia gibba L. 140 † Liliaceae Amianthium muscitoxicum (Walt.) Gray 214 † Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. 112 ‡ † Lilium michauxii Poir. 431 Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link 211 Medeola virginiana L. 212 Narcissus medioluteus P. Mill. (pro sp.) 427 ‡ Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. 285 Stenanthium gramineum (Ker-Gawl.) Morong 339 Trillium catesbaei Ell. 399 Uvularia perfoliata L. 213 Loganiaceae Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) Aiton f. 406 Magnoliaceae Liriodendron tulipifera L. 3 Magnolia virginiana L. 251 342 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Malvaceae Sida spinosa L. 185 † Melastomataceae Rhexia mariana L. var. mariana 145 Menispermaceae Cocculus carolinus (L.) DC. 172 Monotropaceae Monotropa uniflora L. 190 Nyssaceae Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. 47 Oleaceae Ligustrum sinense Lour. 101 ‡ Onagraceae Ludwigia alternifolia L. 197 Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell. 168 † Oenothera fruticosa L. 82 Oenothera biennis L. 186 Orchidaceae Tipularia discolor (Pursh) Nutt. 403 Orobanchaceae Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart. 325 † Oxalidaceae Oxalis priceae Small ssp. colorea (Small) Eiten 26 † Oxalis stricta L. 319 † Oxalis violacea L. 40 Passifloraceae Passiflora incarnata L. 183 Passiflora lutea L. 57 Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca americana L. 263 † Plantaginaceae Plantago aristata Michx. 104 † Plantago lanceolata L. 182 ‡ Plantago rugelii Decne. 279 Platanaceae Platanus occidentalis L. 174 Poaceae Agrostis perennans (Walt.) Tuckerman 330 † Andropogon glomeratus (Walt.) B.S.P. 254 † Andropogon virginicus L. 250 † Aristida dichotoma Michx. 353 2010 T.W. Barger and B.D. Holt 343 Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino 337 ‡ Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl. 91 Avena sativa L. 380 ‡ Bromus arvensis L. 343 ‡ † Chasmanthium latifolium (Michx.) Yates 195 Chasmanthium sessiliflorum (Poir.) Yates 357 Dactylis glomerata L. 342 ‡ Danthonia sericea Nutt. 368 † Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes 376 Dichanthelium aciculare (Desv. ex Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark 356 † Dichanthelium boscii (Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark 358 † Dichanthelium commutatum (Schultes) Gould var. ashei (Pearson ex Ashe) Mohlenbrock 366 † Dichanthelium depauperatum (Muhl.) Gould 370 Dichanthelium dichotomum (L.) Gould 346 † Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon (Ell.) Gould 169 Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel. 228 ‡ † Digitaria violascens Link 361 ‡ † Elymus virginicus var. virginicus L. 150 Eragrostis hirsuta (Michx.) Nees 234 † Leersia oryzoides (L.) Swartz 313 Leersia virginica Willd. 374 Lolium perenne L. 51 ‡ † Melica mutica Walt. 371 † Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus 44 ‡ Panicum anceps Michx. 360 † Paspalum dilatatum Poir. 334 ‡ Paspalum laeve Michx. 147 † Paspalum urvillei Steud. 129 ‡ † Piptochaetium avenaceum (L.) Parodi 65 Saccharum alopecuroides (L.) Nutt. 224 Secale cereale L. 379 ‡ Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes 151 ‡ † Sorghastrum elliottii (C. Mohr) Nash 272 † Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash 275 Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. 173 ‡ † Tridens flavus (L.) A.S. Hitchc. 222 † Triticum aestivum L. 402 ‡ † Polemoniaceae Phlox amoena Sims 55 Polygalaceae Polygala polygama Walt. 390 Polygala verticillata L. 225 Polygonaceae Fallopia scandens var. scandens (L.) Holub 274 † Persicaria longiseta (Bruijn) Kitagawa 309 ‡ Polygonum persicaria L. 365 ‡ † Polygonum sagittatum L. 148 † 344 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Polygonum setaceum Baldw. 133 † Rumex crispus L. 180 ‡ Rumex obtusifolius L. 364 ‡ † Primulaceae Lysimachia tonsa (Wood) Wood ex Pax & R. Knuth 159 † Pyrolaceae Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh 116 Ranunculaceae Actaea pachypoda Ell. 209 Anemone quinquefolia L. 381 Hepatica nobilis Schreber var. acuta (Pursh) Steyermark 203 Thalictrum revolutum DC. 257 Xanthorhiza simplicissima Marsh. 152 Rhamnaceae Ceanothus americanus L. var. americanus 83 Rosaceae Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern. 417 Crataegus flava Aiton 426 † Crataegus macrosperma Ashe 296 † Crataegus spathulata Michx. 336 Crataegus uniflora Münchh. 184 † Malus angustifolia (Aiton) Michx. 35 Potentilla simplex Michx. 76 Prunus alabamensis C. Mohr 23 * Prunus angustifolia Marsh. 419 Prunus serotina Ehrh. 80 Rosa carolina L. 109 † Rubus argutus Small 244 Rubus flagellaris Willd. 428 Spiraea prunifolia Sieb. & Zucc. 425 ‡ † Rubiaceae Diodia teres Walt. 219 Diodia virginiana L. 271 Galium circaezans Michx. var. circaezans 158 Galium pilosum Aiton 344 Galium tinctorium (L.) Scop. var. tinctorium 142 Galium triflorum Michx. 388 † Houstonia caerulea L. 15 Houstonia purpurea L. var. calycosa Gray 28 Mitchella repens L. 87 † Sherardia arvensis L. 412 ‡ † Salicaceae Salix eriocephala Michx. 273 † Salix nigra Marsh. 81 Saururaceae Saururus cernuus L. 260 2010 T.W. Barger and B.D. Holt 345 Saxifragaceae Heuchera americana L. 160 † Scrophulariaceae Aureolaria flava (L.) Farw. 204 † Aureolaria pectinata (Nutt.) Pennell 117 Aureolaria virginica (L.) Pennell 124 Chelone glabra L. 252 Gratiola neglecta Torr. 311 Gratiola virginiana L. 154 † Nuttallanthus canadensis (L.) D.A. Sutton 61 Pedicularis canadensis L. 207 Penstemon australis Small 389 † Penstemon pallidus Small 382 † Verbascum blattaria L. 99 ‡ † Verbascum thapsus L. 249 ‡ † Veronica arvensis L. 430 ‡ Smilacaceae Smilax bona-nox L. 261 Smilax glauca Walt. 4 Smilax laurifolia L. 107 † Smilax rotundifolia L. 73 Solanaceae Physalis heterophylla Nees 283 † Solanum carolinense L. var. carolinense 103 Sparganiaceae Sparganium americanum Nutt. 262 † Styracaceae Halesia tetraptera Ellis 378 Styrax americanus Lam. 401 Tiliaceae Tilia americana (L.) var. caroliniana P. Mill. 175 † Typhaceae Typha latifolia L. 54 Ulmaceae Ulmus alata Michx. 295 Ulmus americana L. 49 Ulmus rubra Muhl. 284 † Urticaceae Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. 131 † Valerianaceae Valerianella radiata (L.) Dufr. 420 Verbenaceae Verbena bonariensis L. 164 ‡ 346 Southeastern Naturalist Vol. 9, No. 2 Violaceae Viola primulifolia L. (pro sp.) 414 † Viola bicolor Pursh 408 Viola hastata Michx. 405 Viola pedata L. 14 Viola sagittata Aiton var. sagittata 137 † Viola sororia Willd. 255 Vitaceae Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. 33 Vitis aestivalis var. aestivalis Michx. 66 Vitis rotundifolia Michx. 17 Vitis vulpina L. 171